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IN PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE AND QUALITY IN SHIP BUILDING
STATION: G.R.S.E (MAIN UNIT)
NAME: VISHAL DEBNATH
STREAM: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
COLLEGE: BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTION
I
VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to thank G.R.S.E and its management for giving me the opportunity
to undergo vocational training at G.R.S.E (Main Unit), particularly, Mr. Arunava
Das Adhikary, my Training Officer who has been my guide and has helped me
with understanding all the processes and operations which I needed to know.
I had my training from 10th
June, 2015 to 6th
August, 2015 in Garden Reach
Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd (GRSE). During my training I visited Plate
Preparation Shop, Ship Building Shop, and Modern Hull Shop etc. I am grateful
to Mr. S Naskar, Mr. M Basak, Mr. D K Prasad, Mr. S K Dutta, and Mr. S Das.
My sincere thanks Mr. S K Daw (AGM, MS, MAIN), Mr. K C Rai (Dy. Mgr. Dock
dept.), and Mr. V.R.S Sunil (mgr. Pipe shop) who guided me to their concerned
shop and to all other helping bodies for their valuable guidance, direction ant
intent supervision at every stage of my work.
VISHAL DEBNATH
ROLL NO. 10, 4TH
YEAR
DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTION (WBUT)
TABLE OF CONTENT
SL. NO. SHOP NAME PAGE NO.
1. SAFETY SHOP 1 – 6
2. PLATE PREPARATION SHOP 7 – 14
3. SHIP BUILDING SHOP 15 – 20
4. MODERN HULL SHOP 21 – 25
5. MAINTENANCE SHOP 26 – 30
6. UTILITY SHOP 31 – 35
7. ICER SHOP 36 – 40
8. PIPE SHOP 41 – 46
9. MACHINE SHOP 47 – 52
10. PAINT SHOP 53 – 57
11. QUALITY ASSURANCE SHOP 58 – 60
12. FIRE FIGHTING DEPT. 61 – 65
13. DOCK DEPT. 66 – 71
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
OBJECTIVE
 To develop safety consciousness among employees and
to ensure safe and healthy work environment.
 To be educated and ensure compliance and
implementation of statutory provisions and rules.
 To ensure the procedures and standards laid down for
safe working environment towards self and others.
 To make all concerned aware of their individual
responsibility to take responsible care for their own
health and adopt safety awareness for reduction of
accidents.
 To ensure co-operation and suggestions from any
employees toward matter of safety
 All suggestions towards improvement of Safety, Health
& Environment is a continuous process and shall be
considered for implementation.
PRECAUTION WHILE WORKING AT HEIGHTS
1. Defective wooden planks (weak, rotten, cracked, split, bent) should never
be used on staging. Staging plank should be checked thoroughly and
defective planks should be replaced prior to start of work.
2. Personnel while erecting staging must wear safety belts, when they have to
work on locations above ground level.
3. Flat tread ladders, connected with staging, for having access to the staging
platform and should be placed at an angle of 75 degree to the horizontal.
4. Work should not be done standing on the stage while storm / rains.
5. While working on fragile roofs, ladders safety nets should be provided for
arresting fall of the person from the roof.
6. For situations where normal arrangements for working on heights can’t be
provided (e.g. window cleaning , painting of roof structures etc.) , workers
should wear safety belts with life lines anchored to fixed structures.
7. The staging planks should be so arranged that there is no gap between
them.
HOT WORK SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1. No hot work to be undertaken on-board ships without written clearance
from concerned officer.
2. Adequate ventilation is to be arranged, which should continue throughout
the hot work period.
3. Paint shop should monitor and declare safe zone after painting. As wet
paint is highly flammable.
4. Gas lines not to be entangled with electrical cables.
5. Damaged welding cables to be replaced immediately since they are the
potential source of short circuit and fire hazard.
SAFETY ASPECTS OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
1. To check whether the circuit is alive or not, do not touch with bare fingers or hand.
2. Place warning board like “MEN WORKING – DO NOT TAMPER” on main switch before
commencing working.
3. Do not disconnect or connect a plug by pulling the cable or when the switch is on.
4. All portable appliances should be provided with 3- pin plug.
 440/220/110 volts supply
should be provided with
distinguishing marks.
 Hand lamp with max 110V to
be used on board the ships.
SAFETY GUILDLINES FOR WELDING
1. Never change electrodes with bare hands (or) wet gloves, (or)
standing on wet floors.
2. Ensure welding machines are properly earthed.
 Cables to of minimum joints with proper cable joint @machine
identification at holder end.
 Damaged welding cables should be replaced immediately as it is
the source of short circuit and fire hazard.
 During rainy season welders should not use damaged hand
gloves and safety shoes.
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQIPMENT
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
PLATE PREPARATION SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
Plate Preparation Shop
A shipyard consists of a large number of shops in which various processes of
building of any ship are carried out. Plate Preparation Shop is one of them, where
plate is straightened, shot-blasted, painted and cut into various desired shapes
and sizes as per requirement & send to the vendors for fabrications. After it is
being fabricated (block) processed materials are being delivered to the GRSE ship
yard.
The machines that are being used in the Plate Preparation Shop are-
1. CNC – Plasma Cutting Machine.
2. CNC – Oxy Cutting Machine.
3. Hydraulic shearing Machine.
4. (a) Strengthening Machine.
(b) Short Blasting Machine.
(c) Painting Machine.
There are mainly three types of plate that are being processed in shop.
Types of
plates
Carbon
Percentage
Strength Longevity
DMR-249 A grade
MS steel plates
Low High High
IS-2062 grade MS
steel plates
High Low Low
Aluminum
plates - Medium High
Now the two main classes of ships for which the plates are being prepared are:-
1. Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvette (ASWC)
For ex: YD: 3017, YD: 3018, YD: 3019
2. Landing Craft Utility (LCU)
For ex: YD: 2092, YD: 2093, YD: 2094, YD: 2095, YD: 2096
3. Water Jet Fast Attacker Craft (WJFAC)
For ex: YD: 2109, YD: 2110, YD: 2111
The uses of the machines are described as follows;
1. CNC – Plasma Cutting Machine
 The machine here used is being made by the company named as
HYPERTHERM (series HT 2000). The word CNC here stands for Computer
Numerical Control programs. The design of the plate cutting which is done
through the software AUTO CAD, that design is being transformed into a
CNC program. This program is then sent to the plasma cutting machine
through wireless communication (CISCO-WAP 54G Switch).
 The machine has two sub divisions mainly. They are the one number of
cutter and as well as one number of marker for each set. There are two sets
only for a machine. All are controlled by power thermistor and feedback
path via Master controller.
 The plasma machine is being processed to make block, skid, flat bar types
of materials.
 The plate thickness that is being maintained for cutting is in between 3.0
MM to 12.0 MM.
2. CNC – Oxy Cutting Machine
 Same as Plasma cutting machine CNC here stands for Computer
Numerical Control programs. The design of the plate cutting which is
done through the software AUTO CAD, that design is being transformed
into a CNC program. This program is then sent to the Oxy cutting
machine through wireless communication.
 Here both Oxygen and Acetylene is being used under certain pressure to
cut plates.
 Material which are being processed or made like blocks, flat bars, flange,
PAD etc.
 The plate thickness that is being offered through, maintains a range in
between 7 millimeter to 130 millimeter.
 Flange is a special type of processed material which is used in ship.
Processed material having thickness of 15 mm to 130 mm. The materials
are being sent to the machine shop for machining work as per the
requirement.
3. Hydraulic Shearing Machine
 This is a manual control machine where cutting teeth/ blades upper
portion only moves up and down and lower portion is fixed.
 There are total six blades in this machine.
 Among the six blades the guard distance could be maintained manually for
upper portion only as per the requirement.
 Flat bar and sheet materials are being processed with the help of this
manual controlled distance.
 The plate thickness that is being processed through it lies in between 3
millimeter to 12 millimeter.
4. (a) Strengthening Machine
The DMR or IS steel plates or aluminum plates may not be
straight. There may be some up and down in the plates but that tolerance is being
removed by the strengthening machine. When the plates become perpendicular
and straight fully.
(b) Shot Blasting Machine
This is actually the process after the
strengthening process with a continuous run of program. After the plates are
being made perpendicular and straight, it might be corrosive in nature or it
may have rust on it. To remove this rust or corrosiveness the plates are then
processed through shot blasting machines where steel shot are used. After the
process full corrosiveness is being removed.
(c) Spray- Painting Machine
After removing the corrosiveness, the plate are
being painted in the spray-painting machine. It is a quick and easier technique
to paint than the manual painting. There are two number of pointed guns up
and down portion which are moves horizontally so that all parts of both side of
the material must be painted. The pointed guns sprays paint at a constant
speed to cover all areas of it. It is a very important process ofcourse.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
SHIP BUILDING SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
Ship Building Shop
Ships Nomenclature:-
1. Bitts – Strong iron post on ship’s deck for working or fastening lines; almost
invariably in pairs.
2. Bulkhead – One of the vertical wall-like structure enclosing a compartment.
3. Brig – Prison aboard ship or on shore.
4. Bollard – Wooden or iron post on pier or wharf to which mooring lines are
secured.
5. Cleat – A small deck fitting of metal with horns used for securing lines.
6. Deck – Aboard ship, it corresponds to a floor.
7. Compartment – Corresponds to a room in a building.
8. Overhead – Aboard ship, it corresponds to a ceiling of a building.
9. Head – Compartment of a ship having toilet facilities.
10. Superstructure – All equipments or fittings extending above the hull except
armaments.
11. Mast – Upright spar supporting signal yard and antennas in a naval ship.
12. Wardroom – Officer’s mess and lounge room aboard ship.
13. Yardarm – A spar attached to a mast and running athwart ship.
14. Rudder – Flat, vertical, movable, structure attached to the stern used for
steering the ship.
15. Lazarette – A storage compartment at the stern below deck.
16. Galley – The ship’s kitchen.
17. Cabin – The Captain’s living quarter.
18. Quarters – Living space, assembly of the new.
Ships are large, complex vehicles which must be self
sustaining in their environment for long periods with a high degree of reliability. A
ship is the product of three main areas of skill, those of the naval architect, the
navigating officer (deck officer) and the marine engineer (engineering officer). The
naval architect is concerned with the hull, its construction, form, habitability and
ability to endure its environment. The navigating officer is responsible for safe
navigation of the ship, and its cargo operations. The marine engineer is
responsible for the various systems which propel and operate the ship. More
specifically, this means the machinery required for propulsion, steering, anchoring
and ship securing, cargo handling, air conditioning, power generation and its
distribution.
There are two main parts of a ship: the hull and the
machinery. The hull is the actual shell of the ship including the superstructure.
