4. effect of planting seasons on seed yield and quality of tomato varieties resistant to leaf curl virus
Seed Research. 2006; 34(2):223-225
Effect of planting seasons on seed yield and quality of tomato varieties resistant to leaf curl
University of Agricultural Sciences, Bangalore – 560065 (India)
B.S. Rajashekar, V.P. Kalappa & Vishwanath. K
A field study on the effect of planting seasons on seed yield and quality of tomato
varieties Viz.,Nandi, Sankranthi, and Vybav resistant to leaf curl virus was conducted during
2002-2003. The results revealed that in seed crop raised in rabi season record significantly higher
growth and yield parameters. Maximum fruit yield (71 t /ha) and seed yield (287.38 kg /ha) was
noticed in rabi season followed by kharif. There was drastic reduction in fruit and seed yield in
summer. Among varieties, Vybav recorded highest fruit yield in all the three planting seasons, but
has recorded lowest fruit to seed ratio (0.19%). While, the highest seed to fruit ratio was observed
in Arka Vikas. Nandi recorded highest seed yield/ha (424.87 kg) during rabi season. Nil
infections of leaf curl observed in Nandi, Sankranthi and Vibav in all the three seasons, while
Arka Vikas has recorded cent per cent leaf curl incidence in summer.
Key words:Tomato varieties, seasons, fruit yield, seed yield, leaf curl infection, germination.
Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cultivation is in increasing trend in India for the
last three decades after the introduction of improved varieties and hybrids resistant to leaf curl
disease is one of the major problem, which limit the production. Most of the existing tomato
varieties in are susceptible to this disease. Recently University of Agricultural Sciences,
Bangalore has developed the three leaf curl resistant varieties Viz., Nandi, Sankranthi, and Vybav
collaboration with Asian Vegetable Research and Development Center, Taiwan and Natural
Resources Institute, UK (2). The cost of cultivation of these new varieties is less when compared
with the hybrids and other varieties since the expenditure on pesticide for the management of leaf
curl transmitting vector is avoided.
Seed yield and quality of tomato is mainly dependent on the season and variety selected
for seed production (3). The performance of these three new varieties for different planting
seasons on yield is lacking under the Bangalore condition. In a view of above facts, the present
investigation was planned with an objective to study the effect of different planting seasons and
varieties on yield and quality of tomato seed.
Material and Methods
The experiment was conducted during 2002–03 and was laid out in the factorial
Randomized Block Design (RBD) with four replications (4). The treatment consists of three
seasons viz., kharif, rabi and summer with four varieties viz., Sankaranthi, Nandi, Vybhav and
Arka Vikas. Each treatment consisted of plants accommodated in plot of 4.80 x 3.75 m2. The
plants were spaced at 75 cm between rows and 60 cm between plants in a row. Randomly
selected ten plants in each treatment in each replication were assessed for recording various
observations such as plant height, number of fruits per plant, fruit yield per plants, fruit yield per
hectare , seed yield per plant, seed yield per hectare, seed to fruit ratio, per cent leaf curl
infection, 1000 seed weight, germination( ) and seedling vigour index( ).
Seed Research. 2006; 34(2):223-225
Results and Discussion
The data on the effect of planting seasons and varieties on fruit and seed yield and seed
quality are presented in table 1,2 and 3.
Plant Height: Planting seasons and varieties significantly influenced the plant height. The crop
grown in rabi season recorded higher plant height ( 90.90 cm) followed by kharif (81.87 cm ) and
summer (74.40 cm). Among varieties, vybhav recorded higher plant height (86.07 cm) over
Nandhi, Sankranthi and Arka Vikas. The higher plant height in rabi was mainly due to warm
weather prevailed during growth period and it put forth better growth. The varietal differences in
plant height were due to genotypic make up. Such varietal difference also noticed by ( )
Fruit yield: Significant differences in respect of number of fruits, fruit yieldper plant and hectare
were observed due to planting seasons, varieties and their interactions. The season’s effects on
yield components observed to be profound. More number of fruits per plant (70.06), higher fruit
yield per plant (3201 g) and fruit yield/ha (71t) was obtained in rabi season followed by kharif
and summer seasons. There was almost more than 200 per cent reduction in yield during kharif
and summer season. The reduction in fruit yield per plant and hectare in kharif was mainly
attributed to infestation of pests like leaf minor, mites and alternaria disease. In summer season
the crop was severely affected with abiotic stress and biotic stress factors. The reduction in yield
from 35.8 to 72.2 percent was reported by (5) towards delayed planting from January to April.
They also observed higher yield during June–July and November planting under south Indian
conditions. The present findings are inconformity with the above results of (5). Among the
varieties, the Vybhav recorded more number of fruits per plant (57.72), fruit yield per plant
(2214g) and fruit yield per hectare (49t) followed by the variety Vybhav recorded higher 91t fruit
yield per hectare in rabi season. These seasonal and varietal interactions have been reported by
(6) and (7).
Leaf curl infection: Maximum leaf curl infection was noticed in summer at 45 (62.75%) and 90
days (100%) after planting. The higher incidence of leaf curl in summer was mainly attributed by
higher whitefly population in summer. Among the varieties, Sankranthi, Nandi and Vybhav
showed nil leaf curl virus disease in all the 3 seasons, while the Arka Vikas recorded leaf curl
infection ranging from 80 – 100% in all the three seasons. This was mainly due to susceptible
nature Arka Vikas to leaf curl viral infection (8).
