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Presented by-
TandelVishal P.
 Motivation
 TCP-mechanisms
 Indirect TCP
 Snooping TCP
 Mobile TCP
 Fast retransmit/recovery
 Transmission freezin...
 Transport protocols typically designed for
 Fixed end-systems
 Fixed, wired networks
 Research activities
 Performan...
 TCP slow-start algorithm
 sender calculates/negotiates a congestion window threshold for a receiver
 start with a cong...
 TCP assumes congestion if packets are dropped
 typically wrong in wireless networks, here we often have packet
loss due...
 Indirect TCP or I-TCP segments the connection
 no changes to the basic TCP protocol for hosts connected to the wired In...
 Advantages
 no changes in the fixed network necessary, no changes for the hosts
(TCP protocol) necessary, all current o...
 Transparent“ extension of TCP within the foreign agent
 buffering of packets sent to the mobile host
 lost packets on ...
 Data transfer to the mobile host
 FA buffers data until it receives ACK of the MH, FA detects packet loss via duplicate...
 Special handling of lengthy and/or frequent disconnections
 M-TCP splits as I-TCP does
 unmodified TCP fixed network t...
 Change of foreign agent often results in packet loss
 TCP reacts with slow-start although there is no congestion
 Forc...
 Mobile hosts can be disconnected for a longer time
 no packet exchange possible, e.g., in a tunnel, disconnection due t...
 TCP acknowledgements are often cumulative
 ACK n acknowledges correct and in-sequence receipt of packets up to n
 if s...
 TCP phases
 connection setup, data transmission, connection release
 using 3-way-handshake needs 3 packets for setup a...
Approach Mechanism Advantages Disadvantages
Indirect TCP splits TCP connection
into two connections
isolation of wireless
...
 TCP is a complex protocol
 Minimal support from underlying protocols
 Indirect observation of network environment
 La...
 Jochen Schiller, Mobile Communications, Ch 9 MobileTransport
Layer.
 Mark Grayson, Kevin Shatzkamer, and KlaasWierenga,...
The End

Mobile transport layer - traditional TCP
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Mobile transport layer - traditional TCP

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Mobile transport layer - traditional TCP