The machinery includes not only the main engines
required to drive but also the auxiliary machinery (boilers, generators etc.) used
for maneuvering purposes, steering, mooring, cargo handling and for various
other services, e.g. the electrical installations, winches and refrigerating plant.
The rear portion of the ship is called after end or stern. When moving stern first,
the vessel is said to be moving astern. The front portion of the ship is called the
fore end, whilst the extreme forward end is called the bow. When moving bow
first, the vessel is said to be moving ahead. Fore and aft are generally used for
directional purposes. The area between the forward and aft portions of the vessel
is called amidships. The maximum breadth of the vessel, which is found in the
amidships body, is known as the beam.
Many modern cargo and passenger liners have a
transverse propulsion unit or bow thruster in the bows. Its purpose is to give
greater maneuverability in confined waters, e.g. ports, and so reduce or eliminate
the need for tugs. The rudder, which enables the vessel to maintain its course, is
situated right aft. The bulbous bow can improve passenger and crew comfort, as
it can reduce pitching in heavy seas and has been provided in tankers, bulk
carriers and modern cargo liners to increase speed when in ballast.
The modern tendency is to have large unobstructed
holes with mechanically operated hatch covers, both for the speedy handling of
cargo, and to reduce turn-round time to a minimum.
7 General arrangements plan- a bulk carrier. A
ship’s actual design and number of decks depend on the trade on which the ship
will ply. A tramp, carrying shipments of coal or core, will be a single desk vessel
with large unobstructed hatches to facilitate loading and discharge. A cargo liner
carrying a variety of cargo in relatively small consignments would have tween
desk to facilitate stowage. It such a vessel also conveyed wood and other
commodities of high stowage factor, a shelter deck would be provided.
Additionally, container ships are equipped with
specially designed holds with cells or slots to facilitate speedy container handling
using shore-based lifting gear.
Three principal types of machinery installation
are to be found at sea today. Their individual characteristics change with
technological advances and improvements and economic factors such as the
change in oil prices. The three layouts involve the ship’s propulsion machinery
using direct-coupled slow speed diesel engines (the main engine), medium speed
diesels with a gearbox, and the steam turbine with a gearbox drive to the
propeller.
A propeller, in order to operate efficiently, must
rotate at a relatively low speed. Thus, regardless of the rotational speed of the
prime mover, the propeller shaft must rotate at about 80 to 100 rev/min. the
slow-speed diesel engine rotates at this low speed and the crankshaft is thus
directly coupled to the propeller shafting. The medium speed diesel engine
operates in the range 250-750rev/min and cannot therefore be directly coupled
to the propeller shaft. A gearbox is used to provide a low-speed drive for the
propeller shaft. The steam turbine rotates at a very high speed, in the order of
6000rev/min. Again, a gearbox must be used to provide a low-speed drive for the
propeller shaft.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
MODERN HULL SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
MODERN HULL SHOP
This shop is almost similar to ship building shop having almost same space for
working. Although building of block is more frequently done here.
MAIN ACTIVITY-
Building and assembling of ship block.
Machine & Equipment used-
As this shop is similar to the ship building shop. However process of welding is more
frequently done here. So it is essential to describe the processes of welding done
here.
ADVANTAGES OF WELDED
JOINTS
DISADVANTAGES OF WELDED
JOINTS
 The welded structure is
normally lighter than
riveted or bolted
structures.
 It provided maximum
efficiency.
 A welded joint has a great
strength of the parent
metal itself.
 Since there is an uneven
heating and cooling during
fabrication, therefore the
members can be distorted
or additional stress may
develop.
 It requires highly skilled
labor and supervisor.
 No provision is there for
expansion or contraction in
frame, so holes may form.
MIG WELDING
MIG welding is an abbreviation for Metal Inert Gas Welding. It is a process considered semi-
automated. This means that the welder still requires skill, but that the MIG welding machine
will continuously keep filling the joint being welded.
MIG welders consist of a handle with a trigger controlling a wire feed, feeding the wire from a
spool to the weld joint. The wire is similar to an endless bicycle brake cable. The wire runs
through the liner, which also has a gas feeding through the same cable to the point of arc,
which protects the weld from the air.
GAS CUTTING
Oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, in
oxy-fuel cutting, a torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen
is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag
Oxy-fuel cutting may use a variety of fuel gases, the most common being acetylene. Other
fuel are-
1) Acetylene
2) Gasoline
3) Hydrogen
TUNGSTEN INERT GAS ARC WELDING (TIG)
In tungsten arc welding, the heat is produced from an arc between the non-consumable
tungsten electrodes and the work piece. The Welding zone is shielded by an atmosphere of
inert gas supplied from the suitable source. The gas nozzle surrounds the tungsten
electrode. When gas leaves the nozzle, it completely involves the tip of the electrode and
the work under it.
HULL BLOCK BUILDING METHODS
The basic component of ship building is steel plate. The plates are cut, shaped, bent or
otherwise manufactured to the desired configuration specified by the design .Typically the
plates are cut by an automatic flame cutting process to various shapes. These shapes may
be then welded together to form I and T beams and other structural member a hull is the
watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse,
where present. The line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline.
The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type. In a typical modern steel ship,
the structure consists of watertight and non-tight decks, major transverse and watertight (and
also sometimes non-tight or longitudinal) members called bulkheads, intermediate members
such as girders, stringers and webs, and minor members called ordinary transverse frames,
frames, or longitudinal, depending on the structural arrangement. The uppermost continuous
deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or simply
"deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the
arrangement, or even where it sails. Not all hulls are decked (for instance a dinghy).
In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by
transverse frames (often referred to as ribs) and bulkheads, which are further tied together
by longitudinal stringers or ceiling. Often but not always there is a centerline longitudinal
member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden
or steel vessels to some extent, or be of a monocoque arrangement. In many cases,
composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but
reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
MAINTENANCE SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
Maintenance Shop
`Maintenance’ means activities required or undertaken
to conserve as nearly, and as long as possible the original condition of an asset or
resource while compensating for normal wear and tear. Actually it includes a
group of actions, which are necessary for restoring a piece of equipment, machine
or system to the specified operable condition to achieve its maximum useful life.
In maintenance shop in GRSE, mainly overhead crane and
EOT (Electric Traveling Crane) are being checked for maintenance.
An overhead crane, commonly called a bridge crane, is a
type of crane found in industrial environments. An overhead crane consists of
parallel runways with a traveling bridge spanning the gap. A hoist, the lifting
component of a crane, travels along the bridge. If the bridge is rigidly supported
on two or more legs running on a fixed rail at ground level, the crane is called a
gantry crane or goliath crane.
Overhead cranes are commonly used in the refinement
of steel and other metals such as copper and aluminum. At every step of the
manufacturing process, until it leaves a factory as a finished product, metal is
handled by an overhead crane. Almost all paper mills use bridge cranes for regular
maintenance needing removal of heavy press rolls and other equipment.
EOT is most common type of overhead crane, found in
most factories. As obvious from name, these cranes are electrically by a control
pendant, radio/IR remote pendant or from an operator cabin attached with the
crane itself.
Maintenance can be divided in three parts:
1) Preventive Maintenance,
2) Predictive Maintenance,
3) Breakdown Maintenance.
1) Preventive Maintenance
It’s a daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and
re-tightening), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent
failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment
condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. Just like human life is extended by
preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing
preventive maintenance.
It is a time-based maintenance consists of periodically
inspecting, servicing, cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden
failure and process problems.
In this type of maintenance, mainly materials go through
lubrication process. It is also called oiling process for smoothing of machine’s
operation speed in work. As mentioned above, preventive maintenance is a
periodical job. It can be happen after one week or 15 days or one month
depending on the parts. Normally, it is done at Sunday. So, Sunday is not a holiday
for at least maintenance department of GRSE.
2) Predictive Maintenance
This is a method in which the service life of
important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the
parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance,
predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values,
by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance
system, designed to monitor conditions through an online system.
Workers can get signal from the machine by
which they can understand that there something wrong in the machine and it
have to go through predictive maintenance. The signals can be an abnormal
sound which is not suitable for perfect condition or it can be the sense of heat,
which will insist that may be the cooling system is not working properly or any
other disturbance occurs.
3) Breakdown Maintenance
Breakdown maintenance means that people waits
until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the
equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or
generate any significant loss other than repair cost.
So, it is the repairing process actually. And of
course, it is a very important type of maintenance. But, yes it is unfortunate that
when we have to do this that means the preventive and predictive maintenance
have not gone perfectly or an accident just occurs. But, then workers have to go
through the whole method and of course it is not a short process. A lot of time,
money and hard work will require.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
UTILITY SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS
Material handling is the art and science of conveying, elevating, positioning,
transporting, packing and storing of materials. Material handling equipment is
generally classified in four main categories: storage and handling equipment,
engineered systems, industrial trucks, bulk material handling.
PLATFORM TRUCK
HAND LIFT TRUCKS
These hand trucks are provides with a
mechanism of lifting its platform, which
can be rolled under the pallet or skid with
load to clear the ground and then move
the load from place to place. And have
hydraulic or mechanical lifting mechanism
with a fork for holding the load.
These hand trucks consists of
platform mounted on 4 wheels
and provided with handle for
pushing or pulling operation. A
platform truck or hand trolley cart
is an essential tool for moving
heavy boxes to and from the
mailroom, warehouse or receiving
area.
FIXED PLATFORM TRUCK
FORK LIFT TRUCKS
The forklift truck is used for, lifting lowering stacking, unstacking, loading and
unloading and maneuvering of medium to large weights. It has a low speed of
about 10kmph.
The body of the truck is purposely built heavy which act as a counter load while
lifting loads on fork.
Solid rubber tires are provided for operations in different floor conditions.
These are battery powered
industrial truck having a fixed
level, non-elevating platform for
carrying load. Materials to be
moved have to be loaded and
unloaded to and from the
platform by hand hoist and crane.
The capacity of truck in GRSE is 1
ton.
It is the most versatile, useful and
widely used industrial lifting truck.
These are self-loading,
counterbalanced, diesel powered,
wheeled vehicles, with operator
seating on the vehicle, designed to
raise, move and lower the load on
forks.
GOLIATH CRANE
 GRSE has one Goliath Crane of 250 Ton capacity covering the Module Hall.
 Goliath Gantry Crane provides enormous flexibility in hook configuration,
with up to 8 m hook traverse and 100% load unbalance and accuracy to a 4-
millimeter tolerance.
 The unique single-girder design of Goliath Gantry Cranes combines low
total weight and high rigidity.
 The goliath crane moves on rails supported on the floor levels instead of
rails placed at elevated levels as in case of EOT cranes. This eliminates the
need for workshop building and hence reduction in capital cost.
