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Questions in IOT
What are the main parts of IoT
systems?
IoT system consists of three main parts:
 Sensors
 Network connectivity
 Data storage applications.
What are security concerns
related to IoT?
 Data security and privacy are major concerns
related to IoT. These devices are vulnerable to
hacking and cloud endpoints could be used by
hackers to attack servers. Software
developers and device designers have to ensure
adequate security and privacy measures.
Explain the IoT protocol stack.
IoT has 4 protocol layers:
1. Sensing and information: Includes
various smart sensor devices based on GPS,
RFID, Wi-Fi, etc.
2. Network connectivity: Layer is based on a
wired and wireless network such as WLAN,
WMAN, Ethernet, optical fiber and more.
3. Information processing layer
4. Application layer
Explain the basic architecture of the
IoT network.
Answer:
IoT has three main parts namely sensors, network connectivity and data storage applications. Sensors either
communicate directly with the central server for data storage or communicate via gateway devices. A gateway can
handle various wireless interfaces that’s why one gateway can handle multiple technologies and multiple sensors.
The typical wireless technologies used widely are Zigbee, Zwave, RFID, NFC etc. gateway interfaces with the cloud
using wireless or wired technologies such as Wi-Fi, Mobile or Fiber, DSL.
The IoT hardware system can be constructed using Micro-Controller Units. Choice of Micro-controller depends on the
system on chip resources, the power required and interfaces needed as per different sensors and memory
requirements.
To finalize the IoT hardware architecture following aspects are required to study:
 Type of sensors/actuators.
 Communication interface type.
 Amount of data to be captured and transmitted.
 A frequency of data transportation.
 IoT software architecture is based on open source components like Arduino, Linux (Raspberry Pi)
development and implementation of the Internet of
Things?
 A barrier to the improvement of IoT is the technical
boundaries of the version of the network protocol(IP)
that is used most widely. IP is the set of rules that
computers use to ship and receive statistics via the
internet, including a specific address that every
connected device or item should have to speak.
Model four (ipv4) is presently in widest use. It can
accommodate about four billion addresses and its
miles near saturation, with few new addresses
available in many parts of the sector.
 Version 6 (ipv6) allows for a big increase within the
wide variety IP addresses. With ipv4, the maximum
number of particular addresses, 4.2 billion, is not
sufficient to provide even one deal with for every of
the 7.3 billion human beings on earth. Ipv6, in an
evaluation, will accommodate over 1038 addresses
extra than a thousand billion trillion per man or
woman.
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Questions in iot

  • 2. What are the main parts of IoT systems? IoT system consists of three main parts:  Sensors  Network connectivity  Data storage applications.
  • 3. What are security concerns related to IoT?  Data security and privacy are major concerns related to IoT. These devices are vulnerable to hacking and cloud endpoints could be used by hackers to attack servers. Software developers and device designers have to ensure adequate security and privacy measures.
  • 4. Explain the IoT protocol stack. IoT has 4 protocol layers: 1. Sensing and information: Includes various smart sensor devices based on GPS, RFID, Wi-Fi, etc. 2. Network connectivity: Layer is based on a wired and wireless network such as WLAN, WMAN, Ethernet, optical fiber and more. 3. Information processing layer 4. Application layer
  • 5. Explain the basic architecture of the IoT network. Answer: IoT has three main parts namely sensors, network connectivity and data storage applications. Sensors either communicate directly with the central server for data storage or communicate via gateway devices. A gateway can handle various wireless interfaces that’s why one gateway can handle multiple technologies and multiple sensors. The typical wireless technologies used widely are Zigbee, Zwave, RFID, NFC etc. gateway interfaces with the cloud using wireless or wired technologies such as Wi-Fi, Mobile or Fiber, DSL. The IoT hardware system can be constructed using Micro-Controller Units. Choice of Micro-controller depends on the system on chip resources, the power required and interfaces needed as per different sensors and memory requirements. To finalize the IoT hardware architecture following aspects are required to study:  Type of sensors/actuators.  Communication interface type.  Amount of data to be captured and transmitted.  A frequency of data transportation.  IoT software architecture is based on open source components like Arduino, Linux (Raspberry Pi)
  • 6. development and implementation of the Internet of Things?  A barrier to the improvement of IoT is the technical boundaries of the version of the network protocol(IP) that is used most widely. IP is the set of rules that computers use to ship and receive statistics via the internet, including a specific address that every connected device or item should have to speak. Model four (ipv4) is presently in widest use. It can accommodate about four billion addresses and its miles near saturation, with few new addresses available in many parts of the sector.  Version 6 (ipv6) allows for a big increase within the wide variety IP addresses. With ipv4, the maximum number of particular addresses, 4.2 billion, is not sufficient to provide even one deal with for every of the 7.3 billion human beings on earth. Ipv6, in an evaluation, will accommodate over 1038 addresses extra than a thousand billion trillion per man or woman.
