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  2. 2. • Personality is the unique way in which each individual thinks, acts, and feels throughout life. Personality should not be confused with character, which refers to value judgments made about a person’s morals or ethical behavior; nor should it be confused with temperament, the enduring characteristics with which each person is born, such as irritability or adaptability.
  3. 3. • Temperament is based in one’s biology, either through genetic influences, prenatal influences, or a combination of those influences, and forms the basis upon which one’s larger personality is built. Both character and temperament are vital parts of personality, however. Every adult personality is a combination of temperaments and personal history of family, culture, and the time during which they grew up
  4. 4. Definition of personality • “Personality is the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to the environment.” GORDON ALLPORT (1937) • The term personality is derived from the Latin word persona meaning mask, this was adopted by Romans. For Romans, the word persona refers to as one appears and not as one actually is.
  5. 5. • But psychologists neither concern with the common use of the terms nor with its heritage. For them, the term personality refers to such characteristics of individuals that distinguishes each individual with other. • WITTING & WILLIAMS-III (1984); personality is a set of characteristics – unique for each individuals – that determine a person’s identity and behavior pattern. • Personality is in fact, an organized pattern of tendencies specific to a person.
  6. 6. • WHITE (1948); Personality is the organization of individual’s personal patterns of tendencies.
  7. 7. Four traditional perspectives in personality theory: • The psychodynamic perspective had its beginnings in the work of Sigmund Freud and still exists today. It focuses on the role of the unconscious mind in the development of personality. This perspective is also heavily focused on biological causes of personality differences. • The behaviorist perspective is based on the theories of learning. This approach focuses on the effect of the environment on behavior.
  8. 8. • The humanistic perspective first arose as a reaction against the psychoanalytic and behaviorist perspectives and focuses on the role of each person’s conscious life experiences and choices in personality development. • The trait perspective differs from the other three in its basic goals: The psychoanalytic, behaviorist, and humanistic perspectives all seek to explain the process that causes personality to form into its unique characteristics, whereas trait theorists are more concerned with the end result—the characteristics themselves. Although some trait theorists assume that traits are biologically determined, others make no such assumption.
  9. 9. Sigmund Freud and the Psychodynamic Perspective • Born in the Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1856, • Freud believed that the mind was divided into three parts: the preconscious, conscious, and unconscious minds • Freud believed, based on observations of his patients, that personality itself could be divided into three parts, each existing at one or more levels of conscious awareness; id, ego, and superego.
  10. 10. ID: IF IT FEELS GOOD, DO IT • The first and most primitive part of the personality, present in the infant, is the id. Id is a Latin word that means “it.” The id is a completely unconscious, pleasure-seeking, amoral part of the personality that exists at birth, containing all of the basic biological drives: hunger, thirst, self- preservation, and sex, for example. • Thinking about what infants are like when they are just born provides a good picture of the id. Infants are demanding, irrational, illogical, and impulsive. They want their needs satisfied immediately, and they don’t care about anyone else’s needs or desires.
  11. 11. • Freud called this need for satisfaction the pleasure principle, which can be defined as the desire for immediate gratification of needs with no regard for the consequences. • The pleasure principle can be summed up simply as “if it feels good, do it.”
  12. 12. EGO: THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR • People normally try to satisfy an infant’s needs as quickly as possible. Infants are fed when hungry, changed when wet, and tended to whenever they cry. But as infants begin to grow, adults start denying them their every wish. According to Freud, to deal with reality, a second part of the personality develops called the ego.
  13. 13. • The ego, from the Latin word for “I,” is mostly conscious and is far more rational, logical, and cunning than the id. • The ego works on the reality principle, which is the need to satisfy the demands of the id only in ways that will not lead to negative consequences. • This means that sometimes the ego decides to deny the id its desires because the consequences would be painful or too unpleasant.
  14. 14. SUPEREGO: THE MORAL WATCHDOG • Freud called the third and final part of the personality, the moral center of personality, the superego. • The superego (also Latin, meaning “over the self ”) develops as a preschool-aged child learns the rules, customs, and expectations of society. • The super ego contains the conscience, the part of the personality that makes people feel guilt, or moral anxiety, when they do the wrong thing. • It is not until the conscience develops that children have a sense of right and wrong.
  15. 15. Psychological defense mechanisms • ways of dealing with stress through unconsciously distorting one’s perception of reality. • These defense mechanisms were mainly outlined and studied by Freud’s daughter, Anna Freud, who was a psychoanalyst. • In order for the three parts of the personality to function, the constant conflict among them must be managed, and Freud assumed that the defense mechanisms were one of the most important tools for dealing with the anxiety caused by this conflict.
  16. 16. • psychological defense mechanisms; unconscious distortions of a person’s perception of reality that reduce stress and anxiety. • Denial; psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to acknowledge or recognize a threatening situation eg: Ben is an alcoholic who denies being an alcoholic.
  17. 17. • Repression: psychological defense mechanism in which the person refuses to consciously remember a threatening or unacceptable event, instead pushing those events into the unconscious mind. For eg; Elise, who was sexually abused as a child, cannot remember the abuse at all. • Rationalization; psychological defense mechanism in which a person invents acceptable excuses for unacceptable behavior. For eg; “If I don’t have breakfast, I can have that piece of cake later on without hurting my diet.”
