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Embedded and real time systems[striking soon.com]

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Embedded and real time systems[striking soon.com]

  1. 1. 1 "i n FlU ~ 1 1 ,1 1 1. Th lEEE 1394 Firewire proides _ _ _ _ _ _ ." I(resslO.g. :->64 oi I 2. The lhysicallayer used in wireless communicaliL " IS typically __ _. _____ _ chinne!. ;->[nfrarcd specifies an over-the-air interftlCe between a wireless «lient and a base station or between two .wireless clients:->lliEE802.11 . 8. The SO:lys IEEE 1394 Firewife equiValent standard is :->i.Link 9. _____ is a proposed standard for wireless local urea networks. :.>IEEE 802.11 10. is n persoual computer (and clig,itai audio/digital video) serial bus interface standard, ;)ffe~il;;:gh::-sp~d communications and isochronQus r~.-time data services. :->Firewirc ., : ... -l-L..rhick·Ethernel:is also:referei!,as :->101lASE5 .. - -._-_ ...._ .... a 12. __________ is grabal standard for wireless connectivity. :->l3luctooth 13.. _________ is a short range wifeless digital eonuminication technology. :-:>Bluctoc~~ 14. IOBASE5coax cables had a maxlinum length oL·>500 metres 15. J{)BASE2 Ethernet standard cables have a maximum length 01:-> 200 metres 16. TItickEthernet is also refered as :->lOBASES 17. TIlln Ethernet is also refered as :->10BASE2 18.IEEE802.3 isa standard known as :->Ethcrnct 19. __________ is a specification for a small form-factor, iO,),-cOst, sl;lOrt-range radio ~oll.tiol1JQ~ providing llnksbetween mobile computers, mobil~:l)hones; andi.otherportable and hand·;heid:deiiilt¢s;Nlhd for providing connectivity to the internet. :->Bluetooih ". .. ........ . __ _ ;•• ··,,,.ily of frame-based computer IictworkingJ~chnoIQgie.s fOI IQcaLare~network& .~~). TIiename coines froIB the physical concept ortheetlj~r. :"> Ethernet . " 21. ~~metisStandardized a __ ~ _______ :->IE¥E802.3 1 . .:; 22. 3ij~: __-:- --; ________ s!-1tldard describes a c,flmmun:iCati6n method where inform~tion 151!,C@ a phYSical channeL :.> RS232 f ~ .~ 23. Thel,tS-232 standard states thii DTE devices use a._ ---,:,1.----- male connecW 24. __ ~._______ is specified for multi-drop (party . li,ne) applications where only one diiv~icPnncclt,i 10, and tratlsmiis on, a "bus" of up to 10 receivers. :-~RS422 :,>i;-: 25. __ .:;~ ______ meets the r~qtiirements for a truly multi-point co=unications standard speCifies up to 32 drivers and 32 receivers on a single (2-wire) bus. : ->RS4~" ~l 26. In Rs232 standard, the m~um cable length is :·>50ft . 27. Iii RS422 standard, themaxlinUm cable length is :->.1000ft 28 . . _________ allows the diI~t connection of intelligent dev.ices, without the need~ >Rs422;>; ~ . 29. 111.e:" _________ .protoc~i is designed to make it easier f~ PC USers to connect··C inp~I;devices, etc. :->usn ~ Thi: ·_,.. _____ t l. bus is a 1iijh performance bu~. fer intercoenecting;chips, >~ .,• 30. prPnfjsor memory subsyst~->PCI ~~. ".:;.. 31. US~.,~as ________ data ~e for devices requiring increas,~ band,:,:idth. :·>12 32. __....: ________ among Pf?cesses means that one process.jl1ust walt for another s.g,~;valu.",r:aeh a known p~~~t in its execution, or signal so!!i"e condition, before it :"0" sYlIs.liroIilzatioll :, . ,;" ~!.~" 33. TIHltask of deciding when and for I:ow long a processor executes a particular processot:~_s ___ :~ ______ :->proccss scheduling ;~_ ·k -( ~ ~ WWLO. ~Ex.Am$ADDt}r ~ • .-1)