  • 7. What is the difference between a wireless sensor network (WSN) and the Internet of Things(IoT) network? WSN: Wi-Fi sensor community is the foundation of IoT packages. WSN is a network of motes, fashioned to look at, to take a look at or to monitor bodily parameters of desired utility. e.g. motes deployed in agricultural land, screen temp- humidity or maybe soil moisture, who gathers statistics and ideal statistics analysis procedure consequences approximately crop yields-high quality or amount. IoT: IoT is a community of bodily objects managed and monitored over the internet. Now just as win, in its application, you will stumble upon the monitoring of physical parameters. But preferred results are little different. IoT is about M2M, it’s far greater than bringing smartness into daily gadgets. e.g. device hooked in your thermostat monitors surrounding temperature and adjust it to maximum
  • 8. What are the different sectors where the Internet of Things can actually add value to the current processes?  The Internet of Things process can be applied to any field where productivity, accuracy or process enhancement is needed. With the help of the technology and the smart hardware, all this can be executed in a fraction of the current operating cost.  Internet of things can be applied or already started applying their benefits to the following categories and hopefully, we will be seeing more in the future: 1. Agriculture 2. Manufacturing 3. Healthcare 4. Energy 5. Transportation 6. Security 7. Information development
  • 9. What is the difference between IIOT and IOT?  The acronym IIOT stands for “Industrial Internet of Things”. This is very different when compared to the Internet of things application. When it comes to Industrial Internet of Things, they use heavy or critical machines something like the hardware used in aerospace and in defence where these devices are connected over a network and any failure of these devices will cause a life-threatening situation. Well, when it comes to the internet of things it is just done at a small scale level where there is no need to worry about life-threatening situations because it is more catered towards the process execution and
  • 10. When you say the Internet of Things, what do you mean by the “thing”?  In the Internet of Things implementation world, the word “Thing” has a more meaningful approach because it takes into consideration of an idea. For example, A” thing” can be a shipping container which has an RFID tag associated with it and it is shipped from one location to another where it gives out the current information whenever the RFID tag passes through an RFID reader.  Another example is a microchip integrated into your mobile phone or a fitness band which continuously monitors your physical movements and then push the information to the central
  • 11. What are the Pros and cons of the Internet of things? Pros: Automation and control:  The Internet of things permits you to automate and control the tasks which are performed in day to day life. Better efficiency:  Machine to Machine communication provides better results with more transparency. Moreover, people can free to do other jobs. Cons: Privacy and security:  Managing privacy settings on the Internet is essential. Many of our day to day life machines,appliances and services become connected to the Internet with certain information available on the Internet which makes it harder to keep confidential information from the data breacher and spammers. Complexity:  Internet of things is such an extensive, distinct network, A single error in software or hardware may cause significant consequences.
  • 12. What is the IoT Cloud? IoT cloud is an effective platform to store and collect Internet of Things data, designed by Salesforce.com. It collects data from various sources like devices, websites, applications, customers to prompt actions for the time responses.
  • 13. What are the commonly used protocols in IoT? Internet of things protocols can be divided into two basics type: 1. IoT Network Protocols 2. IoT Data Protocols Primarily used IoT Protocols are as follows: 1. Bluetooth 2. WiFi 3. ZigBee 4. MQTT 5. CoAP 6. DDS 7. NFS 8. Cellular
  • 14. IoT Functional Blocks An IoT system comprises of a number of functional blocks that provide the system the capabilities for identification, sensing, actuation, communication and management. functional blocks are:  Device: An IoT system comprises of devices that provide sensing, actuation, monitoring and control functions.  Communication: Handles the communication for the IoT system.  Services: services for device monitoring, device control service, data publishing services and services for device discovery.  Management: this blocks provides various functions to govern the IoT system.  Security: this block secures the IoT system and by providing functions such as authentication , authorization, message and content integrity, and data security.  Application: This is an interface that the users can use to control and monitor various aspects of the IoT system. Application also allow users to view the system status and view or analyze the processed data.
  • 15. IoT Communication Models  Request-Response Model  Publish-Subscribe Model  Push-Pull Model  Exclusive Pair Model