The Seerah of




                Al-Huda Summer Course
Why should we love the Prophet ‫صلى ال‬
‫عليه وسلم‬
   Seerah means a path (from the word seir which means to
    walk); ...
How will we be able to truly love the
Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬
   His ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬name means the “praised” one, ...
The Prophet’s ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬
lineage
   Name “Muhammad”: eternally praised, “Ahmad”:
    who praises… Allah the most,...
Lineage contd…
   Father of monotheistic faiths: Ibrahim (as)
 Mother: Hajrah (as)

 Their (I and H’s) son: Ismail (as)...
Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before
Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and Marriage
   Muhammad’s ‫ صلى ال عليه و...
Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before
Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and
Marriage…
 Responsibility of ‘shepherd...
Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before
Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and
Marriage…
   Profession ↔ Personality
...
Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before
Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and
Marriage…
 Marriage to Khadija (ra), a...
Prophethood
   Contemplative by nature; the jahilliyah of his ‫صلى ال‬
    ‫ عليه وسلم‬time worried him and he would thin...
Prophethood
  Jibrail (as) came in his angelic form asked him ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬to recite –
   twice – the command “reci...
Prophethood…
 The first Word: ‫ اقْرَأ‬and the Word “Qur’an” are
  phonetically similar: emphasis on Knowledge, and no
  ...
Prophet’s ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬reaction
   He ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬said to Khadija (ra): “Wrap me, wrap
    me in a garment”;...
Order of Subsequent Revelations
 The Second and Third Revelations: Al-Muddathir,
  Chapter 74 and Al-Muzzammil, Chapter 7...
Order of Subsequent Revelations
                                                                               ‫ي أيه مزمل...
Order of Subsequent Revelations
   Order: ْ‫اقْ َأ→ ُمْ → ُم‬
             ‫ق‬     ‫ر ق‬
   Entire programme of action f...
First Public Revelation and Response

 The First Public Revelation: Ash-Shu‘ara, Chapter 26, Verse 214
                  ...
First Public Revelation and Response

   Asked to “Warn” his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬kindred and
    society
   The Truth tha...
Events Leading to Persecution
   First believer and First Lady of Islam: Khadija (ra), first
    slave to embrace Islam: ...
Events Leading to Persecution
   Abu Lahab’s blunt reaction: “You’ve ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬
    gathered us for this!”; Respo...
Pattern of Persecution
 The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬faced opposition in the following ways:
o Mockery
o Insults
o Inju...
Later Events
   Migration to Abyssinia: i) 12 men and 4 women; ii) 83 men, 19 women;
    Jafar b. Abi Talib (ra) selected...
Later Events

   Reversion of Hamza b. Abi Muttalib (ra), his uncle
    and Umar b. Khattab (ra), one of the most
    pow...
Later Events
 Splitting of the moon:
The Makkans kept asking for a sign despite the ayahs of the Qur’an;

               ...
Later Events
   The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was accused of magic,
    revelation of Surah Qamar; Makkans gathered at
 ...
Later Events
   ‘Aam al-Huzn, the Year of Grief
   After embargo, Abu Talib, his uncle and man who had
    supported him...
Later Events
   Reward – the Night Journey or the Me‘raj
   The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬traveled from Makkah to the
 ...
The Lessons of the Night Journey
   The importance of the commandment of salah – the only Order Given by
    Allah from t...
The Hijrah – Background
   Yathrib divided into tribes of Aws and Khazraj (who after hijrah became
    the Ansar or the P...
The Hijrah – Background
   After 12 years of struggle and strife hope for Islam’s progress was seen;
    The Prophet ‫ صل...
Hijrah – The Journey, Concept and Process

   Revelation to emigrate for the Cause of Allah: whoever
    leaves something...
The Hijrah…
  Journey was that of fear yet trust; no risk can be taken without faith;
   tawwakul on Allah despite the re...
The Hijrah…


   Soldiers of Allah: even the weakest of Creation can
    be His soldier: The spider – its web the most fe...
The Hijrah…
   Hadith: “Hijrah is to leave what Allah (swt) Dislikes.”
    From (move from) sin → (submit to) obedience; ...
Arrival to Medina
   Arrived at Quba (September 4, 622), zenith of sun, the
    Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was first spot...
At Medina
   4 major projects:
o   Institution of the Masjid – organized worship
o   Establishment of Brotherhood between...
At Medina… The Masjid

At Quba and then Masjid-al Nabawi;
o Center for learning for Muslims, expansion of the role of the ...
At Medina… Brotherhood
      Command: Aal-‘Imran, Verse 103 and An-Anfal, Verses 72 and 74

    ْ‫َاعْ َ ِ ُوا ِ َبْ ِ ا ...
    ‫إن لذ ن من وه جر وج هد بأ و له وأ فسه ف سب ل ّ و ّذ ن و ونصر أ ل ٰئك‬
         َ ِ ‫ِ ّ اّ ِي َ آ َ ُوا َ َا َ ُوا َ...
At Medina… Brotherhood
   Basis of bond of brotherhood was iman – faith-based community; not
    built on family ties, so...
At Medina… The Covenant
   The covenant or the Al-Waseeqa was written to govern the relationship
    between the differen...
War and War Ethics
   Threat from Quraysh in Makkah real; Muslims
    established their army whose fidelity was to Allah
...
War and War Ethics…
     Revelation of Confirmation: Al-Baqarah, Verse 217
ِ ِ ْ‫سَُْو َ َ َ ِ ال ّهْ ِ الْ َ َا ِ ِ َا ٍ...
Summary of Significant Battles
   Badr: 2 A.H.; (favors mentioned by Allah in Al-Anfal)
   314 Muslims vs. Makkans led b...
Summary of Significant Battles