  2. 2. <V u.:x.ow .~:( A/Y1 sl-) PPI}- .~ is a special proClss th~ t performs process scheduling. :->sehcduler ii1, = ====___ 34 . A 66. SptcC language as deS igned as an extension 1( C 3:>. . ~ ~= ~ scheduler only decides on what process to select for execlition, l the 67. A PSM having only one state is called __ _. . itt PSM [em ",Iugy I" ~I :11 11 - - , 1 pro· essor, .once the currently executing process completes its execution. :->nonprcempti". 68. A PSM having many states. whose actio us arc "II .itt,;t assi gnl1l t stotern"" I., . r; "I tt i, ,l k:r ;.. ~:J ,1 36. A r ecmptive scheduler is a scheduler that only allow, a proccss to executed for a predeter: -ined amount .->HCFSM of t :ne called ________ :->time quanturn 69. If the program-state is a sequential program, th en lI aching lhl ,(I llr :.1h.." , ll tk nl l;n~. :111. ; : : ~ is H ." 37. A __________ is an operating system that allows (loe to specify coo.struints on the rat of processes. . :->complete rI and ihnt guarante~~ that these rate cOllstraiuts wiU ·be met. :->R-T.c;l,S. 70 . A __ _ __________ _ _ transition is taken immediately i , its conditl o ll b :.:..,;n llh.:s Iill , I ; ;U . . ,.; , 01 38. The size of the Windows d kernel is ________ bytes. :->.4Q(1$ the status of the source program-state. :->Transltion-immedia. Jy 39. The Windows CE kernelallovi"s:for ___ priority levels per proce~~ , :->256 71 . The type of transirion, . is taho onl y if th, cond ition is truc .· N IJ Ill<: " L 40. The Windows CE kernel implemen~ ____ ~ ___ SChedulitlg.!t... . :.¢em.ptive priority program-state is compl~t~. ~-;T~a~sitio~;o;-completion 41. QN :-<: supports up to priority ievels.:per processes. :~ . : 72. The textual stat.e machine language is :->.State table 42. __ , _______ -=~-;;way-ofallowing tvt.oor rnoreproeesscs::;·work-on.!1e same area ill memory. 73.. The graphical state machine language is :c>State diagram >sh" red memory .. . 74. The state machine model is desigBed such that it :->Encotlrage, a designer to think of all """ill j ,. , ta"cs 43. The fundleD. to create.a shared segment :-> sl:ilnget of the system and transitions among the states, 44. The functl~n to ~ttad~lhe sru;;.~ segm~t to~- proces.s ii,s;:. " :u~er 75. The sequential program model is designed such tlun it :->ls desi Jned to transform cia ta th I,,,.,d " : ,..- ics , _multiPleProc,esses, " , unicate by-(~ ,~d writing. the same ""emory 45. u.sin g __-_____ : i locar ions or coinmon~ariables. :->sha red mc oty _... • . ~ J of instructions that may be Iterated and conditionally execut ,d. 76. If the transitions leaving a state are not exclusive, then we have Slate machine . 46. A _ ,_:..~ ... ~ is a_PJ)~l;lJ.Y .non-con,ti ous s,ectlQ,1l e . u t ~Ql.L!JP_¢*!>, by . >Nondetermi.n.is1i.~... _.. mult iPlc.Ilroeessestl a. · :shared memory local Qan occur, :-.>.c n l1sccdo,!: . .. 77.ln ESMD model defutition as a 7-tuple < S, 1,0, V, F. H, so >. I is a next - state fun clion. .. ,, d The •. n<l,1;.L:,:, .....!