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- 1. Geographic Coordinate System & Map Projection<br />By- VishalKedia<br />M.Tech(Remote Sensing & GIS)<br />Maulana Azad National Institute Of Technology<br />BHOPAL<br />
- 2. <ul><li>Earth is almost a Geoid (ie. Geophysically an equipotential surface) which is a irregular spheroid like structure.
- 3. Surface of Geoid matches very much with the MSL.
- 4. Mathematically earth is represented as spheroid.
- 5. Spheroid is the three dimensional structure formed by the rotation of an ellipse about the minor axis.
- 6. For the purpose of obtaining R.L. of any point on earth surface Geoid approximation of earth is assumed.
- 7. For the purpose of obtaining geographic coordinate of earth pure spheroid or ellipsoid is assumed.</li></ul>Our earth…(some facts)<br />
- 8. Geoid Undulation: separation between geoid & spheroid at any point on the surface of the earth.<br />Geoid undulation<br />Vertical deflection<br />
- 9. What is Datum?<br />
- 10. Geodetic Datum:<br />
- 11. Vertical Datum:<br />
- 12. Different Ellipsoid Models<br />
- 13. Example Datum:<br />
- 14. WGS 84 – Parameters:<br />
- 15. WGS 84 – Parameters(cont.)<br />
- 16. Geographic Coordinate System<br />
- 17. Lattitude & Longitude<br />
- 18. Lattitude & Longitude(cont.)<br />
- 19. Projection ?<br />
- 20. Projection(cont.)<br />
- 21. Projection(cont.)<br />
- 22. Projection(cont.)<br />
- 23. Projection(cont.)<br />
- 24. Projection(cont.)<br />
- 25. Rectangular coordinate system<br />
- 26. coordinate system and map projection<br />
- 27. Utm coordinate system<br />
- 28. Utm coordinate system(Cont.)<br />It is the modified form of Transverse Mercator Projection System in which instead of using one cylinder as developable surface we use multiple cylinders that touch the globe at 6 degree interval meridians resulting in 60 projection zones each of 6 degree longitude width.<br />To avoid extreme distortions projection zones are limited to 84 N & 80 S.<br />
- 29. Utm coordinate system(Cont.)<br />UTM coordinate system is formed by superimposing a regular grid on each projection zone such that vertical lines are parallel to the central meridian.<br />Each UTM zone is divided into horizontal bands spanning 8 degrees of lattitude & these are identified by the letters North to South beginning at 80 S with letter ‘c’ and ending at 84 N with letter ‘X’ , letter ‘I’ & ‘O’ are not used (skipped). Band ‘X’ spans 12 degrees of lattitude.<br />
- 30. Utm coordinate system(Cont.)<br />
- 31. Utm coordinate system(Cont.)<br />UTM coordinates are expressed as a distance in meters to east – ‘Easting’ & to north – ‘Northing’.<br />UTM easting of central meridian is 500,000 m east ie. false origin is 500,000 m west of the central meridian. <br />
- 32. Utm coordinate system(Cont.)<br />Equator is assigned 0 m N (zero northing). To avoid –venos for locations south of the equator position fixing in the southern hemisphere is made with equator assigned a value of 10,000,000 m S.<br />By combining the zone no, the hemisphere, easting and northing values; each point on the earth surface can be uniquely located. <br />
- 33. Any questions?<br />
- 34. Thanking you!<br />

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