Huge isolated podiums create blank perimeter streetwalls. Walls at street level topped by walled building towers block air ventilationacross the urban fabric. Perimeter-block streetwalls are not designed with setbacks, creatingnarrow streets devoid of landscaping or trees. The podium, which directly abuts the street, forms narrow, deep street canyons, trapping air pollutants and worsening the heat-island effect. Retail uses are inward looking, and public open space is limited to the podium level. Circulation patterns end at the development and are not integratedwithin the site boundary. Community connections are disrupted because the urban grid is notextended. Though the impact on adjacent land values is positive, especially fortransit developments, it may lead to price inflation in certain cases. A project-based focus hampers the creation of great places with high quality public spaces.
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian Cities (Sujata Govada) - ULI fall meeting - 102711
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian Cities Asian cities took the idea of urban density to a new level. How livable and sustainable are these high density cities?Cure Byte, 2011.
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian Cities What makes high density work? Is it the infrastructure in place? The people themselves?Anna Sofranko. Picasa, 2009.
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian CitiesCities throughout Asia arenot stopping there either.They’re only getting bigger…Trident Com, 2011.
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian Cities Balancing new development with heritage conservation is the key to making these cities unique and distinctive.Morgan Mallory. Dazed and Confucius, 2005.
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian CitiesWhat can we learn from thesehigh density Asian cities?How can we make cities morelivable for more people?Travel Instinct, 2010.
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in AsianCities Hong Kong is a compact, high density livable city with country parks comprising 40% of its land use.Carol Spears. Wikimedia Commons, 2008.
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian CitiesHong Kong is vibrant withpedestrian and transit mobility over90% of the city, making it less cardependent
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian CitiesTai Koo Shing is the first successful large scaleprivate residential redevelopment built in 1966 on anold dockyard. With over 60,000 people residing in awell connected community with 61 towers, 30storeys tall in an area of 8.5 acres with offices and aretail mall
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in AsianCities Cities throughout Asia are not stopping either. They’re only getting bigger. ..Whampoa Garden is a 39 acredevelopment with over 30,000people living in 88 residentialtowers 16 storeys high with asuccessful ground level retail use
Ten Principles for Sustainable Approach to New DevelopmentTowards Sustainable and Integrated Large-Scale Developments for a More Livable Hong Kong Large Scale Development Vibrancy and Street Culture Open Space and Skyline
ULI Workshop• Approximately 50 stakeholders from the public and private sectors attended• Breakout Sessions • Group 1: Planning, urban design, and regulatory implications • Group 2: Infrastructure, transport network, and sustainability • Group 3: Development, implementation, and economic viability
• Building on Hong Kong’s strengths Strategic location, financial success, transportation efficiency, unique skyline, high-density development, vibrant street life etc.• A paradigm shift is needed to focus on longer term value creation rather than short-term economic gain. – Strong leadership – Integrated Strategic Vision – Clear policy framework – Proactive approach• District-wide visions with 3-D urban design plans using a bottom-up approach with community engagement• All government departments should work together with the community, developers and stakeholders to achieve the common city vision• City’s long-term success depends on environmental and social sustainability not just high economic value
Examples Vancouver Downtown Plan •Designed to reverse the effects of urban sprawl •Urban design philosophy with a high-density typology – rezoned downtown for residential useHong Kong 2030 Study •Transit and pedestrian Singapore Concept Plan 2001 oriented•Based on a participatory approach •Mapped out the vision for the city PlaNYC, New York and updated continuously•To leverage the existing urbaninfrastructure •Outlined the city’s vision for •Based on a decentralization over 25 years policy•To concentrate on the reuse andrecycling of the old urban fabric •Calls for more city control •Physical planning as means to over large-scale development attain economic, political,•To do more with less environmental and social goals. •3 major components: OpeNYC, MaintaiNYC, GreeNYC