  1. 1. Presented by- TandelVishal P.
  2. 2.  Motivation  TCP-mechanisms  Indirect TCP  Snooping TCP  Mobile TCP  Fast retransmit/recovery  Transmission freezing  Selective retransmission  Transaction oriented TCP
  3. 3.  Transport protocols typically designed for  Fixed end-systems  Fixed, wired networks  Research activities  Performance  Congestion control  Efficient retransmissions  TCP congestion control  packet loss in fixed networks typically due to (temporary) overload situations  routers have to discard packets as soon as the buffers are full  TCP recognizes congestion only indirectly via missing (I.e., timed out) acknowledgements  Immediate retransmissions unwise, they would only contribute to the
  4. 4.  TCP slow-start algorithm  sender calculates/negotiates a congestion window threshold for a receiver  start with a congestion window size equal to one segment  exponential increase of the congestion window up to the congestion threshold, then linear increase  missing acknowledgement causes the reduction of the congestion threshold to one half of the current congestion window  congestion window starts again with one segment  TCP fast retransmit/fast recovery  TCP sends an acknowledgement only after receiving a packet  if a sender receives several acknowledgements for the same packet, this is due to a gap in received packets at the receiver  It indicates that the receiver got all packets up to the gap and is actually receiving packets, but some are missing (hence gap)  Sender concludes that packet loss is not due to congestion, continue with current
  5. 5.  TCP assumes congestion if packets are dropped  typically wrong in wireless networks, here we often have packet loss due to transmission errors  furthermore, mobility itself can cause packet loss, if e.g. a mobile node roams from one access point (e.g. foreign agent in Mobile IP) to another while there are still packets in transit to the old access point and forwarding from old to new access point is not possible for some reason  The performance of an unmodified (I.e., as is) TCP degrades severely  note that TCP cannot be changed fundamentally due to the large
  6. 6.  Indirect TCP or I-TCP segments the connection  no changes to the basic TCP protocol for hosts connected to the wired Internet, millions of computers use this protocol (or slight variants of it)  optimized TCP protocol for mobile hosts  splitting of the TCP connection at, e.g., the foreign agent into 2 TCP connections, no real end-to-end connection any longer  hosts in the fixed part of the net do not notice the characteristics of the wireless part
  7. 7.  Advantages  no changes in the fixed network necessary, no changes for the hosts (TCP protocol) necessary, all current optimizations to TCP still work  transmission errors on the wireless link do not propagate into the fixed network  simple to control, mobile TCP is used only for one hop between, e.g., a foreign agent and mobile host  therefore, a very fast retransmission of packets is possible, the short delay on the mobile hop is known  Disadvantages  loss of end-to-end semantics, an acknowledgement to a sender does now not any longer mean that a receiver really got a packet, foreign agents might crash
  8. 8.  Transparent“ extension of TCP within the foreign agent  buffering of packets sent to the mobile host  lost packets on the wireless link (both directions!) will be retransmitted immediately by the mobile host or foreign agent, respectively (so called “local” retransmission)  the foreign agent therefore “snoops” the packet flow and recognizes acknowledgements in both directions, it also filters ACKs  changes of TCP only within the foreign agent.
  9. 9.  Data transfer to the mobile host  FA buffers data until it receives ACK of the MH, FA detects packet loss via duplicated ACKs or time-out  fast retransmission possible, transparent for the fixed network  Data transfer from the mobile host  FA detects packet loss on the wireless link via sequence numbers, FA answers directly with a NACK to the MH  MH can now retransmit data with only a very short delay  Integration of the MAC layer  MAC layer often has similar mechanisms to those of TCP  thus, the MAC layer can already detect duplicated packets due to retransmissions and discard them  Problems  snooping TCP does not isolate the wireless link as good as I-TCP
  10. 10.  Special handling of lengthy and/or frequent disconnections  M-TCP splits as I-TCP does  unmodified TCP fixed network to supervisory host (SH)  optimized TCP SH to MH  Supervisory host  no caching, no retransmission  monitors all packets, if disconnection detected  set sender window size to 0  sender automatically goes into persistent mode  old or new SH reopen the window  Advantages  maintains semantics, supports disconnection, no buffer forwarding  Disadvantages  loss on wireless link propagated into fixed network  adapted TCP on wireless link
  11. 11.  Change of foreign agent often results in packet loss  TCP reacts with slow-start although there is no congestion  Forced fast retransmit  as soon as the mobile host has registered with a new foreign agent, the MH sends duplicated acknowledgements on purpose  this forces the fast retransmit mode at the communication partners  additionally, theTCP on the MH is forced to continue sending with the actual window size and not to go into slow-start after registration  Advantage  simple changes result in significant higher performance  Disadvantage  further mix of IP andTCP, no transparent approach
  12. 12.  Mobile hosts can be disconnected for a longer time  no packet exchange possible, e.g., in a tunnel, disconnection due to overloaded cells or mux. with higher priority traffic  TCP disconnects after time-out completely  TCP freezing  MAC layer is often able to detect interruption in advance  MAC can informTCP layer of upcoming loss of connection  TCP stops sending, but does now not assume a congested link  MAC layer signals again if reconnected  Advantage  scheme is independent of data  Disadvantage  TCP on mobile host has to be changed, mechanism depends on MAC layer
  13. 13.  TCP acknowledgements are often cumulative  ACK n acknowledges correct and in-sequence receipt of packets up to n  if single packets are missing quite often a whole packet sequence beginning at the gap has to be retransmitted (go-back-n), thus wasting bandwidth  Selective retransmission as one solution  RFC2018 allows for acknowledgements of single packets, not only acknowledgements of in- sequence packet streams without gaps  sender can now retransmit only the missing packets  Advantage  much higher efficiency  Disadvantage  more complex software in a receiver, more buffer needed at the receiver
  14. 14.  TCP phases  connection setup, data transmission, connection release  using 3-way-handshake needs 3 packets for setup and release, respectively  thus, even short messages need a minimum of 7 packets!  Transaction orientedTCP  RFC1644,T-TCP, describes aTCP version to avoid this overhead  connection setup, data transfer and connection release can be combined  thus, only 2 or 3 packets are needed  Advantage  efficiency  Disadvantage  requires changedTCP  mobility not longer transparent
  15. 15. Approach Mechanism Advantages Disadvantages Indirect TCP splits TCP connection into two connections isolation of wireless link, simple loss of TCP semantics, higher latency at handover Snooping TCP “snoops” data and acknowledgements, local retransmission transparent for end-to- end connection, MAC integration possible problematic with encryption, bad isolation of wireless link M-TCP splits TCP connection, chokes sender via window size Maintains end-to-end semantics, handles long term and frequent disconnections Bad isolation of wireless link, processing overhead due to bandwidth management Fast retransmit/ fast recovery avoids slow-start after roaming simple and efficient mixed layers, not transparent Transmission/ time-out freezing freezes TCP state at disconnect, resumes after reconnection independent of content or encryption, works for longer interrupts changes in TCP required, MAC dependant Selective retransmission retransmit only lost data very efficient slightly more complex receiver software, more buffer needed Transaction oriented TCP combine connection setup/release and data transmission Efficient for certain applications changes in TCP required, not transparent
  16. 16.  TCP is a complex protocol  Minimal support from underlying protocols  Indirect observation of network environment  Large number of competing flows from different hosts  Congestion avoidance is still a research issue  TCP does not perform well in a wireless environment where packets are usually lost due to bit errors, not congestion  Schemes have been proposed to addressTCP performance problems  Link-level recovery  Split protocols  End-to-end protocols
  17. 17.  Jochen Schiller, Mobile Communications, Ch 9 MobileTransport Layer.  Mark Grayson, Kevin Shatzkamer, and KlaasWierenga, Building the Mobile Internet, Ch 6Transport/Session Layer Mobility safaribooksonline…
  18. 18. The End 

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