-.,,~) ,:, 0 (~ rr::,7 :::~~ ~~.sses . )!:>locked w!!itin~ t<flch othe~ unlock eril ,cal seetio~~ ..o >Statcs, inputs, variables to states of cr.de is;->dcad 1 . S , ; 78. Ir: FSMD model definition as a 7-tuple < S, I, O. V, F, H, so >, I is an acti on fun ct ion. w i" .. !. d.. " ", 48. USin~_..;~ ____ ~;; ____ datais cxch . . between-two pro e ses in ank xplicit fashion. : ->mess~gc >Currw: state to output and variables i-__ occurs whe.!) two processes . -.1 : ., . .pnssmg ,6. "I . . 79. In ESMD model definition as a 7-ruple < S, I, 0, V, F, H, so > F i.s a next , state function, " hi " .. I" j 49. ___ ,_ -:- e~ch Walting.for ourcf tpf t the other ha, locked. <~ >S X I X VS . >dea,d[oc~. .. .~ 5.0. __ - __ tJ. aUq1i~, ~ .. . rocess to 10.ck!1 sp~, 1 ~ ecor:d)J~Jd.ng f; : 0.: 8Q. In FSMD model deRrutioll as a 7-tuple < S, I, 0, V. F,. H. so >, I· is an action fW1Ctioll, wi nd . >!I<i " "S XIXVS 5 r: Thefunc{fi til d$~ . ~ sbarecf 9.egm~t . Shnflk ; 81 . __________ :... model supports hierarchy and concurrency, .•nd developed statecha.rts. " ). " I ,!" ea I .i". Tu<:; ___ ~ ~ __;: ..,.,... mode-l that allows us more co~-riTently ~uting subtasks. :->Co r~nt pro~css m~1 , iility obr :stem in term oftwo or:, ~ . state machine langliage designed to capture the model. ~;>HCFSiYl " 82; A computational niodel describes the system behavior, While _ _ _____ _~ _ captures Illodeh 53. A pmcesSls in t~~ JI------ ~ t~ 54.AprOC~I.s~nth~~:I stateif!t~ >Ru~~ t state ifit i. ently beio,g eXeG :->:g , n " g t4 , ,>Language ______ dyandexecutabI ... e = 8~ .A _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ..l~:;cribes the system behavior, while l.~guage ,aptures m~els. :->Comptttlt tiul: iIlodelIII,I 55.Aproces~ smth~.:!.I _______ statelflt ,0tready.tobeexlilted.:mB eked 56. The opcra -on de[IDiby the concurrent pro . s,nlodel to create al ew dat.a and.;~ts ex.cbrtkon ofiliat process is:- . c<lte . prof~ r~. : - ,6 operation defin!by the concurrent proc ~S. tglodel to terminate.an alreat!. xecuting process arid " · .. destmys mdata assOcIated with that process~->Tcrmlnate I -" • ·tializes any associa.li !: t i -: I ~~ A model is aconclPtua.I notio~, while a _,____ cnptur~ that concept in a ~ncrete foml. :- . L,,"~ua~c 8~.: A _______ .;f >Language 8~The _______ J~ -.:t _ ~£ __ IS a con~eptual notion. while a language captures that . ncept In b cOller,I" INm. .~ ~ whic~ provides a set of staterrr~~ts, rule, for put:tin.,:;tatemellts 0 11 , al k ;•• ,oll,er ;( and serr.~.:::~ ~tating how the statements are executed oile at a time :->Scqucntial progra III 1l1" l<1 58. The tlpcr!!l>n de?n~])y. the concurrent proc~ss tnodel to interrupihe execution of an already ereated.i : ;1cThc ____,__ ._ ~jllch supports description of multip1fsequenti .i! prograrri~ running. conett l< en ;!. I 59. ~~:~se;gi;~:::~~ at some Iater.pOinl. e.:allowed to exoo.u~e.again bi!;tQring its slate and ,~ >Commttntcatinglrocess model ,~ 38, The ________L... ___ used commonly for data-dominated sy"tcms. : ->~tn t e machine IlJ" ,ki I I.. .. :,: 1. : allowi.ng~ to executrbsing the operation :-> ~ume 8~: The _______ ..:,;,. ___ used commonly for data-d0@nated sy"tems. .:->~at"now Illodel . . 