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  1. 1. Photovoltaic Systems Guided By: Prepared By:Prof. J. I. Patel VISHAL G. BARAVALIYA
  2. 2. Photovoltaic (PV) system is an electrical system consisting of array of one or more PV modules, conductors, electrical components, and one or more loads which Convert solar radiation into electricity. PV systems use wafers, typically made of crystalline silicon. Other component are Inverter, charge controller, batteries etc.
  3. 3.  The total components and subsystems that, in combination, convert solar energy into electrical energy suitable for connection to a utilization load. power conditioning power distribution loadenergysource PV Array Load Inverter Center energy conversion electric energy utility storage Battery
  4. 4. Crystalline Materials Single-crystal silicon Polycrystalline silicon Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)Thin Film Materials Amorphous Silicon (a-Si) Cadmium Telluride (CdTe) Copper Indium Diselenide (CuInSe2, or CIS)
  5. 5.  PV cells are made of dissimilar materials (n and p type silicon) which are in contact and form a barrier at the junction. When sunlight hits the cell, it creates a electron and a hole pair at the junction. Connecting both sides to an external circuit the current will flow.
  6. 6. n-Silicon ---- -- -- -- +++++ +++ ++++++ p- + + + + Silicon
  7. 7. Connect Cells To Make Modules One silicon solar cell produces very low output so to increase power output many cells connected together which is called module. Module is the basic building block of systems which can connect modules together which is called an array to get any power configuration Cells.
  8. 8.  Stand-alone system it is independent of all sources & used in remote applications. Grid connected system it is connected with grid and store its surplus power into grid by concept of net metering. Hybrid system it receives a portion of its power from more than one sources like wind generator or any fuel fired generator
  9. 9. Here is a stand-alone PV system in Oix, La Garrotxa in ruralSpain. This system consists of a 900-watt PV array withinverter and batteries. More than 60 rural homes in thismountainous area have been electrified with PV. 10
  10. 10. This picture include PV-wind-diesel hybrid system inMexico that provides village-wide power for 43 homes, threeschools, two stores, a church and an auditorium.
  11. 11.  Reliable No Fuels Low Maintenance Long-term Savings No Pollution No Noise
  12. 12. • Solar electric generation is economically superior wheregrid connection or fuel transport is difficult, costly orimpossible.• When grid-connected, solar electric generationreplaces some or all of the highest-cost electricity usedduring times of peak demand (in most climatic regions).This can reduce grid loading, and can eliminate the needfor local battery power to provide for use in times ofdarkness.• Once the initial capital cost of building a solar powerplant has been spent, operating costs are extremely lowcompared to existing power technologies.
  13. 13. $ $ High Initial Cost Specialized Maintenance $ $ $ Batteries & Power Conditioning Equipment $ Large Space Solar electricity is not available at night and is less available in cloudy weather conditions from conventional silicon based technologies.