• New development or redevelopment in cities should be viewed as an opportunity to create great places integrating with existing areas• Place-making principles for a livable, walkable and sustainable city : – Ensure high-quality design to reflect the character of the surrounding community to stimulate activity and economic vitality paying attention to how the building touches the ground – Integrate public spaces with landscaping, attractive street furniture, and public art and allow the flexible use of space to enable social interaction – Promote pedestrian connectivity by creating integrated blocks, tree lined streets, and pleasant walkways, as well as comfortable, well marked, continuous streets that are vibrant – Create a high-quality public realm that enhances the appeal of the pedestrian environment, strengthens the sense of place, and supports a diverse range of activities – Establish a unique identity with landmarks and public space as a gateway to the development to create attractive destinations
Examples Taikoo Place, Hong Kong • Integrated with the district over time – created a unique sense of place and character • Connected by footbridges and within walking distance of MTR Roppongi Hills, Japan • An integrated development with high-rise inner urban Life Hub @ Daning, Shanghai communities • A trendy development respecting local tradition • Allows people to live, work, play, • Offers pedestrian friendly, retail-lined and shop in proximity to eliminate streets commuting time • Proximity to mass transit and bus transit
• Superblocks disrupt connections to surrounding districts resulting in isolated development that are inward looking Langham Place, HK• What scale of development is appropriate to integrate with the existing urban fabric?• Integrated blocks become attractive for people to live, work and visit and create a sense of place and retain value in the longer- term• Mixed uses above the station is good, but development should be permeable at ground level to integrate well with adjacent areas IFC, HK• Extend the urban grid to facilitate pedestrian walkability and use public space to integrate with the surrounding area• Appropriate development scale and permeability are necessary to increase the vibrancy of the area and make the development attractive and commercially successful• Making streets pedestrian friendly and allowing access to a well- managed public space is important Kowloon Station Development, HK
Examples Whampoa Garden, HK • Adapting high-density living environment in Hong Kong • Well connected public open space located atLiverpool One, UK first-floor podium level • Connected by foot-bridge and linked to• Retains many of the street vibrant life of the street IFC, HK patterns that shoppers and • The Airport Express visitors have been familiar with Landmark East, HK Hong Kong Station for a long time and the transport hub • A street level open are directly beneath• Creates a link between the space that is well it. west and east side of the city to integrated, allowing the waterfront pedestrian movement • Connected with the and street continuity Central district by• Planned six different districts • Provides 3,400 square footbridges on the within this large site, each with metres of landscaped 2nd level. a different character open space
• Public open space within the urban area has the potential to bring different groups in the society together• Many newly created public open spaces are on podiums which tend to be physically and visually less accessible• Developers often provide public open space within private developments for bonus plot ratio, but how accessible are these spaces?• Strategy to integrate landscaping, public art, and civic functions within public open space and along streets will create a continuous and high-quality public realm• Public open space should be well defined, and connected with walking routes and bicycle paths where feasible• It is important that public open space is pedestrian friendly and a place for people from all walks of life, young and old, rich and poor.• Street markets act as open space at grade, but their role is compromised and their survival i often threatened
ExamplesExchange Square, HK Time Square, HK • Accessible public open space at ground level• Ground level houses a public transport interchange • Controversial issue with privatization of public space• Well connected at upper level to adjacent development • Re-examine provisions for public open space, and the government quid pro quo with property• Accessible open space at the podium developers IFC, HK • Lacks connections to the street level, forcing pedestrians to move to upper podium level to access the open space • Less accessible to the general public, frequented by office workers and mall visitors using the bars and restaurants
ExamplesGreenbelt, Manila Concord Pacific Development,• Offers an unconventional “garden Vancouver wall” design • Woven into the fabric of the adjacent city grid• Weaves through the meandering open-air plazas, courtyards, and • Provides public access to the pathways IFC Seoul, South Korea waterfront • 30% of the green area is• Outdoor seating for restaurants • Respected as a self-sufficient required at grade and cafes nearby community, with a range of retail uses, services, and amenities • Green area at grade provides• Elevated walkways ensure ample street level plaza for exposure to the park pedestrians.