60. "Once a PJocess; sat: has started to execute, other process ma~eed to.stl ,lt Without termmatmg~,: . 90, The _______ ..J ..., _ ______ , which provldes lII!,elegant n eans for u .... ,reaktng cOnlJlIc . ,,,l i , " Ie 11)[( • the operatipn to b~iised is :->suspend " J, , , simpler, well-defuied pieces, :;>Object-oriented mod~l ~ 61: "Once n;:ocesss~~1 iiasst~rtedto exec~te~9ther process, typially ~.e~ that cr~a~.ed X, m~y ~( e 1 91~ A _________ assIsts the designer to understand!thd descnl .e the beha,tO, by prov"llIl, , J .,,, II I l(l to walt ~~I X. flllJS}le~ ex~c;utlOn and tenrunates. That means th~ p~cess .u;,!f the Jo~op~ratlOn ~~ ~~ t compose the behaior from simpler objects ->Comp utltion model f. :u~e~~"~~~n~et.e"JOUled process haslhed the end of Itsl .~. ·executlO s operal1on IS called~ ~ To perform a Iargerouno~~ntr()1 oriented tasks, thj;processol we use i¥ ->Micr05p ntt Dill! .< 62. The __ 1___ .:.. states acfions. :->,Es},1 :• I; !nodel extends state macl to allow use. of,s guentia!,pr m eode to defIDe a 9t; >:i)Sp- - - - - -- - - are p1.cessors that are highly 0 timized [<It proc ess~ g large 0ff-0tlOl < , I • J $( ~r j 91. To compare the pelormaoce of dffferent processors wc se _ _ _ iJf! . _ uench wark -> Dill) ,tOil I ." 63 . _____ 1;... is n ni.~~r of the HCFSM and se:uential program IIi ael~. :,. 95. To compare the pefformance of different processors wz.use ., _ bcncb.lnark. :->EEM U( 64. The __ .:!~ ____ :"!.language was the first1anguage desmged t asily caplilfe the PSM model. :- 9~ The standard for sill digital unage compression is :->,rPEG ~ . 97.: A single purpose processor puts the program _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _ : -> iTlsid~ , o[ >SpccC)i.ai-ts :M": ¥ It I > 65 . SpccCh~ languagewas designed as an extfion of :->VHDL I I t. its (ouirol lo;..i, 9; A general purpose:£rocessor keeps the program ___ ._; _- __ _ :->ill an t:~xternn lItenlO "" ~ f t , (, it ;, ~ .~! ~ J . ~ ~ - lOvOW .. e~:A fYlSA- D ~ , CD~ D . v.)lUJ) ~ 0i PtMSftOO ,. (CA1 ~ :f ~~,
  3. 3. -- b r I ~" ! : ::: I .! l l1( 1 L! :>ugl~ purpose processor _______ once ibci iccsror has been implemented :- 129. ___________ ~ arcilllCClur is"a t~·p( (lj static supcrscalar n.rChlfcctllrc lh<H encodes several i : ~ ljlllliOI hI cllllllgrd operations in a singlc machine instruct: n, " ,Vl.IW )()!I 1 h" J Jtapath of a single purpose processor can ue ___ . . __ to the program, :·>optimized 130, _________ is a problem fc- pipdining, ·>branch id The F E:M IlC has ,_ ,___. _____ benchm:rrking suites of j rograms corresponding to different 13L is Ihe ,ask ofdeterminingwbat operation II,e instruction in the r: embedded appltCalions, :->five instructio; ~eii;t~r-;;-p~e;e-;:i;,-::;deco(,~ , ~f Ill, translates instructions to bin, :ymachine instructions, :·>asscmbler 132, is the proeesso ,; basic data unit. ;.> bit Ill, !