Seed yield: Planting seasons and varieties significantly influenced the seed yield per plant and
hectare. Higher seed yield per plant (12.93g) and seed yield per hectare (287.39 kg) was recorded
in rabi planted crop and was followed by kharif and rabi season. The increased seed yield may
attributed to moderate climatic conditions and free from infestations of pests and diseases.
Among the varieties, Nandi recorded significantly higher seed yield per hectare (210.43 kg) than
Sankranthi (142.94) and Arka Vikas (138.42 kg). Even though the fruit yield was highest in
Vybhav, its seed yield was lowest (95.40 kg/ha) and it was due to its lower seed to fruit ratio
(0.18%). Similarly the varietal difference in seed yield due to genotypic was reported by (7). The
Nandi recorded higher seed yield/ha (44.87kg) in rabi seasons.
Seed quality parameters: The quality parameters viz., 1000 seed weight, per cent germination
and seedling vigour index were highly influenced by planting seasons and varieties. Significantly
higher 1000 seed weight (2.37g), germination (90.06%) and s vigour index (1395) was recorded
in both kharif and rabi (2.35g, 89.75% and 1343 respectively). While, the lowest seed quality
Seed Research. 2006; 34(2):223-225
parameters were recorded in summer. Difference in seed quality parameter is due tos seasonal
differences, such results also reported by (9) and (10).
Among the varieties, Vyabhav recorded significantly higher 1000 seed weight (2.45g)
followed Nandi, Arka Vikas and Sankranthi. The variety Sankranthi recorded significantly higher
germination (88.58%), seedling vigour index (1348), which was closely followed by Nandi and
Vybhav. The varietal difference for seed quality parameters was mainly due to genetic up of
varieties. These results are in conformity with finding of (7) and (11) who also reported different
in seed quality due to varital differences.
In conclusion, there is crucial step to find out best season for new released varities. In this
study rabi season found to be better to produce the seed of new varities Viz.,Nandi, Sankranthi,
and Vybav under Bangalore condition.
1. MUNIYAPPA, V., JALIKOP, S.H., SAIKIA, A.K., CHENNARAYAPPA,
SHIVASHANKAR, G., ISHWAR, BHAT, A. AND RAMAPPA, H.K.,( 1991), Reaction
of Lycopersicon cultivars and wild accessions to tomato leaf curl virus. Euphytica. : 56:
2. ANONYMOUS, (2002), UAS develops 3 virus resistant varieties of tomatoes. Agro India.
3. KANWAR, J.S., (1989), Quality seed production technique of tomato. Seeds and Farms.Pp 20-
4. ANONYMOUS, (1996), International Rules for Seed Testing. Supplement to seed Sci and
Technol., 24: 1-340.
5. ABDUL BAKI, A. A. AND ANDENSON, V.D., (1973), Vigour determination in soybean
seed by multiple criteria. Crop Sci., 13: 630-633.
6. SUNDARAJAN, N., NAGARAJ, S., VENKATARAMU, A.N. AND JAGANNATH, N.K.,
(1972), Design and Analysis of Field Experiment Published by University of Agricultural
7. MUTHU KRISHNAN, C.R., SUBBAIAH, R. AND IRULAPPAN, I., (1982) Studies on the
performance of tomato cultivator at different period of planting. South Indian Hort.
8. HOSSAIN, S. M.M. AND HOQUE, M.M., (1984), A Study on the feasibility of growing
tomatoes during summer. Bangladesh J. Agric. 9(2): 77-79.
9. MEHER, B.B., LAWANDWE, K.E. AND JOSHI, V.R., (1994), Effect of different varieties
and planting seasons of seed yield and quality of tomato. J. Maharastra Agric. Univ.,
10. MUTHU KRISHNAN, C.R., SUBBIAH, R. AND IRULAPPANM, I., (1982), Studies on the
performance of tomato cultivar at different period of planting. South Indian Hort. 30 (3):
Seed Research. 2006; 34(2):223-225
11. HOSSAIN, S., M.M AND HOQUE, M.M., 1984, A study on the feasibility of growing
tomatoes during summer in Bangladesh. Bangladesh J. Agric., 9: (2) 77-79.
12. MEHER, B.B., LAWANDE, K.E. AND JOSHI, V.R., (1994), Effect of different varieties
and planting seasons of seed yield and quality of tomato. J. Maharastra Agris. Univ., 19
13. BINEETH MISHRA, 2001, Response of leaf curl resistant tomato varieties to graded levels
of N, P and K, M.Sc. (Agri.) Thesis, UAS, Bangalore.
14. MOHANTHY, S.K., KANWAR, J.S AND BAL, S.S., 2002, Seed yield of Brinjal cultivars in
different seasons. J. Res. Punjab Agric. Univ., 39(1): 35-40.
15. PRIYA, n., VIJAYAKUMAR, M., VEERARAGAVATHATHAM, D., JEYAKUMAR, P
AND CHEZHION, N., 2002, Effect of seasons and growth environments on paprika
(capsicum annum var. longum) growth and yield. South Indian Hort., 50(4-6): 463-471.
16. SHARMA, S.K. AND RASTOGI, K.B., (1993), Evaluation of some tomato cultivars of seed
production under mid hill conditions of Himachal Pradesh. Ann. Agric. Res., 14(4): 494-