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  1. 1. Earthquakes Fernando Viscarret Pablo Pueyo Xavi Viñeta Pablo Visiers
  2. 2. Why they occurs:• An earthquake (also known as a quake, or tremor) is a violent movement of rocks in the Earth crust.• Earthquakes are usually quite brief, but may repeat over a long period of time. The release of energy.
  3. 3. What causes?• Earthquakes are caused by tectonic movements in the Earth crust.• The main cause are the tectonic plates.• One rides over the other, causing orogeny (mountain Earthquakes shake buildings in building), earthquakes California. and volcanoes.
  4. 4. The earthquake fault types• There are three main types of fault that may cause an earthquake: normal, reverse thrust and strike- slip. Normal faults occur mainly in areas where the crust is being extended. The three basic fault types of earthquakes.
  5. 5. The earthquake clusters• Most earthquakes clusters form part of a sequence, related to each other in terms of location and time. Most earthquake clusters consist of small tremors which cause little to no damage, but there is a theory that earthquakes can recur in a regular pattern.
  6. 6. The effects and the precipitation of earthquakes. The earthquake produces• Earthquakes are caused seismic waves, Human impacts: when a massive amount Loss of life Building collapse of Energy is the Earth’s Loss of amenity/basic necessities crust is released at one water, electricity, shelter time. Fires Disease• They cause seismic Road / bridge damage waves that then go on to cause damage. This is a summary of their effects, causes and prediction
  7. 7. Which are the cities that suffer the earthquakes• Jakarta and much of Indonesia suffered from a major earthquake, this year in September.• Mexico is prone to Indonesia Earthquake 2009 earthquakes, and Mexico city is very densely populated with many poorly designed structures. Earthquake Strkes Mexicos Pacific Coast
  8. 8. The aftershocks• An aftershock is an earthquake that occurs after a previous earthquake, the mainshock.• are formed as the crust adjusts to the effects of the main shock
  9. 9. Earthquake swarms• Are sequences of • By the fact that no earthquakes striking single earthquake in in a specific area the sequence is within a short period obviously the main of time. shock, therefore none• They are different have notable higher from earthquakes because they magnitudes than the followed by a series other. of aftershocks.
  10. 10. Earthquake storms• A series of earthquakes occur in a sort of earthquake storm,• Are Similar to aftershocks but on adjacent segments of fault.• These storms occur over the course of years, and with some of the later earthquakes as damaging as the early ones.
  11. 11. Earthquake-proofing• Some countries , such as Japan or parts of a country like California in the United States, have a lot of earthquakes.• In these places it is a good practice to build houses and other buildings so they will not collapse when there is an earthquake.• This is called seismic Indias high earthquake risk and design or "earthquake- vulnerability is evident from the fact. proofing"
  12. 12. Earthquake (Tsunami)• The tsunami of fast waves in the ocean caused by powerful earthquakes. Is a very serious challenge for people´s safety and for earthquake engineering.
  13. 13. Tsunami 1.2.• Those waves can inundate coastal areas destroy houses and even swipe away whole towns.• Unfortunately, tsunami can not be prevented.• However, there are warning systems which may warn the population before the big waves reach the land to let The remolino formed after the them enough time to rush and tsunami of japan 2011. to safety.
  14. 14. Can we predict earthquakes?• So far, earthquake prediction is highly contoversial as there is little or mutually acceptable evidence to link observable phenomena to subsequent seismicity. The frequent practice of publishing predictions Scientists still a long way from after the fact. being able to predict when occur earthquakes.
  15. 15. The tectonic plates Tectonic plates are• The tectonic plates is a composed of oceanic scientific theory that lithosphere and thicker continental lithosphere, describe the large-scale each topped by its own motions of earth´s kind of crust. Along lithosphere. The theory convergent boundaries, subduction carries plates builds on the concepts of into the mantle; the continental drift developed material lost is roughly balanced by the formation during the first decades of of new (oceanic) crust the 20th century. along divergent margins by seafloor spreading.
  16. 16. Tectonic plates 1.2.• Tectonic plates are able to move because the Earths lithosphere has a higher strength and lower density than the underlying asthenosphere. Lateral density variations in the mantle result in convection. Their movement is thought to be driven by a combination of the motion of seafloor away from the spreading ridge (due to variations in topography and density of the crust that result in differences in gravitational forces) and drag, downward suction, at the subduction zones. Tectonic plates pushing together.
  17. 17. Types of tectonic plates• These seven plates comprise the bulk of the seven continents and the Pacific Ocean. African Plate• Antarctic Plate• Eurasian Plate• Indo-Australian Plate• North American Plate• Pacific Plate• South American Plate Types of Plate Boundaries