 Outdoor duty goliath cranes are also checked for stability under storm
conditions. Special storm anchors are provided to prevent toppling of crane
under storm condition.
ELECTRIC OVERHEAD CRANE
TRACTORS
An overhead crane, commonly
called a bridge crane, is a type of
crane found in industrial
environments. An overhead crane
consists of parallel runways with a
traveling bridge spanning the gap.
A hoist, the lifting component of a
crane, travels along the bridge.
Most of EOT in GRSE have max
load of 10 ton.
It is used a prime mover to
give motion to another or
group of vehicles e.g. trailers,
semitrailers, transfer cars etc.
A front-loader or loader is a
tractor with an engineering
tool which consists of two
hydraulic powered arms on
either side of the front engine
compartment and a tilting
implement
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
Internal Combustion Engine Repair
Shop
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
ICER SHOP
It deals with repair and proper functioning of Air compressor and
various DG Sets that are used for different operations in ships and in
different shops.
Air Compressor
DG SET
Air Compressor
In GRSE two types of air compressor are used
1. Engine operated Air Compressor
2. Battery operated Air Compressor
APPLICATIONS
 To supply High pressure clean air to fill gas cylinders.
 To produce large volume of moderate pressure air for large scale
industrial processes
 Machine cooling, use of air pressure in robots, removal of debris
from cutting processes (metal fragments, metal powder, etc.).
 Generation of starting air for marine diesel engines
COOLING
The different types of cooling system are used are:-
1. Air cooled
2. Water cooled
3. Oil cooled
Listed below are some of the common engine problems or troubles
and their possible causes
a)ENGINE does not starts
 Empty fuel tank.
 Fuel pump not working.
 Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached.
 Inappropriate, clogged, or faulty spark plugs
 Loose plug wires
 Broken ignition switch
 Faulty wiring and connection problems in the ignition system.
 Battery is undercharged.
 Ignition coil not functional.
 Fuel is old, dirty, or contaminated.
 Starter motor is not operational.
Possible causes: Engine stalls
 Fuel filter is clogged up
 Fuel is old, dirty, or contaminated
 Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached
 Closed fuel tank vent
 Inoperative, or clogged thermostat
 Wrong engine oil
 Spark plugs defective, wrong, plugged, or incorrect spark-plug
gap
 Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached
DG SET
A Diesel Generator (DG) is a combination of diesel engine with electrical
generator (often called an alternator) to generate electricity. DG sets are used in
places that have no connection to power grid, and as emergency power-supply if
the grid fails. In other words DGs remain the number one choice for standby and
emergency power systems. DGs are selected based on the electrical load they
are intended to supply.
 These can be water-cooled or air-cooled.
 Compact, sleek, manual/automatic
 Sound proof and weather proof enclosure.
 Specially designed sound attenuators are provided to control sound at air entry and exit
points inside the enclosure
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
PIPE SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
Pipe Shop
Pipe bending methods:
There are two types of pipe bending method.
1. Hot Bending-
In this type of bending one end of the pipe is packed with jute
and the pipe is then filled with sand called sand packing.
In sand packing sand is filled and pipe made vertical and
hammered to make tighter and as other end is jute packed sand doesn’t escape.
The bending is done as per template.
Big bore pipes (nominal volume above 80) are being bend by
hot bending process.
2. Cold Bending-
(a) Hydraulic Bending:
Pipes with more thickness are bend by this method. No
sand packing or Jute packing is required the pipes are bended by Hydraulic press
machine.
(b) Fabricate Bending:
Templates and layout are produced and pipes are
forged into them.
Small bore pipes like NV 15, NV 20, NV 25 (nominal
volume smaller than 100) are being bend by cold bending process.
Types of pipes:
1. Ms Pipe-
(a) Ms Black Pipe, always uses to supply oil.
(b) Ms Galvanizing Pipe, it is zinc coated ms pipe.
2. Copper-Nickel Pipe-
This pipe is always uses to supply fresh water only.
Valves which are directly exposures to water means
underwater walls will be done shop floor as a testing before on board treatment.
Tools used in Pipe shop:-
 Caliper
A caliper is a device used to measure the distance between two
opposite sides of an object. A caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward
or outward-facing points. The tips of the caliper are adjusted to fit across the
points to be measured, the caliper is then removed and the distance read by
measuring between the tips with a measuring tool, such as a ruler.
 Punch
In traditional typography, punch cutting is the craft of cutting
letter punches in steel from which matrices were made in copper for type
founding in the letterpress era. Cutting punches and casting type was the first
step of traditional typesetting. The cutting of letter punches was a highly skilled
craft requiring must patience and practice. Often the designer of the type would
not be personally involved in the cutting.
 Spirit Level
A spirit level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a
surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb). Different types of spirit level may
be used by carpenters, stonemasons, bricklayers, other building trade’s workers,
surveyors, millwrights, and other metalworkers, and in some photographic or
video graphic work.
Alcohol such as ethanol are often used rather than water.
Alcohols have low viscosity and surface tension, which allows the bubble to travel
the tube quickly and settle accurately with minimal interference with the glass
surface. Alcohols also have a much wider liquid temperature range, and would
not break the vial as water could due to ice expansion. A coolant may be added to
increase the visibility of the bubble.
 Pipe Wrench
The pipe wrench is an adjustable wrench used for
running soft iron pipes and fittings with a rounded surface. The design of the
adjustable jaw allows it to lock in the frame, such that any forward pressure on
the handle tends to pull the jaws tighter together. Teeth angled in the direction of
turn dig into the soft pipe. They are not intended for use on hardened steel hex
nuts or other fittings because they would ruin the head; however if a hex nut is
soft enough that it becomes rounded beyond use with standard wrenches, a pipe
wrench is sometimes used to break the bolt or nut free. Pipe wrenches are usually
sold in the following sizes: 10, 14, 18, 24, 36 and 48 inches, although smaller and
larger sizes are available as well. They are usually made of cast steel.
 Snips
Snips, also known as shears, are hand tools used to
cut sheet metal and other tough webs. There are two broad categories: tinner’s
ships, which are similar to common scissors, and compound-action snips, which
use a compound leverage handle system to increase the mechanical advantage.
PipeBending Machine
Cnc pipe bending machine is very important in pipe shop. It is require to
bend long iron pipes as requirements while, flanges are used to join two different
pipes in a single point. Flange are of three type generally as: Plane flange, Spigot
flange and conical flange. There are plushing method, which is actually a cleaning
process of pipe from oil. It takes time from 20 minutes to 3 hour.
Roller Pipe Bending Machine
Actually the pipe bending operation, pipe collaring
process and pipe branching operation is done properly at the FOJ unit of GRSE.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
MACHINE SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
MACHINE SHOP
A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended
action. Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or electrical means,
and are often motorized.
LATHE
Lathe is a machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis to perform various
operations such as cutting, knurling, drilling, or deformation, facing, turning, with tools that
are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of
rotation. The main component of Lathe are Head stock, Tail
stock,4 or 3 jaw chuck, carriage, cross slide, hand slide, gear box etc.
Different type of production Lathe is:-
1) Non automatic Lathe- Centre Lathe
2) Semi automatic Lathe- Capstan lathe, turret lathe, multiple lathe, copying(hydraulic)
lathe, relieving lathe
3) Automatic- automatic cutting off lathe, single-spindle automatic lathe, Swiss type
automatic lathe, multiple spindle automatic lathe
Fig-1
GRINDING MACHINE
A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or machine
tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting
tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip from the work piece via
shear deformation.
Grinding is used to finish work pieces that must show high surface quality (e.g., low
surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the accuracy in
dimensions in grinding is on the order of 0.000025 mm, in most applications it tends to be a
finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal, about 0.25 to 0.50 mm depth.
However, there are some roughing applications in which grinding removes high volumes of
metal quite rapidly. Thus, grinding is a diverse field.
A grinding depends upon the blade is to be used for and the material from which blade
is made. Knife manufacturers may offer the same model of knife with different grinds on the
blade and owners of a blade may choose to reshape it as a different grind to obtain different
blade property.
A grinding disc is made mainly of silicon carbide or artificial carborundum. The grinding disc
turns and removes material along its face or circumference.
BORING MACHINE
In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast),
by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools).
Boring Machine specified according to-
1) Type of the machine (Horizontal and vertical)
2) Maximum diameter of the boring bar which can be held by the machine
3) Maximum travel of the table in the longitudinal and cross direction.
4) Spindle speed available and feed available.
5) Maximum allowable weight of work piece.
6) Net weight of the machine.
HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE
A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a
horizontal direction. . There are three main types — table, planer and floor. The table type is
the most common and, as it is the most versatile, it is also known as the universal type.
A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table.
Typically there are 3 linear axes in which the tool head and part move. Convention dictates
that the main axis that drives the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis, with a cross
traversing X axis and a vertically traversing Y axis. The work spindle is referred to as the C
axis and, if a rotary table is incorporated, its centre line is the B axis
.
VERTICAL BORING MACHINE
Vertical boring is a machining process whereby a part to be machined is clamped to a bed
and a machining tool is rotated to produce some cylindrical, internal feature in the work
piece. The cylindrical surface to be produced is oriented in the vertical direction and the tool
is typically fed down into the work piece.
Many vertical boring operations can be performed by a conventional mill and boring
attachment, so in general vertical boring machines are used to machine large castings and
blocks of metal too heavy for a regular mill.
One of the advantages of carrying out the boring operation in the vertical position is the ease
of clearing cuttings from around the cutting tool. Another key advantage is that the need for a
large amount of power to rotate a very large block of steel and the associated dangers are
avoided.
Another variation on the vertical borer is the vertical lathe. With this type of machine, the
work piece is rotated instead of the cutting tool, but the general operation and application is
similar but the application is for smaller, lighter work pieces.
Typical applications for vertical boring are:
1) Line boring of large machine tool casings and engine blocks.
2) Machining internal bearing diameters in large castings.
3) Finish machining of cylindrical surfaces on very large work pieces.
FLOOR TYPE BORING MACHINE
Floor type boring machine uses a stationary T-slotted floor plate instead of moving table for
supporting the work piece, horizontal transverse, perpendicular to the spindle axis, is
obtained by moving the column in guide ways. Floor type boring machine are employed for
machining very large work piece.
PLANO MILLING MACHINE
Plano milling is widely used in industries for precise shaping of metals & various solid
material. These entire machine are ideal for various processes such as slot cutting, routing,
welding & turning in metallurgy industry. We make the range of machines available to the
client in various configurations as per their application requirement.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
PAINT SHOP
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
Paint Shop
Paint shop is a very important department in any industry.
Because, it takes care about the looks of the parts and also looks after problems
of safety hazzards with those materials.