<.orograms illltp:¢IllcJne programs :->compiler 133, Ag;-n~;;lp~;P~se processor so, tetimes cuJled as CPU, consists of:·>datapatb, coutrol unit, 104, A to create J{,iltoSJ atiliin s~paFately assembled or memory : wl11piled I,les, :·>Iinker 134. holds the nex" instruction to be ,executed. :->instruction register, f ~l lOS An nms on~:pro;~or" anci eNecutes the instructions of 135. The-_-_-_-_-_-_-_- ____ consist; of the oircuitry for transforming data and for stoPing temporary ;1 ~:.!.... :.:: }j another processor. : ->instru ctioll . data. :->datapath ( 1 0 6 . ____ .. help aild~~ ~,pr~ams, »debuggers 136. ___________ is capable (f transforming data through operations such as addition, " 107 pro~_ ~eCu!es on the target processor, subtraction, logical AND; logical OR, iwerting.anct shifting. :->ALUI >cmulators 131. ___________ consists of .:ircuitry,forretrieving pf<),gram instructions and, for moving data lOS, ,.to, from and through tbe datapatb accoding to those instruetions, :->control unit ~ __ _ _____ ~ __ holds)±te lddrt;ss in memory of the next program instruction to fetch.:- i;,nrogram co~nter OS ,:," ; .. processor __ lLthe.address sizi;,is M, then thcaddress..sp~ce i~,l_>1,M _.. :i ... !_ _0. 110, _ In _______ data and progr~words s,~ the same memory spa~e. :->Prin,ceton , : ;e IJ.rchite<e,tll~e In, J if " ~ lV, theprogrnm lI).cmory space is distinct from the dala memolY ,: :->H;~d,-;~hfte-;;hr;e---- - ;} $ ,;; , ;. ., 112 _~ __ ~ ____ ~ ___ is the task ofmakingde$,~ metric values the be~possible. :->optimi~ Dg ,I, G I I ,~ , . , is the task of assigning openiypns fr{]m the original prggram to states in an " ~ .. 114, An ::->-;~h;iuli~i C:- - Wi ~t, , operand ________ ~*, ___ is the task ofchoosiug vichRT components to #e in the datapath. co"~ TI I I) i llst :usti-o~~~-a~ ~;;m~Wcs. ,A t." !tallocation ,~ I ~~ _, ____ ,~,js the task of mappjng opcra~rfrom the FSMD to al1lW:cJlted components.;i, , . . . di II (), usi:J.g procesS ·N dependent instructions. j :;Hi: ~ ..~.:~i , " ~ ______ l iS the task of mergingequiVl t states into a single stalw) :·>state i; and 1.eld conta, address of a dat)i:-patlI ~1Ub).lzaJion ~:"": r ~ ~ :~, M " , , " OJ <l e fth < . b ed next program "trucbon, as p, I·,~I bl Y . {lptimizing thit atapath,a gjyen s<:4.equ)e_),ill ",ect the range, of p",ssili e, _ ... ___ . _ , , f i!Jn;ti~erand ," b~ wi Th 119. fiel, contains :: [ .. ; ,,,,,.,, , , pI , .:- ____ _ __,_is the talk Of.~SSignini!J",,: quebit pattern to eaci l,tate in an·PSM. :-:1,: encodmg 1 I · , ; . rJJ The task ofm~g design metric valties the best bssibleis :->optirniziu~r ,1W rt- mc,rrucnon. the opel wd field co~ . . s :->address of ~ A basic processo~:consists of __ , _______ an.".,..- __________ :-~ontrollcr, datapath. int , .mstrueIlO~fegtster ,. }I" c" The ______ c:.~_ ____ stores and manipuJat~a systenUlV,s data; :~>dJ!apatlJ ( (:I) lUstruc.t!on lrom ~ory lUtO Ile IS :->Fetch A _____________ ames out the confi~tion of the datapath, ->~2ntrollcr Jt.It; !,:I, illstnlction " ","",rutit~"a ,op=rn" ;, ___________ sets the dallpath control lUp,Uts. :->controller , i$ .l 122, The task of deten nining what ___________ monitors external conirW,m,~uts as well as datapalll control outputs. :- ,:, (I) >decocte I i· ~, "~ J~;~ :,r, !,~J. ill C"ehes used ~ rogram memory _________!,:,_ tools are used to a,u,tomate l:i,oth the combinational an~J.e seQUentiallogici ,l 121, t , I , • ; I (iL 124. :"ehes used ~ata memory i~ caJ; , W;·lWeslgn. :->CAD.