• Station-related mixed-use developments in Hong Kong provide seamless connection to transit resulting in “Development Oriented Transit”• More recent developments tend to be isolated and less pedestrian friendly with poor integration with the surrounding areas• The challenge moving forward is to better integrate these development at grade with surrounding areas and make them more pedestrian friendly• Physical and social integration can be achieved by reducing road footprint and infrastructure uses and providing more active uses at ground level• Urban integration and pedestrian connectivity are a priority to avoid isolated developments in the future• New developments should be better integrated with existing urban fabric of the surrounding older urban areas to preserve the city’s heritage and culture
ExamplesKowloon Station Development, HK• Economically successful but lacks street level interface• Seamless connection within the site: Elements shopping mall and the Tokyo Midtown, Japan Roppongi Hill, Japan MTR • Well integrated into the • Development seamlessly adjacent areas through a integrated by the park and• Restricted or no integration with large open space at grade network of meandering surrounding areas limits pedestrian landscaped public open access from neighbouring districts • Well connected to the spaces Roppongi railway station • Podium edges fold down to street levels
• Pedestrian priority is important, building should meet the street in a pedestrian friendly manner to enhance the sense of belonging and security• Streets of human scale, street-level interface and continuity are also important for vibrancy• The size of the block and the road footprint determine the type of development and nature of the streets• Urban design guidelines for large scale developments can help avoid blank walls and dead streets• Streets should be tree-lined and developments should have proper interface with those streets• Incentives should be given to encourage developers to provide public open space, public amenities at grade, and underground car parks
ExamplesLangham Place, HK Xinyi Place, Taipei Marina Bay Financial• Indoor public space with a glass • Vision to remodel the Xinyi Center, Singapore atrium that imitates the outdoor District as the economic, cultural, and administrative • Well connected with other environment centre of Taipei City developments• Management issues and • Height limits for buildings, • Forms a close cluster with a confusion for the users – private regulating the width of the high quality public realm space or public space? streets, and designating the types of plants • Open space at grade• A poor environment at grade resulted in the closure of a • Ensures a pleasant pedestrian • Promenade along the number of entry points to the environment and movement on waterfront development ground and footbridge levels
• Facilitate good urban design through urban design review, planning, regulatory framework and an independent TPB• Government should take a proactive approach in guiding more sensitive development to add long term value to the city• Zoning needs to be more flexible to enable mixed uses, including a mix of public, private, and affordable housing• Planning should be done at the district level with specific 3-D urban design plans• Government could provide incentives to facilitate and ensure provision of high-quality public space at grade and pedestrian friendly streets within CDA developments Source: http://www.worldarchitecturenews.com/index.php? fuseaction=wanappln.showprojectbigimages&img=2&pro_id=12644• Good urban design, sensitive and integrated developments should be encouraged by commending developers and designers
ExamplesZoning Control, New York City•Safeguard street-level exposure to the sky•Encourage developers to dedicate spaces foropen plazas or street-level arcadesDesign Guidelines, Singapore•Promotes sky-rise greenery through morerelaxed guidelines•Provides a clear base and bonus plot ratiocalculation, setback requirements, height of Urban Design Panel , Vancouverbuilding edge, size of podium and parameters forall types and scale of developments. • Composed of design professionals from the public and private sectorsCommission for Architecture and the Built • Provides advice on significant developmentEnvironment (CABE), UK permit applications•Provided independent design advice to help • Assists in the formulation of urban design policycities create better buildings and high quality and criteriapublic spaces
• Development needs to focus beyond the sustainability of buildings to incorporate sustainability at a neighborhood and district scale similar to LEED ND• Physical and social integration of developments with the surrounding areas and the district is important• Impacts of gentrification and maintaining existing social networks as far as possible within redevelopment projects should be considered• More specific urban design guidelines should be proposed in order to ensure sustainable and integrated developments at different levels• There could be bonus plot ratios to encourage vertical greening and green roofs, affordable housing mix• Avoid developments in ecologically sensitive areas
Examples HafenCity, Hamburg • Urban location, mixed uses, lively atmosphere and Citywalk, HK innovative development• Integrated with the area at process ground level: increases visibility • Outstanding open space and accessibility design Tokyo Midtown, Japan •More than 40 percent of the New York City, New York• Creation of ground floor public •Pays attention to sustainability at project area reserved for urban passage in exchange for bonus park the neighborhood, district and city GFA concession scale. •Offers several sustainable• Public space courtyard in the • A city of neighborhoods with a features and goes beyond building centre has well defined spaces sustainability good network of public open spaces