In paint shop, mainly three types of work or
operation is done by the workers, which are as follows:
1) Surface Preparation Process
2) Powder Coating Process
3) Spray-Painting Process
1) Surface Preparation Process
It is also named as polishing method. It is done actually
for removing of unwanted scratches or junks. The material have to take an
amount of heat firstly, then they will go through some acid and after that have to
polish by costic soda.
Surface preparation is the essential first stage treatment
of a steel substrate before the application of coating, and is generally accepted as
being the most important factor affecting the total success of a corrosion
protective system. The surface preparation process not only cleans the steel, but
also introduces a suitable profile to receive the protective coating.
2) Powder Coating Process
Surface coating by means of spray of powder is a dry
finishing process that has become extremely popular since its introduction in
North America over 40 years ago. More and more companies specify powder
coatings for a high-quality, durable finish, allowing for maximized production,
improved efficiencies, and simplified environmental compliance.
Powder coating are based on polymer resin systems,
combined with curatives, pigments, leveling agents, flow modifiers and other
additives. These ingredients are melt mixed, cooled and ground into a uniform
powder similar to baking flour. A process called electrostatic spray deposition is
typically used to achieve the application of the powder to the metal substrate.
After application of the powder coating, the parts
enter a curing oven where, with the addition of heat, the coating chemically
reacts to produce long molecular chains, resulting in high cross-link density. These
molecular chains are very resistant to breakdown. This type of application is the
most common method of applying powders.
3) Spray Painting Process
It is a technique where a device sprays a
coating (paint, ink, varnish etc) onto the surface.
In electrostatic spray painting, the atomized
particles are made to be electrically charged, thereby repelling each other and
spreading themselves evenly as they exit the spray nozzle. The object being
painted is charged oppositely or grounded. The paint is then attracted to the
object giving a more even coat than wet spray painting and also greatly increasing
the percentage of paint that stick to the object.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
Quality Assurance Shop
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
QUALITY ASSURANCE SHOP
The function of the QA department is following:
1. Hull inspection
2. Machinery inspection
3. Plumbing inspection
4. Electrical inspection
Standards Used for inspection:
1. NES 147 standard
2. ABS standard (American bureau of shipping)
3. IRS STANDARD (Indian register of shipping)
Parameters for skid inspections:
1. Distance between props
2. Height of props
3. Length of skid
4. Width of skid
5. Diagonal check of skid.
Leak inspection of components of ships:
1. Water pressure test
2. Air pressure tests
3. Hose test
DRY SURVEY AND CORRESPONDING TESTS
DRY SURVEY OF UNITS/COMPTS/TANKS
Dry survey checks is carried out for completion of units/ compartments / tanks
prior to commencement of installation work.
All the items indicated in the drawing are checked for their location and size as
per the drawing. Report will be made if found satisfactory in relevant format.
HOSE TESTING
CHALK IMPRESSION TEST
Hose testing for welding of the
seats for fitting to the hull (such
as ICCP anodes, ‘A’ brackets,
Echo sounders, logs, stabilizers
etc.) and checked for leakage
Checks for item having
rubber gaskets to close the
opening for water tightness
or air tightness like doors and
hatches, emergency escapes,
cold room. It is carried out
before hose testing.
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
Fire Fighting Department
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
FIRE EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN
1) Officer in charge(As Nominated)
2) (Nominated officer) would act as nodal officers during emergency in their
respective disciplines.
3) Personal noticing fire or smoke within the ship is to inform bridge by
telephone indicating location of fire.
4) Bridge will give orders through main broadcast for firefighting party to
muster at near fire post & proceed with equipment to the location of the
fire.
5) Personnel closed up at the location are to remain at their watch stations to
avoid overcrowding at firefighting zone.
6) Pressure on the fire mains is to be maintained at 7 kg/cm² 24*7.
7) All ventilations in the vicinity of the fire should be stopped/ switched off.
8) Two personnel will form fire patrol in all shifts.
ALARM IN CASE OF FIRE EMERGENCIES IN UNIT
In Case Of Fire Or
Explosion
Siren / Hooter blast for 10 secs on, then 5
secs off
This cycle for 3 min time.
All Clear Signal Continuous Siren / Hooter blast for 3 min
period.
PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF FACTORY FIRE
1. Gas cutting / welding or Arc welding fire.
2. Electrical equipment – Short circuit/ Overheating/ Sparking.
3. Fuel oil / lubricant / hydraulic oil / inflammable gas related
equipment like pumps, compressor etc. – accidental surge heating
4. Naked light in restricted zones.
5. Carelessness / ignorance or deliberate infraction of rules such as
unauthorized heaters in shops / dept. for cooking / tea making.
6. Arson.
TYPES OF FIRE
Fire can be classified under the following categories:-
1) Class “A” fire: ordinary combustible solid material like wood,
cloth, paper etc.
Extinguishing media: water jet or spray, soda acid
extinguishers and water extinguishers.
2) Class “B” fire: inflammable liquids like kerosene, petrol and
paint varnish, all liquid petroleum products.
Extinguishing medium: foam type extinguisher and dry
chemical powder extinguisher but both not be used at a same
fire.
3) Class “C” fire: Combustible gaseous substance under pressure
like LPG, Acetylene, hydrogen.
Extinguishing media: Dry chemical powder and CO²
extinguisher.
4) Class “D” fire: combustible metal like magnesium, calcium,
aluminum.
Extinguishing media: Special type dry chemical powder.
FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE
1) Cut off power and gas supplies to all machines/ other utilities.
2) To inform the fire fighter when he arrives.
3) To apply first aid, potable extinguisher on the fire spot according
to class of fire.
TABLE FOR USE OF EXTINGUISHER ON CLASS OF FIRE
EXTINGUISHERS CLASS “A” CLASS “B” CLASS “C” CLASS “D”
Soda Acid S US US US
Water type S US US US
Foam S S US US
DCP(BC) US S S US
DCP(ABC) S S S US
Carbon- Dioxide US S S US
US- Unsuitable; S- Suitable ; DCP- Dry chemical powder;
Garden Reach
Shipbuilders &
Engineering Ltd
DOCK DEPARTMENT
Vishal Debnath
BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
DOCK DEPARTMENT
DOCKING
If ship come to the ground from water then it is known as docking.
UNDOCKING
If ship come to water from ground then it is known as Undocking.
NOTE- If ship come to the water first time then it is known as launching.
If the ship is going to water from ground or vice versa, then it should be kept in mind that, a
ship does not steer like a car, it pivots on its axis. So every step should be in scientifically
approach, so that heavy impact on the ship doesn’t harm.
DRY DOCK-
A dry dock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in,
then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform. Dry docks are used for the
construction, maintenance, and repair of ships.
The classic form of dry dock, properly known as graving dock, is a narrow basin, usually
made of earthen berms and concrete, closed by gates or by a caisson, into which a vessel
may be floated and the water pumped out, leaving the vessel supported on blocks.
To launch ship from dry dock, first valves are opened, the chambers fill with water, causing
the dry dock to float lower in the water, and then it is slowly pull into the water with the help
of small boat.
INCLINED BERTH
A berth, somewhat inclined plane on the land, where ship is being built and set out to the
water. During launching, first wax and grease is applied on the wooden rail of about 8 mm
thickness at the bottom portion of the ship hull, then valves are opened through which water
fill the chamber. After, it is slowly allowed to come inside the water.
SIGNALING SYSTEM OF SHIP
The system of international maritime signal flags is one system of flag signals representing
individual letters of the alphabet (A-Z) and the letter from 0-9 in signals to or from ships. It is
a component of the International Code of Signals (ICS).
DOCKING EQUIPMENT
CAPSTAN
Capstan is a mechanical device used chiefly on board ships or in shipyards for moving
heavy weights by means of ropes, cables, or chain A capstan consists of a drum, driven
either manually or by steam or electricity, that rotates about a vertical axis to wind in a line
(rope, cable, or chain) that has been wrapped around it.The grip between the line and the
drum depends on friction and on the number of times the line is wrapped around the drum.
Speed of drawing in the load can be controlled by allowing partial slippage of the line around
the capstan. A notched track (ratchet) on the base plate and pawls attached to the drum
prevent backward motion.
WINCH
A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind out) or
otherwise adjust the "tension" of a rope or wire rope (also called "cable" or "wire cable"). In
its simplest form it consists of a spool and attached hand crank. In larger forms, winches
stand at the heart of machines as diverse as tow trucks, steam shovels and elevators. The
spool can also be called the winch drum. More elaborate designs have gear assemblies and
can be powered by electric, hydraulic, pneumatic or internal combustion drives. Some may
include a solenoid brake and/or a mechanical brake or ratchet and pawl device that prevents
it from unwinding unless the pawl is retracted.
BOLLARD
A bollard is a short vertical post. Originally it meant a post used on a ship or a quay,
principally for mooring. The word now also describes a variety of structures to control or
direct road traffic, such as posts arranged in a line to obstruct the passage of motor vehicles.
The term can also be used to describe short, post-like light fixtures.
PANAMAX
Panamax ships are travelling through the Panama Canal. They strictly follow the size
regulations set by the Panama Canal Authority, as the entry and exit points of the Canal are
narrow. A Panamax vessel can't be longer than 294,13 m (965 ft), wider than 32,31 m (106
ft) and her draught can't be more than 12,04 m (39.5 ft). These vessels have an average
capacity of 65,000 DWT, and are primarily used in transporting coal, crude oil and petroleum
products.
SUAZEMAX
Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ship measurements capable of
transiting the Suez Canal in a laden condition, and is almost exclusively used in reference to
tankers.
CONCLUSION
During my training in G.R.S.E I learnt the processes and functions of different
shops in building a ship.
1. The metal sheet required are brought from SAIL.
2. The sheets are then collected in SSY(Steel Stock Yard)
3. The sheets are then taken to plate preparation shop where sheets are
prepared to the required dimensions.
4. The prepared plates are then transferred to SBS (Ship Building Shop) And
MHS (Modern Hull Shop) where the plates are welded and then formed
to a block which is fabricated in this shop.
5. After a block preparation the block are sent to yards where they are
erected and welded to other blocks.
6. By this process block are welded one after another and it forms the
structure of the ship.

