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  1. 1. MICROORGANISMSThese organisms are very small and are not visibleto the unaided eyes.Microorganisms can live in all kinds of environment ,ranging from ice cold climate to hot springs andranging from ice cold climate to hot springs anddeserts to marshy lands.They are found in air , water ,soil and in the bodiesof plants and animals.
  2. 2. MICROORGANISMSAll of the living things, plant and animal, in earths environmental communities of forests,deserts, tundra, water, air, and all of the rest depend on the crypto biotic crust or micro bioticlayer in the soil. This is the layer of soil that most microbes live in. These microbe communitiesare made up of fungi, cyanobacteria and lichens. They look like a grayish cover on the groundwhen they are first forming, but do form in clumps of lichen that look like little hills after about50 years of growth.The cyanobacteria called Nostoc helps lichenproduce food during photosynthesis.
  3. 3. CLASSIFICATION OF MICROORGANISMSMicroorganisms can be unicellular like Amoeba ormulticellular like Rhizopus.Microorganisms are classified broadly into 4 groups:i. Bacteriai. Bacteriaii. Algaeiii. Protozoaiv. Fungi
  4. 4. BACTERIA
  5. 5. BACTERIAROD -SHAPEDBACTERIAThis is a Magneto-tactic bacteriaand produces themineralMagnetite. Themagnetite act asa natural magnet.Bacteria are part of a very large group ofsingle-celled organisms. There is one group ofFILAMENTOUSsingle-celled organisms. There is one group ofbacteria that have chlorophyll and use theprocess of photosynthesis to produce theirown food. Bacteria that are parasites liveinside man, animals, and some plants causingdiseases. Some bacteria are aerobic, meaningthat they require oxygen in order to survive.Other bacteria are anaerobes, meaning thatthey do not require oxygen to survive.Bacteria is moved by air and water currents,and on any surface such as clothing, hands,or any object. They move themselves byusing thin hair-like structures called flagellaor by wriggling.FILAMENTOUSBACTERIAFilamentousiron oxidizingbacterium
  6. 6. ALGAE
  7. 7. PROTOZOA
  8. 8. FUNGI
  9. 9. FUNGIFungi is a group of simple plants that have no chlorophyll. There are some species of fungi that are single celledorganisms, and there are other kinds of fungi that are multi-cellular organisms. Fungi are made up of filamentscalled hyphe that are stacked together from end to end. Some kinds of fungi live on land and other types of fungilive in water environments. Since fungi has no chlorophyll, it can not make its own food. Some types of fungi livesoff of other organisms and are parasites, but other fungi species feed off of dead and decaying matter. A third kindof fungi lives with other organisms and neither the fungi or the organism is hurt. This kind of relationship is calledpositive symbiosis When reproductive hyphae cells are made by the fungus, a mushroom shape forms at the top.The scientific name for the mushroom shape is the sporocarp. It has one purpose, that is to release reproductivespores. The sporocarp is not part of the live fungi. Reproduction in fungi is sexual,but the spores which contain the reproductive cells must somehow come incontact with one another before fungi can reproduce.Spores are released from theunderside of mushroom capsduring the reproductive cycleof mushroomsHyphaeTrichoderma is a goodfungi, it attacks bad fungusthat destroys crops.Witches Broom Fungiattacks cacao treesthat produce chocolateFungus in caves
  10. 10. VIRUS
  11. 11. Viruses are non-living microscopic particles that attack healthy cells within living things. They do not havethe characteristics of living things and are not able to change food energy into chemical energy that the bodycan use. Viruses are not alive, so they do not have a need for food like living organisms. Viruses do not havean organized cell structure. They are so light that they can float in the air or water, be passed on to otherorganisms if touched, and fit anywhere. The virus injects its own DNA structure into healthy cells where newvirus cells grow. Viruses can not reproduce by themselves like bacteria or cells. They must attach themselvesVIRUSPOLIO VIRUSto the cell membrane of animals, or cell wall of plants and injecta part of their DNA into the cells of the host organism.. They dothis by using a hollow tube structure to puncture the cellwall/membrane and pass its DNA into the cell. New virus cellsare incubated inside the invaded cell. Once the virus DNAreproduces itself inside the cell, it uses the natural process ofreproduces itself inside the cell, it uses the natural process ofosmosis to leave the cell. These new virus cells attach to otherhealthy cells and infect them too.Viruses like thisPlum Pox attackplants and ruinthe fruit. It isspread from plantto plant by insectslike this greenpeach aphidGreen peach aphid