• Public engagement is a comparatively new concept in Hong Kong• Process is changing for the better, but both the government and community need to put more effort into the process• Community lacks trust in engagement exercises: there is a perception of collusion between government and developers• The city relies too heavily on private developers to do social good, but in most cities it is common for Govt. to negotiate with developers to ensure public good• Need to involve more stakeholders and engage people in a creative way to provide clarity for the community and the developers• Should engage project stakeholders from diverse backgrounds at an early stage, and keep the participation process transparent and inclusive
ExamplesVancouver New York City, New York London•Extensive experience of public • Public engagement is an • Decentralizes the power of theengagement in the planning and integral part of the plan governmenturban design process. making process. • Sets policy to support local•Council realized they needed to • A clear city vision and specific government, communities,revamp the planning process to urban design guidelines neighbourhoods, etc.engage citizens from the beginning. • Major developments go • Created the “Good Practice•Ensures that new developments through a review and Guide to Public Engagement inintegrate well with neighboring areas negotiation process with the Development Schemes”and contributes to the overall city planning departmentvision • Government has offered free • New initiatives are developed planning aid for community with public engagement groups who cannot afford to pay professional fees
• Role of ownership and management can be different• Multiple owners can contribute to diversity, but one owner can also contribute to diversity , the key is coordinated management control• The concept of Business Improvement Districts and Community Improvement Districts can be adapted to create pedestrian oriented, environmentally friendly, and sustainable developments• BIDs/CIDs can involve NGOs, private developers and community groups Source: http://www.dokwayne.com/2010/management-• Community benefit and adding long-term value to the and-military-any-connection/meeting/ city should be a priority
ExamplesMTR Developments South Bank Partnership, Marina Bay Development London•Benefit by coordinated management Agency, Singaporecontrol, which allows efficiency and •Protects local environment andflexibility •Department of URA, Singapore infrastructure•Enables provision of multiple uses and •Responsible for planning, •Promotes good urban designconvenient transit options design, implementation, coordination, management, •Tackles crime to improve•Enables the MTR to collaborate with branding and place marketing community safetyvarious developers •Provides opportunities for the •Consults community for localCenter City, Philadelphia public to enjoy great places regeneration Projects along the waterfront• Center City District aims to keep the •Creating Marina Bay as a city clean, safe and well-managed successful place that is attractive for private investment• Reinforces the city as a vibrant place to work, live, shop and visit
ConclusionThe ten principles are intended to guide the future development ofHong Kong and the region•Ensure that large-scale new or redevelopment projects are wellintegrated into the surrounding area•Helps to create great places and add to the long-term value of thecity HafenCity, Hamburg•Promotes more integrated pedestrian-friendly and environmentallysustainable developments•Enable cities in the region to transform into more walkable, livable,and sustainable placesWhat’s Next•Review building regulations and the planning framework in light of Liverpool One, Liverpoolthe Ten Principles•ULI will share the Ten Principles Report with various stakeholders,including the community, government officials, developers andprofessionals in the industry•ULI will continue to launch the Ten Principles Report in other Asiancities Singapore River waterfront, Singapore
Ten Principles for a SustainableApproach to New Development1 Build on Your Strengths 6 Activate the StreetsRethink the strategic vision and policy framework Enhance street level interface and continuity2 Create Great Places 7 Keep it FlexibleAdopt a place-making approach Facilitate good urban design and flexible zoning3 Extend the Urban Grid 8 Promote SustainabilityDevelop to an appropriate scale and density Go beyond sustainable building design4 Open Up Public Space 9 Engage People Early OnProvide accessible public open space Enable upfront public engagement5 Integrate Infrastructure 10 Manage, Control & CoordinateEnsure transport and infrastructure integration Implement coordinated management control
Kai Tak Review PanelDecember 3, 2010• Current master plan emphasizes heritage, ecology, sports, and tourism• Efforts being made to connect Kai Tak with surrounding districtsIssues discussed:• A Clear Vision and Integrated Development• Master Planning and Good Urban Design• Place Making, Branding and Sustainability• Implementation and Management Challenges ULI’s Kai Tak Review Project Kai Tak Panel at the ULI Fall Meeting – Oct 2011 Kai Tak Panel in Hong Kong – Dec 2011
High Density and Livability: Lessons Learned in Asian CitiesLarge scale urban developments can bemade in a way that promotes livability,just the right principles need to befollowed to achieve transit andpedestrian friendly developments thatpromote long term value andsustainability beyond buildings.Harajukustyle. Skyscraperpage.com, 2006.
What can we learn from high density Asian Cities…? Thank You.Hannah Torregoza, 2009.