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Grse project vishal

  • 1. IN PURSUIT OF EXCELLENCE AND QUALITY IN SHIP BUILDING STATION: G.R.S.E (MAIN UNIT) NAME: VISHAL DEBNATH STREAM: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING COLLEGE: BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTION I VOCATIONAL TRAINING REPORT
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank G.R.S.E and its management for giving me the opportunity to undergo vocational training at G.R.S.E (Main Unit), particularly, Mr. Arunava Das Adhikary, my Training Officer who has been my guide and has helped me with understanding all the processes and operations which I needed to know. I had my training from 10th June, 2015 to 6th August, 2015 in Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineers Ltd (GRSE). During my training I visited Plate Preparation Shop, Ship Building Shop, and Modern Hull Shop etc. I am grateful to Mr. S Naskar, Mr. M Basak, Mr. D K Prasad, Mr. S K Dutta, and Mr. S Das. My sincere thanks Mr. S K Daw (AGM, MS, MAIN), Mr. K C Rai (Dy. Mgr. Dock dept.), and Mr. V.R.S Sunil (mgr. Pipe shop) who guided me to their concerned shop and to all other helping bodies for their valuable guidance, direction ant intent supervision at every stage of my work. VISHAL DEBNATH ROLL NO. 10, 4TH YEAR DEPT. OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTION (WBUT)
  • 3. TABLE OF CONTENT SL. NO. SHOP NAME PAGE NO. 1. SAFETY SHOP 1 – 6 2. PLATE PREPARATION SHOP 7 – 14 3. SHIP BUILDING SHOP 15 – 20 4. MODERN HULL SHOP 21 – 25 5. MAINTENANCE SHOP 26 – 30 6. UTILITY SHOP 31 – 35 7. ICER SHOP 36 – 40 8. PIPE SHOP 41 – 46 9. MACHINE SHOP 47 – 52 10. PAINT SHOP 53 – 57 11. QUALITY ASSURANCE SHOP 58 – 60 12. FIRE FIGHTING DEPT. 61 – 65 13. DOCK DEPT. 66 – 71
  • 4. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd SAFETY PRECAUTIONS Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 5. OBJECTIVE  To develop safety consciousness among employees and to ensure safe and healthy work environment.  To be educated and ensure compliance and implementation of statutory provisions and rules.  To ensure the procedures and standards laid down for safe working environment towards self and others.  To make all concerned aware of their individual responsibility to take responsible care for their own health and adopt safety awareness for reduction of accidents.  To ensure co-operation and suggestions from any employees toward matter of safety  All suggestions towards improvement of Safety, Health & Environment is a continuous process and shall be considered for implementation.
  • 6. PRECAUTION WHILE WORKING AT HEIGHTS 1. Defective wooden planks (weak, rotten, cracked, split, bent) should never be used on staging. Staging plank should be checked thoroughly and defective planks should be replaced prior to start of work. 2. Personnel while erecting staging must wear safety belts, when they have to work on locations above ground level. 3. Flat tread ladders, connected with staging, for having access to the staging platform and should be placed at an angle of 75 degree to the horizontal. 4. Work should not be done standing on the stage while storm / rains. 5. While working on fragile roofs, ladders safety nets should be provided for arresting fall of the person from the roof. 6. For situations where normal arrangements for working on heights can’t be provided (e.g. window cleaning , painting of roof structures etc.) , workers should wear safety belts with life lines anchored to fixed structures. 7. The staging planks should be so arranged that there is no gap between them. HOT WORK SAFETY PRECAUTIONS 1. No hot work to be undertaken on-board ships without written clearance from concerned officer. 2. Adequate ventilation is to be arranged, which should continue throughout the hot work period. 3. Paint shop should monitor and declare safe zone after painting. As wet paint is highly flammable. 4. Gas lines not to be entangled with electrical cables. 5. Damaged welding cables to be replaced immediately since they are the potential source of short circuit and fire hazard. SAFETY ASPECTS OF ELECTRICAL INSTALLATION
  • 7. 1. To check whether the circuit is alive or not, do not touch with bare fingers or hand. 2. Place warning board like “MEN WORKING – DO NOT TAMPER” on main switch before commencing working. 3. Do not disconnect or connect a plug by pulling the cable or when the switch is on. 4. All portable appliances should be provided with 3- pin plug.  440/220/110 volts supply should be provided with distinguishing marks.  Hand lamp with max 110V to be used on board the ships.
  • 8. SAFETY GUILDLINES FOR WELDING 1. Never change electrodes with bare hands (or) wet gloves, (or) standing on wet floors. 2. Ensure welding machines are properly earthed.  Cables to of minimum joints with proper cable joint @machine identification at holder end.  Damaged welding cables should be replaced immediately as it is the source of short circuit and fire hazard.  During rainy season welders should not use damaged hand gloves and safety shoes.
  • 10. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd PLATE PREPARATION SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 11. Plate Preparation Shop A shipyard consists of a large number of shops in which various processes of building of any ship are carried out. Plate Preparation Shop is one of them, where plate is straightened, shot-blasted, painted and cut into various desired shapes and sizes as per requirement & send to the vendors for fabrications. After it is being fabricated (block) processed materials are being delivered to the GRSE ship yard. The machines that are being used in the Plate Preparation Shop are- 1. CNC – Plasma Cutting Machine. 2. CNC – Oxy Cutting Machine. 3. Hydraulic shearing Machine. 4. (a) Strengthening Machine. (b) Short Blasting Machine. (c) Painting Machine.
  • 12. There are mainly three types of plate that are being processed in shop. Types of plates Carbon Percentage Strength Longevity DMR-249 A grade MS steel plates Low High High IS-2062 grade MS steel plates High Low Low Aluminum plates - Medium High Now the two main classes of ships for which the plates are being prepared are:- 1. Anti-Submarine Warfare Corvette (ASWC) For ex: YD: 3017, YD: 3018, YD: 3019 2. Landing Craft Utility (LCU) For ex: YD: 2092, YD: 2093, YD: 2094, YD: 2095, YD: 2096 3. Water Jet Fast Attacker Craft (WJFAC) For ex: YD: 2109, YD: 2110, YD: 2111
  • 13. The uses of the machines are described as follows; 1. CNC – Plasma Cutting Machine  The machine here used is being made by the company named as HYPERTHERM (series HT 2000). The word CNC here stands for Computer Numerical Control programs. The design of the plate cutting which is done through the software AUTO CAD, that design is being transformed into a CNC program. This program is then sent to the plasma cutting machine through wireless communication (CISCO-WAP 54G Switch).  The machine has two sub divisions mainly. They are the one number of cutter and as well as one number of marker for each set. There are two sets only for a machine. All are controlled by power thermistor and feedback path via Master controller.
  • 14.  The plasma machine is being processed to make block, skid, flat bar types of materials.  The plate thickness that is being maintained for cutting is in between 3.0 MM to 12.0 MM. 2. CNC – Oxy Cutting Machine  Same as Plasma cutting machine CNC here stands for Computer Numerical Control programs. The design of the plate cutting which is done through the software AUTO CAD, that design is being transformed into a CNC program. This program is then sent to the Oxy cutting machine through wireless communication.
  • 15.  Here both Oxygen and Acetylene is being used under certain pressure to cut plates.  Material which are being processed or made like blocks, flat bars, flange, PAD etc.  The plate thickness that is being offered through, maintains a range in between 7 millimeter to 130 millimeter.  Flange is a special type of processed material which is used in ship. Processed material having thickness of 15 mm to 130 mm. The materials are being sent to the machine shop for machining work as per the requirement. 3. Hydraulic Shearing Machine  This is a manual control machine where cutting teeth/ blades upper portion only moves up and down and lower portion is fixed.  There are total six blades in this machine.
  • 16.  Among the six blades the guard distance could be maintained manually for upper portion only as per the requirement.  Flat bar and sheet materials are being processed with the help of this manual controlled distance.  The plate thickness that is being processed through it lies in between 3 millimeter to 12 millimeter. 4. (a) Strengthening Machine The DMR or IS steel plates or aluminum plates may not be straight. There may be some up and down in the plates but that tolerance is being removed by the strengthening machine. When the plates become perpendicular and straight fully.
  • 17. (b) Shot Blasting Machine This is actually the process after the strengthening process with a continuous run of program. After the plates are being made perpendicular and straight, it might be corrosive in nature or it may have rust on it. To remove this rust or corrosiveness the plates are then processed through shot blasting machines where steel shot are used. After the process full corrosiveness is being removed.
  • 18. (c) Spray- Painting Machine After removing the corrosiveness, the plate are being painted in the spray-painting machine. It is a quick and easier technique to paint than the manual painting. There are two number of pointed guns up and down portion which are moves horizontally so that all parts of both side of the material must be painted. The pointed guns sprays paint at a constant speed to cover all areas of it. It is a very important process ofcourse.
  • 19. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd SHIP BUILDING SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 20. Ship Building Shop Ships Nomenclature:- 1. Bitts – Strong iron post on ship’s deck for working or fastening lines; almost invariably in pairs. 2. Bulkhead – One of the vertical wall-like structure enclosing a compartment. 3. Brig – Prison aboard ship or on shore. 4. Bollard – Wooden or iron post on pier or wharf to which mooring lines are secured. 5. Cleat – A small deck fitting of metal with horns used for securing lines. 6. Deck – Aboard ship, it corresponds to a floor. 7. Compartment – Corresponds to a room in a building. 8. Overhead – Aboard ship, it corresponds to a ceiling of a building. 9. Head – Compartment of a ship having toilet facilities.
  • 21. 10. Superstructure – All equipments or fittings extending above the hull except armaments. 11. Mast – Upright spar supporting signal yard and antennas in a naval ship. 12. Wardroom – Officer’s mess and lounge room aboard ship. 13. Yardarm – A spar attached to a mast and running athwart ship. 14. Rudder – Flat, vertical, movable, structure attached to the stern used for steering the ship. 15. Lazarette – A storage compartment at the stern below deck. 16. Galley – The ship’s kitchen. 17. Cabin – The Captain’s living quarter. 18. Quarters – Living space, assembly of the new.
  • 22. Ships are large, complex vehicles which must be self sustaining in their environment for long periods with a high degree of reliability. A ship is the product of three main areas of skill, those of the naval architect, the navigating officer (deck officer) and the marine engineer (engineering officer). The naval architect is concerned with the hull, its construction, form, habitability and ability to endure its environment. The navigating officer is responsible for safe navigation of the ship, and its cargo operations. The marine engineer is responsible for the various systems which propel and operate the ship. More specifically, this means the machinery required for propulsion, steering, anchoring and ship securing, cargo handling, air conditioning, power generation and its distribution. There are two main parts of a ship: the hull and the machinery. The hull is the actual shell of the ship including the superstructure. The machinery includes not only the main engines required to drive but also the auxiliary machinery (boilers, generators etc.) used for maneuvering purposes, steering, mooring, cargo handling and for various other services, e.g. the electrical installations, winches and refrigerating plant. The rear portion of the ship is called after end or stern. When moving stern first, the vessel is said to be moving astern. The front portion of the ship is called the fore end, whilst the extreme forward end is called the bow. When moving bow first, the vessel is said to be moving ahead. Fore and aft are generally used for directional purposes. The area between the forward and aft portions of the vessel is called amidships. The maximum breadth of the vessel, which is found in the amidships body, is known as the beam. Many modern cargo and passenger liners have a transverse propulsion unit or bow thruster in the bows. Its purpose is to give greater maneuverability in confined waters, e.g. ports, and so reduce or eliminate the need for tugs. The rudder, which enables the vessel to maintain its course, is situated right aft. The bulbous bow can improve passenger and crew comfort, as it can reduce pitching in heavy seas and has been provided in tankers, bulk carriers and modern cargo liners to increase speed when in ballast.
