Territorial expansion


Published on

  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Territorial expansion

  1. 1. Moving West
  2. 2. The International Context for American Expansion <ul><li>In 1815, save for the Louisiana Purchase, Spain held onto most of the trans-Mississippi west. </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish holdings eventually encompassed present-day Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, California and more. Mexican independence in 1821 gave the new country all of Spain’s holdings. </li></ul><ul><li>North of California was Oregon Territory, disputed between America and England. </li></ul>
  3. 5. Early Interest in the West <ul><li>Early settlers sought beaver skins as early as 1811 in the Oregon backcountry. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Southwest the collapse of the Spanish Empire flooded the region with an assortment of settlers. </li></ul><ul><li>A few New Englanders settled in California and exploited the sea-otter trade. </li></ul><ul><li>Many Indians relocated from eastern lands to present-day Oklahoma. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Manifest Destiny <ul><li>Phrase coined in 1845 by John L. O’Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressed conviction that the development of a superior system of government and lifestyle dictated a God-given right of Americans to spread their civilization to the four corners of the continent. </li></ul><ul><li>Territorial expansion was a mandate of Manifest Destiny. </li></ul>
  5. 7. <ul><li>Winning the Trans- Mississippi West </li></ul>
  6. 8. Annexing Texas, 1845 <ul><li>Mexico feared a hostile takeover of Texas after repeated attempt by the United States to buy the territory. </li></ul><ul><li>To strengthen border areas, Mexico offered land for reduced costs requiring only that the settlers become Mexican citizens and Catholics. </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Austin and many other contractors organized parties of settlers into Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>Few settlers honored their agreement with Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>Texans won their independence from Mexico in 1836 and were annexed by America nine years later. </li></ul>
  7. 11. War with Mexico, 1846 - 1848 <ul><li>Mexico severed diplomatic ties with America after its annexation of Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>President Polk failed to appreciate the humiliation of the Mexicans and sent American troops to forestall a potential invasion. Hostilities quickly followed. </li></ul><ul><li>Debate in Washington simmered as U.S. forces swept into Mexico and took the capital city. </li></ul>
  8. 13. California and New Mexico <ul><li>President Polk communicated that any resolution of the Mexican war would have to include California and New Mexico. </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. government, magnanimously attempted to buy the territories from Mexico to no avail. </li></ul><ul><li>Superior American military strength secured the future states in 1847. </li></ul>
  9. 14. The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, 1848 <ul><li>The final treaty between America and Mexico in the era </li></ul><ul><li>Set the Rio Grande as America’s south border </li></ul><ul><li>Increased U.S. territory by 529,000 square miles </li></ul><ul><li>Awarded Mexico $15 million and set terms for Gadsden Purchase of southern Arizona and parts of New Mexico for an additional $10 million </li></ul>
  10. 15. The Oregon Question, 1844 - 1846 <ul><li>Although disputed by both America and England, President Polk claimed settlement of Americans in the territory as a “presumption of possession.” </li></ul><ul><li>The British government did not agree but were powerless to stop thousands of settlers migrating to Oregon. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite slogans and diatribe, Polk was unwilling to fight and sought a diplomatic resolution to the issue. </li></ul><ul><li>England eagerly accepted Vancouver Island in return for dropping her claims to Oregon. </li></ul>
  11. 17. III. Going West and East
  12. 18. The Emigrants <ul><li>Most emigrants to the far West were white and American by birth. </li></ul><ul><li>Some free blacks also make the six-month overland trip. </li></ul><ul><li>Most traveled with family and relatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Only during the Gold Rush years did large numbers of unmarried men travel West independently. </li></ul>
  13. 19. Migrants’ Motives <ul><li>Most emigrants sought wealth in the form of gold and silver. </li></ul><ul><li>Other sought to set up businesses as merchants or land speculators. </li></ul><ul><li>Some traveled to the warmer climate to restore their health. </li></ul><ul><li>Others followed the direction of church leaders for religious or cultural missions. </li></ul>
  14. 21. IV. Living in the West
  15. 22. Farming in the West <ul><li>New arrivals in the West had to stake a claim and clear the land of obstructions. </li></ul><ul><li>As they began their farming, the emigrants unconsciously harmed the land by introducing foreign weeds and poor farming techniques. </li></ul>
  16. 23. Cities in the West <ul><li>Some emigrants went west for the express purpose of living in a fast-growing city such as San Francisco or Denver. </li></ul><ul><li>Young, single men made up an overwhelming majority of these urban centers’ populations. </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities were always greatest for those who brought significant assets with them from the East. </li></ul>
  17. 24. V. Cultures in Conflict
  18. 25. Confronting the Plains Tribes <ul><li>Americans moving west were continually shocked by the cultural differences between them and the native tribes along the trails. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems arose as grazing cattle and indiscriminate buffalo hunting quickly depleted the traditional hunting grounds of the Plains tribes. </li></ul><ul><li>A chain of American forts was constructed along the major trails to foil Indian interference. </li></ul>