What is child Labour..?? Child labour hurts and exploits kids. Child labor is... Work done by kids full-time under the age of 15. Work that prevents kids from attending school, such as unlimited or unrestricted domestic work. Work that is dangerous for kids and that is hazardous to their physical, mental or emotional health.
Factors Affecting Child LabourPovertyOver populationParental IlliteracyUrbanizationUn employments of eldersOrphansThese are some the fact which cause child labour.
Types of Child LabourCategorized by Workplace :a. Hotelsb. Restaurantsc. Tourismd. Streetse. Industries
nearly every Agricultureindustry : An estimated 60% of child labour occurs in agriculture, fishing, hunting, and forestry. Children in commercial agriculture can face long hours in extreme temperatures, health risks from pesticides, little or no pay, and inadequate food, water, and sanitation.
About 14 million children areManufacturing estimated to be directly involved in manufacturing goods, including: Carpets from India, Pakistan, Egypt Clothing sewn in Bangladesh; footwear made in India and the Philippines Soccer balls sewn in Pakistan Glass and bricks made in India Fireworks made in China, the Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Guatemala, India, and Peru Surgical instruments made in Pakistan
Many children, especially girls, work in domestic service, sometimes starting as young as 5 or 6. This type of child labor is linked to child trafficking. Domestic child laborers can be victims of physical, emotional, and sometimes sexual abuse.
Hotels, Restaurants, and Retail Some of the work of young people in this sector is considered legitimate, but there are indications of considerable abuse. Low pay is the norm, and in some tourist areas, children’s work in hotels and restaurants is linked to prostitution. In at least one example, child hotel workers received such low pay that they had to take out loans from their employers; the terms of the interest and repayment often led to debt bondage.
“Unconditional Worst Millions of children areForms” of Child Labour involved in work that, under any circumstance, is considered unacceptable for children, including the sale and trafficking of children into debt bondage, serfdom, and forced labor. It includes the forced recruitment of children for armed conflict, commercial sexual exploitation, and illicit activities, such as producing and trafficking drugs.
Where does mostchild labor occur?Of an estimated215 child laborersaround the globe:approximately 114million (53%) arein Asia and thePacific; 14 million(7%) live in LatinAmerica; and 65million (30%) livein sub-SaharanAfrica.
Health Issues Factors that may increase the health, safety, and developmental risk factors for children include: Rapid skeletal growth Development of organs and tissues Greater risk of hearing loss Developing ability to assess risks Greater need for food and rest Higher chemical absorption rates Smaller size Lower heat tolerance
Psychosocial Effects of Child LaborLong hours of work on a regular basis can harm children’s social and educational development. U.S. adolescents who work more than 20 hours per week have reported more problem behaviors (e.g., aggression, misconduct, substance use), and sleep deprivation and related problems (falling asleep in school). They are more likely to drop out of school and complete fewer months of higher education.The unconditional worst forms of child labor (e.g., slavery, soldiering, prostitution, drug trafficking) may have traumatic effects, including longer term health and socioeconomic effects.
Global EconomyThe many factors that lead to child labor occur on a global scale. Althoughcountries may agree on the importance of labor standards, in practice, manyobstacles to the enforcement of child labor standards remain. These obstaclesinclude global competition, free trade rules, and the structural adjustmentpolicies attached to international development loans. Global Competition Free Trade Rules As multinational corporations expand across Most child labor occurs because children and borders, countries often compete with each families are poor and lack options for other for jobs, investment, and industry. education or income. Many factors affect International competition sometimes slows poverty, but international agencies are child labor reforms by encouraging increasingly paying attention to trade policy corporations and governments to seek low as a key factor. The 2003 UN Human labor costs by resisting enforceable Development Report, for example, identifies international standards and repressing trade “unfair trade rules” as one of four key union activism. obstacles to economic progress in poor Many labor unions and other organizations countries. are concerned that this global “race to the Many poor countries rely heavily on exports bottom” increases poverty while lowering of primary commodities, which have suffered labor standards. Since the 1980’s, incomes of from declining prices as global competition the richest 20% of the population in nearly has increased and markets have tightly every nation have grown, while incomes of concentrated with a few firms dominating key the middle and lower classes have stagnated sectors. For example: world coffee prices hit or declined. 100-year lows in 2002-2003. These extremely low prices depressed economies in parts of Central America and Africa that depend on coffee exports, and child labor in some regions reportedly increased
Debt and Structural Adjustment Poor countries often face staggering interest payments on development loans from the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. These loans often require the countries to follow the policies of structural adjustment programs: deregulation, opening trade and financial markets to global competition, weakening labor laws or enforcement, privatizing government jobs, and cutting government spending on public health programs and education. Such structural adjustment policies can intensify the conditions, such as poverty and inadequate education funding, that lead to child labor. Debt is one factor, in addition to war and disease, that may lower school attendance in Sub-Saharan Africa (where 48 million children under 14 work). For example, Malawi spends 40% of its GDP to repay foreign creditors, while only 15% of GDP is spent on healthcare and education combined. In the 1990’s, the number of children entering primary schools declined in 17 African countries.
International Trade Issues U.S. citizens are linked to the international problem of child labor in part through our trade relationships with other countries. It is well- documented that some of the mined, manufactured, and agricultural goods produced for export to the United States involve the use of child laborers or forced labor. In 2010, the U.S. Department of Labor issued a report entitled List of Goods Produced by Child Labor or Forced Labor which lists 128 products from 70 countries that have been documented to involved the use of child labor or forced labor. A few examples of goods or commodities imported to the U.S. that have been linked to child labor in recent years include: Cut flowers from Colombia Coffee from Guatemala, Kenya, and other countries Vanilla from Madagascar Shrimp from Thailand Cashews from India Bananas from Ecuador
Where do labor standards fit into international trade?Terms of international trade are increasingly negotiated through international trade institutions such as the World Trade Organization (WTO). The WTO emerged out of multinational negotiations held from 1986-1994, and has since continued to negotiate rules covering trade in goods, services, agriculture, and intellectual property. As of 2003, the WTO includes appointees from 146 countries who negotiate and enforce agreements with the stated aim of helping “trade flow as freely as possible” and eliminating measures that “restrict the free market.”WTO rules currently do not include provisions on labor standards or child labor, and at present there are no plans to consider labor standards in WTO negotiations. At its 1996 Ministerial meeting, WTO members passed a resolution stating that “the ILO should remain the supranational agency charged with developing and monitoring core labor standards.”
Ending ChildLabour Unions and grassroots groups are increasingly recognizing direct connections between worker rights and the fight against child labor. Recognizing child labor as a violation of childrens and workers rights, trade unions are joining with families and community organizations to combat child labor, to move children out of work and into school, and to support core labor standards. Historically and in today’s global economy: strong unions are an important protection against child labor when parents are able to improve conditions through effective unions, children are much less likely to have to work active struggles against child labor tend to strengthen unions and workers’ rights in general Many workers and unions in the U.S. and other countries are supporting efforts to end child labor by forging alliances with unions in other countries. These alliances work to achieve enforceable global labor standards, such as ILO Convention 182, and hold transnational companies accountable for labor practices.