  • 23. The modern tendency is to have large unobstructed holes with mechanically operated hatch covers, both for the speedy handling of cargo, and to reduce turn-round time to a minimum. 7 General arrangements plan- a bulk carrier. A ship’s actual design and number of decks depend on the trade on which the ship will ply. A tramp, carrying shipments of coal or core, will be a single desk vessel with large unobstructed hatches to facilitate loading and discharge. A cargo liner carrying a variety of cargo in relatively small consignments would have tween desk to facilitate stowage. It such a vessel also conveyed wood and other commodities of high stowage factor, a shelter deck would be provided. Additionally, container ships are equipped with specially designed holds with cells or slots to facilitate speedy container handling using shore-based lifting gear.
  • 24. Three principal types of machinery installation are to be found at sea today. Their individual characteristics change with technological advances and improvements and economic factors such as the change in oil prices. The three layouts involve the ship’s propulsion machinery using direct-coupled slow speed diesel engines (the main engine), medium speed diesels with a gearbox, and the steam turbine with a gearbox drive to the propeller. A propeller, in order to operate efficiently, must rotate at a relatively low speed. Thus, regardless of the rotational speed of the prime mover, the propeller shaft must rotate at about 80 to 100 rev/min. the slow-speed diesel engine rotates at this low speed and the crankshaft is thus directly coupled to the propeller shafting. The medium speed diesel engine operates in the range 250-750rev/min and cannot therefore be directly coupled to the propeller shaft. A gearbox is used to provide a low-speed drive for the propeller shaft. The steam turbine rotates at a very high speed, in the order of 6000rev/min. Again, a gearbox must be used to provide a low-speed drive for the propeller shaft.
  • 25. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd MODERN HULL SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 26. MODERN HULL SHOP This shop is almost similar to ship building shop having almost same space for working. Although building of block is more frequently done here. MAIN ACTIVITY- Building and assembling of ship block. Machine & Equipment used- As this shop is similar to the ship building shop. However process of welding is more frequently done here. So it is essential to describe the processes of welding done here. ADVANTAGES OF WELDED JOINTS DISADVANTAGES OF WELDED JOINTS  The welded structure is normally lighter than riveted or bolted structures.  It provided maximum efficiency.  A welded joint has a great strength of the parent metal itself.  Since there is an uneven heating and cooling during fabrication, therefore the members can be distorted or additional stress may develop.  It requires highly skilled labor and supervisor.  No provision is there for expansion or contraction in frame, so holes may form.
  • 27. MIG WELDING MIG welding is an abbreviation for Metal Inert Gas Welding. It is a process considered semi- automated. This means that the welder still requires skill, but that the MIG welding machine will continuously keep filling the joint being welded. MIG welders consist of a handle with a trigger controlling a wire feed, feeding the wire from a spool to the weld joint. The wire is similar to an endless bicycle brake cable. The wire runs through the liner, which also has a gas feeding through the same cable to the point of arc, which protects the weld from the air. GAS CUTTING Oxy-fuel cutting are processes that use fuel gases and oxygen to weld and cut metals, in oxy-fuel cutting, a torch is used to heat metal to its kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag Oxy-fuel cutting may use a variety of fuel gases, the most common being acetylene. Other fuel are- 1) Acetylene 2) Gasoline 3) Hydrogen
  • 28. TUNGSTEN INERT GAS ARC WELDING (TIG) In tungsten arc welding, the heat is produced from an arc between the non-consumable tungsten electrodes and the work piece. The Welding zone is shielded by an atmosphere of inert gas supplied from the suitable source. The gas nozzle surrounds the tungsten electrode. When gas leaves the nozzle, it completely involves the tip of the electrode and the work under it.
  • 29. HULL BLOCK BUILDING METHODS The basic component of ship building is steel plate. The plates are cut, shaped, bent or otherwise manufactured to the desired configuration specified by the design .Typically the plates are cut by an automatic flame cutting process to various shapes. These shapes may be then welded together to form I and T beams and other structural member a hull is the watertight body of a ship or boat. Above the hull is the superstructure and/or deckhouse, where present. The line where the hull meets the water surface is called the waterline. The structure of the hull varies depending on the vessel type. In a typical modern steel ship, the structure consists of watertight and non-tight decks, major transverse and watertight (and also sometimes non-tight or longitudinal) members called bulkheads, intermediate members such as girders, stringers and webs, and minor members called ordinary transverse frames, frames, or longitudinal, depending on the structural arrangement. The uppermost continuous deck may be called the "upper deck", "weather deck", "spar deck", "main deck", or simply "deck". The particular name given depends on the context—the type of ship or boat, the arrangement, or even where it sails. Not all hulls are decked (for instance a dinghy). In a typical wooden sailboat, the hull is constructed of wooden planking, supported by transverse frames (often referred to as ribs) and bulkheads, which are further tied together by longitudinal stringers or ceiling. Often but not always there is a centerline longitudinal member called a keel. In fiberglass or composite hulls, the structure may resemble wooden or steel vessels to some extent, or be of a monocoque arrangement. In many cases, composite hulls are built by sandwiching thin fiber-reinforced skins over a lightweight but reasonably rigid core of foam, balsa wood, impregnated paper honeycomb or other material.
  • 30. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd MAINTENANCE SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 31. Maintenance Shop `Maintenance’ means activities required or undertaken to conserve as nearly, and as long as possible the original condition of an asset or resource while compensating for normal wear and tear. Actually it includes a group of actions, which are necessary for restoring a piece of equipment, machine or system to the specified operable condition to achieve its maximum useful life. In maintenance shop in GRSE, mainly overhead crane and EOT (Electric Traveling Crane) are being checked for maintenance. An overhead crane, commonly called a bridge crane, is a type of crane found in industrial environments. An overhead crane consists of parallel runways with a traveling bridge spanning the gap. A hoist, the lifting component of a crane, travels along the bridge. If the bridge is rigidly supported on two or more legs running on a fixed rail at ground level, the crane is called a gantry crane or goliath crane. Overhead cranes are commonly used in the refinement of steel and other metals such as copper and aluminum. At every step of the manufacturing process, until it leaves a factory as a finished product, metal is handled by an overhead crane. Almost all paper mills use bridge cranes for regular maintenance needing removal of heavy press rolls and other equipment. EOT is most common type of overhead crane, found in most factories. As obvious from name, these cranes are electrically by a control pendant, radio/IR remote pendant or from an operator cabin attached with the crane itself. Maintenance can be divided in three parts: 1) Preventive Maintenance, 2) Predictive Maintenance, 3) Breakdown Maintenance.
  • 32. 1) Preventive Maintenance It’s a daily maintenance (cleaning, inspection, oiling and re-tightening), design to retain the healthy condition of equipment and prevent failure through the prevention of deterioration, periodic inspection or equipment condition diagnosis, to measure deterioration. Just like human life is extended by preventive medicine, the equipment service life can be prolonged by doing preventive maintenance. It is a time-based maintenance consists of periodically inspecting, servicing, cleaning equipment and replacing parts to prevent sudden failure and process problems. In this type of maintenance, mainly materials go through lubrication process. It is also called oiling process for smoothing of machine’s operation speed in work. As mentioned above, preventive maintenance is a periodical job. It can be happen after one week or 15 days or one month depending on the parts. Normally, it is done at Sunday. So, Sunday is not a holiday for at least maintenance department of GRSE.
  • 33. 2) Predictive Maintenance This is a method in which the service life of important part is predicted based on inspection or diagnosis, in order to use the parts to the limit of their service life. Compared to periodic maintenance, predictive maintenance is condition based maintenance. It manages trend values, by measuring and analyzing data about deterioration and employs a surveillance system, designed to monitor conditions through an online system. Workers can get signal from the machine by which they can understand that there something wrong in the machine and it have to go through predictive maintenance. The signals can be an abnormal sound which is not suitable for perfect condition or it can be the sense of heat, which will insist that may be the cooling system is not working properly or any other disturbance occurs.
  • 34. 3) Breakdown Maintenance Breakdown maintenance means that people waits until equipment fails and repair it. Such a thing could be used when the equipment failure does not significantly affect the operation or production or generate any significant loss other than repair cost. So, it is the repairing process actually. And of course, it is a very important type of maintenance. But, yes it is unfortunate that when we have to do this that means the preventive and predictive maintenance have not gone perfectly or an accident just occurs. But, then workers have to go through the whole method and of course it is not a short process. A lot of time, money and hard work will require.
  • 35. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd UTILITY SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 36. MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTS Material handling is the art and science of conveying, elevating, positioning, transporting, packing and storing of materials. Material handling equipment is generally classified in four main categories: storage and handling equipment, engineered systems, industrial trucks, bulk material handling. PLATFORM TRUCK HAND LIFT TRUCKS These hand trucks are provides with a mechanism of lifting its platform, which can be rolled under the pallet or skid with load to clear the ground and then move the load from place to place. And have hydraulic or mechanical lifting mechanism with a fork for holding the load. These hand trucks consists of platform mounted on 4 wheels and provided with handle for pushing or pulling operation. A platform truck or hand trolley cart is an essential tool for moving heavy boxes to and from the mailroom, warehouse or receiving area.
  • 37. FIXED PLATFORM TRUCK FORK LIFT TRUCKS The forklift truck is used for, lifting lowering stacking, unstacking, loading and unloading and maneuvering of medium to large weights. It has a low speed of about 10kmph. The body of the truck is purposely built heavy which act as a counter load while lifting loads on fork. Solid rubber tires are provided for operations in different floor conditions. These are battery powered industrial truck having a fixed level, non-elevating platform for carrying load. Materials to be moved have to be loaded and unloaded to and from the platform by hand hoist and crane. The capacity of truck in GRSE is 1 ton. It is the most versatile, useful and widely used industrial lifting truck. These are self-loading, counterbalanced, diesel powered, wheeled vehicles, with operator seating on the vehicle, designed to raise, move and lower the load on forks.
  • 38. GOLIATH CRANE  GRSE has one Goliath Crane of 250 Ton capacity covering the Module Hall.  Goliath Gantry Crane provides enormous flexibility in hook configuration, with up to 8 m hook traverse and 100% load unbalance and accuracy to a 4- millimeter tolerance.  The unique single-girder design of Goliath Gantry Cranes combines low total weight and high rigidity.  The goliath crane moves on rails supported on the floor levels instead of rails placed at elevated levels as in case of EOT cranes. This eliminates the need for workshop building and hence reduction in capital cost.  Outdoor duty goliath cranes are also checked for stability under storm conditions. Special storm anchors are provided to prevent toppling of crane under storm condition.