~ .t ~ !.~). I he task of m~ ng the tllstrucbonw pera . into appn oriate registers is 1,2) , ., ,I ,,ctional units i 1 the datapath, res~lting in fewer units at !If expense of more _ ) _ , ,<, We can merge fi;,B !)I:; ~ :·"felch operand . --~---F--lr -- ___ --:->multiple~~r 1 ~· ;1 126, The task of rea Ing the next instrucllon,lro mto 1l1e lUStruCllfon register IS :-> etc ,.. . ,We can merge a j}.umber of state into .~ single st~ reducing the size of ~~~ ________ :- " ~ , inslnlction I···· I "J; ~controllcr ~ func~ional :y;.:, " oper~ln ~ , ::f ,- I 21 The task of fee ing the "" ALU ",db" :. til. m."mpri", •.. • TI,e steps to design is L Create a uniit each arithmetic II, Create it regis,,§r register. :->cxccute I" any d~clared variabltJIl. Create unique identifiera~titput of datapath com;nc~ts IV. COilIlect~ In The task of writing a register into .,;FOrts, regIsters, functlon~ umts The cor,ect order ofthe~eps to construct the da, aPth IS :·>II, I, IV, t ITI ~, ~. ·r~.f~ J ~ ~. ~,~.. ~ t. ; ! ,:, ~i , Wf . " " I , . , . J . t c I .!,; V; :il
  4. 4. (. I~ In ",: 01l·eI1ing ~ sequential Pfl~.·,I: 1I11 !lI to a ClIS[(JiH s-l ngk ·puql,,· .-, " 1I1<11o::s s<.q", (u·.. dlt pl og rul11 I.... :" ! I ll " ~! l:·l..: dup OfS),Slt.:01 A ov~r systt.:ll n I ~: ~k! . .: i!1!1:; ,~ I.-V { f (j , , • • . ~ (If : oll,wled 10 :-.-. fSMD !t 16·· ____________ isn digilal ",rcuit whose outputs arc" rUllcllOIl "rlheprc ent as weli as ! J:j _ ______ _ ____ relates to the architeclure ~ " he ...:o mput ulllll1 ...:~ g JIl~ i~:; , i ~. previous inpul values. :->scqucntiaJ ci rcuit ;"·~ ILm s desired functionality. :->ProceSsor te.~bnology I(). ___ -- _ _ __ ___ circoil h<ls memory or past inputs. :->.cquc.nti"J circuit 195 T he number of tasks that can be processed pcr unilli , 1e i5 ·-> Ihrou ghput 16_ A flip-flop can stores _ __ _. . bilS. :-> 1 1 9~. The feature of an·embedded system WhiClh specifies I.lat they musl CC>lltinually rc.": 1<1 .:ii,,,, .. J6: The SR flip-flop has _ _ _ _ _ .. _____ inputs_:->S, R, Clock the syslems envirorunent and must compute certain results ir. real time without dclay . :-> rc" di c ", .. : . ,. 16.:.. A register stores ______. _ from its n-bit data input;w!th those stored bits appearing ·at its j timo output: :~>n bits 197. The.design metric NRE cost is used t~ :-> one-time monetary cost of desiguing tlie sy,rc;: 16~-. 16(,. The ;egister control input which rescts aU bits to 0 is :->dcnr _____ ______ _ is used to store the bit$ in pnrallol. :->p.rnllcl-Ioad regis tcr t I W8 . III Embedded sy~ the desIgn meme, the tIme requ,red to develop a system to the P(lln l ,Il ,,; can be released and soHfto customers ·is :->time-to-mar,ket 16~ . The type of register control input whose valu. only has n.o effect during a clock odge is 1 1m>. .. _. ___. __ ____ is a programmahl.e;p.roc~s-;-or oplimized for a particular class or appll " .;; ,... 16~. >synchronous 5. . The RT-Ievel sequ$tial component is :->regis!er I. 1 having common ehlU3et.~tics. such·as embeli~ed control. d igital signal processing. tclecommuni ,·,, i,- :-.