  18. 18. • projection psychological defense mechanism in which unacceptable or threatening impulses or feelings are seen as originating with someone else, usually the target of the impulses or feelings. For eg; Keisha is attracted to her sister’s husband but denies this and believes the husband is attracted to her.
  19. 19. • Reaction formation; psychological defense mechanism in which a person forms an opposite emotional or behavioral reaction to the way he or she really feels to keep those true feelings hidden from self and others. For eg; Matt is unconsciously attracted to Ben but outwardly voices an extreme hatred of homosexuals. • Displacement: redirecting feelings from a threatening target to a less threatening one. For eg: Priyanka gets reprimanded by her boss and goes home to angrily pick a fight with her husband.
  20. 20. • Regression; psychological defense mechanism in which a person falls back on childlike patterns of responding in reaction to stressful situations. For eg; Four-year-old Jeff starts wetting his bed after his parents bring home a new baby. • Identification defense mechanism in which a person tries to become like someone else to deal with anxiety. Example: Marie really admires Suzy, the most popular girl in school, and tries to copy her behavior and dress.
  21. 21. • Compensation (Substitution); defense mechanism in which a person makes up for inferiorities in one area by becoming superior in another area. Example; Reggie is not good at athletics, so he puts all of his energies into becoming an academic scholar. • Sublimation; channeling socially unacceptable impulses and urges into socially acceptable behavior. Example; Alain, who is very aggressive, becomes a professional hockey player.
  22. 22. STAGES OF PERSONALITY DEVELOPMENT • For Freud, the three parts of the personality develop in a series of stages. Because he focused heavily on the sex drive, he believed that the stages were determined by the developing sexuality of the child. At each stage, a different erogenous zone, or area of the body that produces pleasurable feelings, becomes important and can become the source of conflicts. Conflicts that are not fully resolved can result in fixation, or getting “stuck” to some degree in a stage of development. The child may grow into an adult but will still carry emotional and psychological “baggage” from that earlier fixated stage.
  23. 23. • Because the personality, or psyche, develops as a result of sexual development, Freud called these the psychosexual stages of personality development. • Oral Stage (0 – 1 ½ years): first stage in which the mouth is the erogenous zone and weaning is the primary conflict and is dominated by the id. • Weaning that occurs too soon or too late can result in too little or too much satisfaction of the child’s oral needs.
  24. 24. • resulting in fixated adult personality: overeating, drinking too much, chain smoking, talking too much, nail biting, gum chewing, and a tendency to be either too dependent and optimistic (when the oral needs are overindulged) or too aggressive and pessimistic (when the oral needs are denied).
  25. 25. • Anal Stage: Toilet Training And Anal Fixation; second stage occurring from 1 ½ years to 3 years of age, in which the anus is the erogenous zone and toilet training is the source of conflict. • Freud believed that the erogenous zone moves from the mouth to the anus, because he also believed that children got a great deal of pleasure from both withholding and releasing their feces at will. This stage is, therefore, called the anal stage.
  26. 26. • Fixation: issues with cleanliness. • Phallic Stage: (3 to 6 years), (3 to 6 years), the erogenous zone shifts to the genitals. Children have discovered the differences between the sexes by now. (The word phallic comes from the Greek word phallos and means “penis.”) • Freud believed that when boys realized that the little girl down the street had no penis they developed a fear of losing the penis called castration anxiety, while girls developed penis envy because they were missing a penis.
  27. 27. • Fortunately, nearly all psychoanalysts have long since abandoned the concept of penis envy. • Freud essentially believed that boys develop both sexual attraction to their mothers and jealousy of their fathers during this stage, a phenomenon called the Oedipus complex (Oedipus was a king in a Greek tragedy who unknowingly killed his father and married his mother.)
  28. 28. • The sexual attraction is not that of an adult male for a female but more of a sexual curiosity that becomes mixed up with the boy’s feelings of love and affection for his mother. • Girls go through a similar process called the Electra complex with their father as the target of their affections and their mother as the rival. The result of identification is the development of the superego, the internalized moral values of the same-sex parent.
  29. 29. • Fixation in the phallic stage usually involves immature sexual attitudes as an adult. • Now the child is about 6 years old and, if passage through the first three stages was successfully accomplished, has all three parts of the personality in place.
  30. 30. • LATENCY STAGE: latency fourth stage occurring during the school years, in which the sexual feelings of the child are repressed while the child develops in other ways. • In this stage, children grow and develop intellectually, physically, and socially but not sexually. This is the age at which boys play with other boys, girls play only with girls, and each thinks the opposite sex is pretty awful.
  31. 31. • GENITAL STAGE; When puberty does begin, the sexual feelings that were once repressed can no longer be ignored. Bodies are changing and sexual urges are once more allowed into consciousness, but these urges will no longer have the parents as their targets. • The focus of sexual curiosity and attraction will become other adolescents or music stars, movie stars, and other objects of adoration.
  32. 32. • Since Freud tied personality development into sexual development, the genital stage represented the final process in Freud’s personality theory, as well as the entry into adult social and sexual behavior.