  • 39. ELECTRIC OVERHEAD CRANE TRACTORS An overhead crane, commonly called a bridge crane, is a type of crane found in industrial environments. An overhead crane consists of parallel runways with a traveling bridge spanning the gap. A hoist, the lifting component of a crane, travels along the bridge. Most of EOT in GRSE have max load of 10 ton. It is used a prime mover to give motion to another or group of vehicles e.g. trailers, semitrailers, transfer cars etc. A front-loader or loader is a tractor with an engineering tool which consists of two hydraulic powered arms on either side of the front engine compartment and a tilting implement
  • 40. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd Internal Combustion Engine Repair Shop Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 41. ICER SHOP It deals with repair and proper functioning of Air compressor and various DG Sets that are used for different operations in ships and in different shops. Air Compressor DG SET
  • 42. Air Compressor In GRSE two types of air compressor are used 1. Engine operated Air Compressor 2. Battery operated Air Compressor APPLICATIONS  To supply High pressure clean air to fill gas cylinders.  To produce large volume of moderate pressure air for large scale industrial processes  Machine cooling, use of air pressure in robots, removal of debris from cutting processes (metal fragments, metal powder, etc.).  Generation of starting air for marine diesel engines COOLING The different types of cooling system are used are:- 1. Air cooled 2. Water cooled 3. Oil cooled
  • 43. Listed below are some of the common engine problems or troubles and their possible causes a)ENGINE does not starts  Empty fuel tank.  Fuel pump not working.  Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached.  Inappropriate, clogged, or faulty spark plugs  Loose plug wires  Broken ignition switch  Faulty wiring and connection problems in the ignition system.  Battery is undercharged.  Ignition coil not functional.  Fuel is old, dirty, or contaminated.  Starter motor is not operational. Possible causes: Engine stalls  Fuel filter is clogged up  Fuel is old, dirty, or contaminated  Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached  Closed fuel tank vent  Inoperative, or clogged thermostat  Wrong engine oil  Spark plugs defective, wrong, plugged, or incorrect spark-plug gap  Fuel supply hose damaged, distorted, or improperly attached
  • 44. DG SET A Diesel Generator (DG) is a combination of diesel engine with electrical generator (often called an alternator) to generate electricity. DG sets are used in places that have no connection to power grid, and as emergency power-supply if the grid fails. In other words DGs remain the number one choice for standby and emergency power systems. DGs are selected based on the electrical load they are intended to supply.  These can be water-cooled or air-cooled.  Compact, sleek, manual/automatic  Sound proof and weather proof enclosure.  Specially designed sound attenuators are provided to control sound at air entry and exit points inside the enclosure
  • 45. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd PIPE SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 46. Pipe Shop Pipe bending methods: There are two types of pipe bending method. 1. Hot Bending- In this type of bending one end of the pipe is packed with jute and the pipe is then filled with sand called sand packing. In sand packing sand is filled and pipe made vertical and hammered to make tighter and as other end is jute packed sand doesn’t escape. The bending is done as per template. Big bore pipes (nominal volume above 80) are being bend by hot bending process. 2. Cold Bending- (a) Hydraulic Bending:
  • 47. Pipes with more thickness are bend by this method. No sand packing or Jute packing is required the pipes are bended by Hydraulic press machine. (b) Fabricate Bending: Templates and layout are produced and pipes are forged into them. Small bore pipes like NV 15, NV 20, NV 25 (nominal volume smaller than 100) are being bend by cold bending process. Types of pipes: 1. Ms Pipe- (a) Ms Black Pipe, always uses to supply oil. (b) Ms Galvanizing Pipe, it is zinc coated ms pipe. 2. Copper-Nickel Pipe- This pipe is always uses to supply fresh water only. Valves which are directly exposures to water means underwater walls will be done shop floor as a testing before on board treatment.
  • 48. Tools used in Pipe shop:-  Caliper A caliper is a device used to measure the distance between two opposite sides of an object. A caliper can be as simple as a compass with inward or outward-facing points. The tips of the caliper are adjusted to fit across the points to be measured, the caliper is then removed and the distance read by measuring between the tips with a measuring tool, such as a ruler.  Punch In traditional typography, punch cutting is the craft of cutting letter punches in steel from which matrices were made in copper for type founding in the letterpress era. Cutting punches and casting type was the first step of traditional typesetting. The cutting of letter punches was a highly skilled craft requiring must patience and practice. Often the designer of the type would not be personally involved in the cutting.
  • 49.  Spirit Level A spirit level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is horizontal (level) or vertical (plumb). Different types of spirit level may be used by carpenters, stonemasons, bricklayers, other building trade’s workers, surveyors, millwrights, and other metalworkers, and in some photographic or video graphic work. Alcohol such as ethanol are often used rather than water. Alcohols have low viscosity and surface tension, which allows the bubble to travel the tube quickly and settle accurately with minimal interference with the glass surface. Alcohols also have a much wider liquid temperature range, and would not break the vial as water could due to ice expansion. A coolant may be added to increase the visibility of the bubble.  Pipe Wrench The pipe wrench is an adjustable wrench used for running soft iron pipes and fittings with a rounded surface. The design of the adjustable jaw allows it to lock in the frame, such that any forward pressure on the handle tends to pull the jaws tighter together. Teeth angled in the direction of turn dig into the soft pipe. They are not intended for use on hardened steel hex nuts or other fittings because they would ruin the head; however if a hex nut is soft enough that it becomes rounded beyond use with standard wrenches, a pipe wrench is sometimes used to break the bolt or nut free. Pipe wrenches are usually sold in the following sizes: 10, 14, 18, 24, 36 and 48 inches, although smaller and larger sizes are available as well. They are usually made of cast steel.  Snips Snips, also known as shears, are hand tools used to cut sheet metal and other tough webs. There are two broad categories: tinner’s ships, which are similar to common scissors, and compound-action snips, which use a compound leverage handle system to increase the mechanical advantage.
  • 50. PipeBending Machine Cnc pipe bending machine is very important in pipe shop. It is require to bend long iron pipes as requirements while, flanges are used to join two different pipes in a single point. Flange are of three type generally as: Plane flange, Spigot flange and conical flange. There are plushing method, which is actually a cleaning process of pipe from oil. It takes time from 20 minutes to 3 hour. Roller Pipe Bending Machine Actually the pipe bending operation, pipe collaring process and pipe branching operation is done properly at the FOJ unit of GRSE.
  • 51. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd MACHINE SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 52. MACHINE SHOP A machine is a tool containing one or more parts that uses energy to perform an intended action. Machines are usually powered by mechanical, chemical, thermal, or electrical means, and are often motorized. LATHE Lathe is a machine tool which rotates the work piece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, knurling, drilling, or deformation, facing, turning, with tools that are applied to the work piece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation. The main component of Lathe are Head stock, Tail stock,4 or 3 jaw chuck, carriage, cross slide, hand slide, gear box etc. Different type of production Lathe is:- 1) Non automatic Lathe- Centre Lathe 2) Semi automatic Lathe- Capstan lathe, turret lathe, multiple lathe, copying(hydraulic) lathe, relieving lathe 3) Automatic- automatic cutting off lathe, single-spindle automatic lathe, Swiss type automatic lathe, multiple spindle automatic lathe Fig-1 GRINDING MACHINE A grinding machine, often shortened to grinder, is any of various power tools or machine tools used for grinding, which is a type of machining using an abrasive wheel as the cutting
  • 53. tool. Each grain of abrasive on the wheel's surface cuts a small chip from the work piece via shear deformation. Grinding is used to finish work pieces that must show high surface quality (e.g., low surface roughness) and high accuracy of shape and dimension. As the accuracy in dimensions in grinding is on the order of 0.000025 mm, in most applications it tends to be a finishing operation and removes comparatively little metal, about 0.25 to 0.50 mm depth. However, there are some roughing applications in which grinding removes high volumes of metal quite rapidly. Thus, grinding is a diverse field. A grinding depends upon the blade is to be used for and the material from which blade is made. Knife manufacturers may offer the same model of knife with different grinds on the blade and owners of a blade may choose to reshape it as a different grind to obtain different blade property. A grinding disc is made mainly of silicon carbide or artificial carborundum. The grinding disc turns and removes material along its face or circumference. BORING MACHINE In machining, boring is the process of enlarging a hole that has already been drilled (or cast), by means of a single-point cutting tool (or of a boring head containing several such tools). Boring Machine specified according to- 1) Type of the machine (Horizontal and vertical) 2) Maximum diameter of the boring bar which can be held by the machine 3) Maximum travel of the table in the longitudinal and cross direction. 4) Spindle speed available and feed available. 5) Maximum allowable weight of work piece. 6) Net weight of the machine.
  • 54. HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE A horizontal boring machine or horizontal boring mill is a machine tool which bores holes in a horizontal direction. . There are three main types — table, planer and floor. The table type is the most common and, as it is the most versatile, it is also known as the universal type. A horizontal boring machine has its work spindle parallel to the ground and work table. Typically there are 3 linear axes in which the tool head and part move. Convention dictates that the main axis that drives the part towards the work spindle is the Z axis, with a cross traversing X axis and a vertically traversing Y axis. The work spindle is referred to as the C axis and, if a rotary table is incorporated, its centre line is the B axis . VERTICAL BORING MACHINE Vertical boring is a machining process whereby a part to be machined is clamped to a bed and a machining tool is rotated to produce some cylindrical, internal feature in the work piece. The cylindrical surface to be produced is oriented in the vertical direction and the tool is typically fed down into the work piece. Many vertical boring operations can be performed by a conventional mill and boring attachment, so in general vertical boring machines are used to machine large castings and blocks of metal too heavy for a regular mill. One of the advantages of carrying out the boring operation in the vertical position is the ease of clearing cuttings from around the cutting tool. Another key advantage is that the need for a large amount of power to rotate a very large block of steel and the associated dangers are avoided.
  • 55. Another variation on the vertical borer is the vertical lathe. With this type of machine, the work piece is rotated instead of the cutting tool, but the general operation and application is similar but the application is for smaller, lighter work pieces. Typical applications for vertical boring are: 1) Line boring of large machine tool casings and engine blocks. 2) Machining internal bearing diameters in large castings. 3) Finish machining of cylindrical surfaces on very large work pieces. FLOOR TYPE BORING MACHINE Floor type boring machine uses a stationary T-slotted floor plate instead of moving table for supporting the work piece, horizontal transverse, perpendicular to the spindle axis, is obtained by moving the column in guide ways. Floor type boring machine are employed for machining very large work piece.