>nppUcation - specl ~ rocessor . 169 To prevent unexp4i(ted behaviour from signa l glitc,hcs. flip-flops are typically dcsigned to be J7G. _______ ·->edgettldhed _. :_:~com]Jl!.H!tjo·nnl- drcuiQi _ _ --Ji- : A _______ _ IJ:... _ IS a dlgitnl circuit whose outp!! is purely a functIon of Its present mputs. _ I .,. . J ~i~ wwW <9(An1SfYDW COO) l71-. tIL. -."C _ _ _ _ -:- _ _ _>denfultiplexor *__ _________ . circu,it hns no memory ofpas!lnputs. :->combinationarcircuit is ",!~". . , nnly on~ ofrts dat~Finputs to pass through to the output. :- .. .. .! . . . . .. i .~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -$.- can perionn n vnnety of anthriietlc and logIC:;: fi!nctlOns on tlS n-blt Inputs. ,~. ~ 17 J . . : .... >aritlrmttic·nndJooi"c unit . if! 174 . In a multiplc~or c!lJllnbinational circuit.lf there 11fj . data·inputs. there are _________ select ::;-::::. . . . !~~:!(m) . · !j . 175. In a decoder. it tllj_:C~~: :n outputs, then there In ~he _______ inputs_,,:->Iog,(m) . 176: - The Rl-level c~c . ~ational componen~ used to ]~~vert the·binary input I ~to a one-bot output 0 . . ecoder ... . ~~~I~o~p;.ationaL c~mponJ IS 177 . - - - TheRT used to a; . two n-bit binary inputs.h:eneratiQ;& an n-bit .~ ouput sum along wlth · att~tput carry IS :->ad~cr :: ..~ . . . ~ i .. J78. TheRT~levcl COIll.ll:inatlOnal componJ~sed t.9.·. . pnr<: ~o n-b lt bmary.llW.uts IS :->.com?arator il . . The.·F.T-levclcomb::-..o_!!onill" cotnponm-whicAn-bn mp)lt can be shiiled left or nght IS :-> >Ott .. J . ~.,. I 170 . shifter 180. 181. I. ~ The b~ttom laycr~f the sem!conductQ ·. liJrrn th ,_____ :->trnnslsto~ . The lTllddle layers of the semIconductor.!; fonn ib~ 0 ____ :->Ioglc o;ompODcntS· i i .- i 1 {1 t ! 1 y 182 . . The narrowest I~tthat we create ol a.ehi~js" . __ :-.>fcnturc sIze !" ~. !; ,l) 183 ________ -,- ~;,olve reuseofpre-rystmg I.mp, .me~tntions . :->Ubrarlc!;- " 1, 184 . .}involves ensunng that funcUonmty IS correct. :->vcrlficatlon t~ 185. 186. =========.!. onto an IC. :->rc techno-logy In ________ involves the manner in whieh~e map a digital(gate-Ieyel} implemenlatien . f ___ . JMl I layers already exist, ~ishing our design. :-> Pl-D tec!lirology ~!.~ ~ so .(. we·can purchase the ~~tual lC before Jl .lI:I : .- ,. f 3 " , , ~- .f ~ involves the manner in which we convert our concept of desired system J87. y functio;;-aui i;;o-a-;:; Tr;;"plem~ntation. :->Desigii technology i 1 i ~. It 188 189 _ 190. 191. . 192. _________ _lets a deSIgner specify furlc~nality in an abstract mlloner and automatical)Y generates low-level implementation details. :-ttompil:ition _ ________ t _____ ~ provide {softw;~"!Y:ronrnent for the appli!tion of numerous , tools. throughout the deSIgn process and management of versIons of Implementatlons_ :->frameworks .~ "S n characteristics o{anEmbeJded system that usually ~ecutes a specific ..!; progra~~pe-;;i~d!Y:~-;s1lrglc-fintctioned i The characteristrc"tfan·cmbedded sysiem is :->SiiigLc-functioncd " ~ The time between;e start of the tasks i xecUlion and the end is __ :->latc~y l , ~~ t , I ~ .. i, - ~ I li, .-: ~, .~ ~.: :~ ~). I . f ~ms~J)I)·C~ -oJ lAXUW• " ..: p },I

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