  • 56. PLANO MILLING MACHINE Plano milling is widely used in industries for precise shaping of metals & various solid material. These entire machine are ideal for various processes such as slot cutting, routing, welding & turning in metallurgy industry. We make the range of machines available to the client in various configurations as per their application requirement.
  • 57. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd PAINT SHOP Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 58. Paint Shop Paint shop is a very important department in any industry. Because, it takes care about the looks of the parts and also looks after problems of safety hazzards with those materials. In paint shop, mainly three types of work or operation is done by the workers, which are as follows: 1) Surface Preparation Process 2) Powder Coating Process 3) Spray-Painting Process
  • 59. 1) Surface Preparation Process It is also named as polishing method. It is done actually for removing of unwanted scratches or junks. The material have to take an amount of heat firstly, then they will go through some acid and after that have to polish by costic soda. Surface preparation is the essential first stage treatment of a steel substrate before the application of coating, and is generally accepted as being the most important factor affecting the total success of a corrosion protective system. The surface preparation process not only cleans the steel, but also introduces a suitable profile to receive the protective coating.
  • 60. 2) Powder Coating Process Surface coating by means of spray of powder is a dry finishing process that has become extremely popular since its introduction in North America over 40 years ago. More and more companies specify powder coatings for a high-quality, durable finish, allowing for maximized production, improved efficiencies, and simplified environmental compliance. Powder coating are based on polymer resin systems, combined with curatives, pigments, leveling agents, flow modifiers and other additives. These ingredients are melt mixed, cooled and ground into a uniform powder similar to baking flour. A process called electrostatic spray deposition is typically used to achieve the application of the powder to the metal substrate. After application of the powder coating, the parts enter a curing oven where, with the addition of heat, the coating chemically reacts to produce long molecular chains, resulting in high cross-link density. These molecular chains are very resistant to breakdown. This type of application is the most common method of applying powders.
  • 61. 3) Spray Painting Process It is a technique where a device sprays a coating (paint, ink, varnish etc) onto the surface. In electrostatic spray painting, the atomized particles are made to be electrically charged, thereby repelling each other and spreading themselves evenly as they exit the spray nozzle. The object being painted is charged oppositely or grounded. The paint is then attracted to the object giving a more even coat than wet spray painting and also greatly increasing the percentage of paint that stick to the object.
  • 62. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd Quality Assurance Shop Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 63. QUALITY ASSURANCE SHOP The function of the QA department is following: 1. Hull inspection 2. Machinery inspection 3. Plumbing inspection 4. Electrical inspection Standards Used for inspection: 1. NES 147 standard 2. ABS standard (American bureau of shipping) 3. IRS STANDARD (Indian register of shipping) Parameters for skid inspections: 1. Distance between props 2. Height of props 3. Length of skid 4. Width of skid 5. Diagonal check of skid. Leak inspection of components of ships: 1. Water pressure test 2. Air pressure tests 3. Hose test
  • 64. DRY SURVEY AND CORRESPONDING TESTS DRY SURVEY OF UNITS/COMPTS/TANKS Dry survey checks is carried out for completion of units/ compartments / tanks prior to commencement of installation work. All the items indicated in the drawing are checked for their location and size as per the drawing. Report will be made if found satisfactory in relevant format. HOSE TESTING CHALK IMPRESSION TEST Hose testing for welding of the seats for fitting to the hull (such as ICCP anodes, ‘A’ brackets, Echo sounders, logs, stabilizers etc.) and checked for leakage Checks for item having rubber gaskets to close the opening for water tightness or air tightness like doors and hatches, emergency escapes, cold room. It is carried out before hose testing.
  • 65. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd Fire Fighting Department Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 66. FIRE EMERGENCY ACTION PLAN 1) Officer in charge(As Nominated) 2) (Nominated officer) would act as nodal officers during emergency in their respective disciplines. 3) Personal noticing fire or smoke within the ship is to inform bridge by telephone indicating location of fire. 4) Bridge will give orders through main broadcast for firefighting party to muster at near fire post & proceed with equipment to the location of the fire. 5) Personnel closed up at the location are to remain at their watch stations to avoid overcrowding at firefighting zone. 6) Pressure on the fire mains is to be maintained at 7 kg/cm² 24*7. 7) All ventilations in the vicinity of the fire should be stopped/ switched off. 8) Two personnel will form fire patrol in all shifts.
  • 67. ALARM IN CASE OF FIRE EMERGENCIES IN UNIT In Case Of Fire Or Explosion Siren / Hooter blast for 10 secs on, then 5 secs off This cycle for 3 min time. All Clear Signal Continuous Siren / Hooter blast for 3 min period. PRINCIPAL CAUSES OF FACTORY FIRE 1. Gas cutting / welding or Arc welding fire. 2. Electrical equipment – Short circuit/ Overheating/ Sparking. 3. Fuel oil / lubricant / hydraulic oil / inflammable gas related equipment like pumps, compressor etc. – accidental surge heating 4. Naked light in restricted zones. 5. Carelessness / ignorance or deliberate infraction of rules such as unauthorized heaters in shops / dept. for cooking / tea making. 6. Arson.
  • 68. TYPES OF FIRE Fire can be classified under the following categories:- 1) Class “A” fire: ordinary combustible solid material like wood, cloth, paper etc. Extinguishing media: water jet or spray, soda acid extinguishers and water extinguishers. 2) Class “B” fire: inflammable liquids like kerosene, petrol and paint varnish, all liquid petroleum products. Extinguishing medium: foam type extinguisher and dry chemical powder extinguisher but both not be used at a same fire. 3) Class “C” fire: Combustible gaseous substance under pressure like LPG, Acetylene, hydrogen. Extinguishing media: Dry chemical powder and CO² extinguisher. 4) Class “D” fire: combustible metal like magnesium, calcium, aluminum. Extinguishing media: Special type dry chemical powder.
  • 69. FIRE FIGHTING PROCEDURE 1) Cut off power and gas supplies to all machines/ other utilities. 2) To inform the fire fighter when he arrives. 3) To apply first aid, potable extinguisher on the fire spot according to class of fire. TABLE FOR USE OF EXTINGUISHER ON CLASS OF FIRE EXTINGUISHERS CLASS “A” CLASS “B” CLASS “C” CLASS “D” Soda Acid S US US US Water type S US US US Foam S S US US DCP(BC) US S S US DCP(ABC) S S S US Carbon- Dioxide US S S US US- Unsuitable; S- Suitable ; DCP- Dry chemical powder;
  • 70. Garden Reach Shipbuilders & Engineering Ltd DOCK DEPARTMENT Vishal Debnath BRAINWARE GROUP OF INSTITUTON
  • 71. DOCK DEPARTMENT DOCKING If ship come to the ground from water then it is known as docking. UNDOCKING If ship come to water from ground then it is known as Undocking. NOTE- If ship come to the water first time then it is known as launching. If the ship is going to water from ground or vice versa, then it should be kept in mind that, a ship does not steer like a car, it pivots on its axis. So every step should be in scientifically approach, so that heavy impact on the ship doesn’t harm. DRY DOCK- A dry dock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in, then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform. Dry docks are used for the construction, maintenance, and repair of ships.
  • 72. The classic form of dry dock, properly known as graving dock, is a narrow basin, usually made of earthen berms and concrete, closed by gates or by a caisson, into which a vessel may be floated and the water pumped out, leaving the vessel supported on blocks. To launch ship from dry dock, first valves are opened, the chambers fill with water, causing the dry dock to float lower in the water, and then it is slowly pull into the water with the help of small boat. INCLINED BERTH A berth, somewhat inclined plane on the land, where ship is being built and set out to the water. During launching, first wax and grease is applied on the wooden rail of about 8 mm thickness at the bottom portion of the ship hull, then valves are opened through which water fill the chamber. After, it is slowly allowed to come inside the water.
  • 73. SIGNALING SYSTEM OF SHIP The system of international maritime signal flags is one system of flag signals representing individual letters of the alphabet (A-Z) and the letter from 0-9 in signals to or from ships. It is a component of the International Code of Signals (ICS). DOCKING EQUIPMENT CAPSTAN Capstan is a mechanical device used chiefly on board ships or in shipyards for moving heavy weights by means of ropes, cables, or chain A capstan consists of a drum, driven either manually or by steam or electricity, that rotates about a vertical axis to wind in a line (rope, cable, or chain) that has been wrapped around it.The grip between the line and the drum depends on friction and on the number of times the line is wrapped around the drum. Speed of drawing in the load can be controlled by allowing partial slippage of the line around the capstan. A notched track (ratchet) on the base plate and pawls attached to the drum prevent backward motion.
  • 74. WINCH A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind out) or otherwise adjust the "tension" of a rope or wire rope (also called "cable" or "wire cable"). In its simplest form it consists of a spool and attached hand crank. In larger forms, winches stand at the heart of machines as diverse as tow trucks, steam shovels and elevators. The spool can also be called the winch drum. More elaborate designs have gear assemblies and can be powered by electric, hydraulic, pneumatic or internal combustion drives. Some may include a solenoid brake and/or a mechanical brake or ratchet and pawl device that prevents it from unwinding unless the pawl is retracted.
  • 75. BOLLARD A bollard is a short vertical post. Originally it meant a post used on a ship or a quay, principally for mooring. The word now also describes a variety of structures to control or direct road traffic, such as posts arranged in a line to obstruct the passage of motor vehicles. The term can also be used to describe short, post-like light fixtures. PANAMAX Panamax ships are travelling through the Panama Canal. They strictly follow the size regulations set by the Panama Canal Authority, as the entry and exit points of the Canal are narrow. A Panamax vessel can't be longer than 294,13 m (965 ft), wider than 32,31 m (106 ft) and her draught can't be more than 12,04 m (39.5 ft). These vessels have an average capacity of 65,000 DWT, and are primarily used in transporting coal, crude oil and petroleum products. SUAZEMAX Suezmax is a naval architecture term for the largest ship measurements capable of transiting the Suez Canal in a laden condition, and is almost exclusively used in reference to tankers.
  • 76. CONCLUSION During my training in G.R.S.E I learnt the processes and functions of different shops in building a ship. 1. The metal sheet required are brought from SAIL. 2. The sheets are then collected in SSY(Steel Stock Yard) 3. The sheets are then taken to plate preparation shop where sheets are prepared to the required dimensions. 4. The prepared plates are then transferred to SBS (Ship Building Shop) And MHS (Modern Hull Shop) where the plates are welded and then formed to a block which is fabricated in this shop. 5. After a block preparation the block are sent to yards where they are erected and welded to other blocks. 6. By this process block are welded one after another and it forms the structure of the ship.