   Uhad: 3 A.H.;
   Abu Sufyan leading 3000 men vs 1000 Muslims (3:1
    ratio); Jews re...
Summary of Significant Battles
   Trench: 5 A.H.; (details mentioned in Al-Ahzab)
   10,000 Makkans vs. 3000 Muslims; al...
Battle of The Trench…
   Punishment of the Jews:
Jews asked Sa‘d b. Muadh, a former ally of the Jews to be an arbiter and...
Events Preceding Return to Makkah…
Hudaibiyyah
 March 628, 6 A.H.; Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬dreamed of Hajj, pilgrims
...
Hudaibiyyah
 Return to Medina; Revelation of Surah Al-Fath; “open victory”:

‫ِ ّا َ َحْ َا َ َ َتْ ًا ّ ِي ًا‬
 ‫إن فت ن...
Hudaibiyyah…
   Treaty of Hudaibiyyah managed to canvass much support;
    many embraced Islam henceforth, Revelation of ...
Events Preceding Return to Makkah

   629, 7 A.H.; the month of Hajj; 2600 pilgrims
    departed for ‘umrah
   Defeat at...
Return to Makkah

   630, 10 Ramadhan, 8 A.H.; largest force of Muslims
    (nearly all the men of the ummah volunteered)...
Conquest of Makkah

 ۚ ُ ِ ‫ِ ّ الْ َا ِ َ َا َ َ ُو ًا َ ُلْ َا َ الْ َ ّ َ َ َ َ الْ َا‬
    ‫إن ب طل ك ن زه ق وق ج ء ح...
Conquest of Makkah
   ۚ ‫َا َ ّ َا ال ّا ُ ِ ّا ََقْ َا ُم ّن َ َ ٍ َُن َىٰ َ َ َلْ َا ُمْ ُ ُو ًا َ َ َا ِ َ ِ َ َا َ ُو...
From Makkah Back to Medina

   January 630, Battle of Hunayn between tribes of
    Hawazin and Thaqif who were ready for ...
Munafiquun and the Masjid-e Dharar

     ّ ‫َِ َا ِي َ َ ُمْ آ ِ ُوا َ َا آ َ َ ال ّا ُ َاُوا َ ُؤْ ِ ُ َ َا آ َن ال ّ َ َ...
Munafiqun and the Masjid-e Dharar

   Camp of Ibn Ubayy gained strength in his ‫صلى ال‬
    ‫ عليه وسلم‬absence; mosque b...
The Last Sermon (Khutbatul Wada’)

   Last Hajj of the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬sermon given at ;
    Mosque Namira near...
The Last Sermon (Khutbatul Wada’)…

   People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will
    be born...
The Last Sermon (Khutbatul Wada’)…

   Lend an attentive ear: same tone as his ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬
    sermon at Mount Saf...
Last Hours and Demise
   He ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬remained sick for 13-14 days; when condition persisted he
    asked all hi...
Last Hours and Demise
   Abu Bakr’s words: And now, he who worships Muhammad, Muhammad ‫صلى‬
    ‫ ا عليه وسلم‬is dead no...
Muhammad ‫ – صلى ال عليه وسلم‬The
Best There Ever Would Be
 ْ‫َا َ ّ َا اّ ِي َ آ َ ُوا َ َرْ َ ُوا َصْ َا َ ُمْ َوْ َ َو...
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His Seerah

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His Seerah

  1. 1. The Seerah of Al-Huda Summer Course
  2. 2. Why should we love the Prophet ‫صلى ال‬ ‫عليه وسلم‬  Seerah means a path (from the word seir which means to walk); history of Islam – history of our religion  Develop proper love for him ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬is ‘ibadah; you love someone more when you get to know them more  His ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬character the embodiment of khulq  Pattern of understanding the progress and process of Islam: private → public  Developing our own identifiable identity: who we are and what we ought to be, and how
  3. 3. How will we be able to truly love the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬  His ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬name means the “praised” one, and name fulfills its meaning – by knowing and then following his seerah we will be praising the one Allah (swt) has Chosen to be the Final Prophet not just for Muslims, but for the entire humanity and worlds  By making the Qur’an part of our lives by knowing and following his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬Sunnah as his ‫صلى ال عليه‬ ‫ وسلم‬life is a model that demonstrates what Allah expects of us:  ‫وذكر‬ َ َ َ َ ‫َ َدْ َا َ َ ُمْ ِي َ ُو ِ ا ِ ُسْ َ ٌ َ َ َ ٌ ِ َنْ َا َ َرْ ُو ا َ َالْ َوْ َ الْخ‬ ‫لق ك ن لك ف رس ل ّ أ وة حسنة لم ك ن ي ج ّ و ي م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا َ َ ِي ًا‬ ‫ّ كث ر‬ ‫ل‬ Indeed in the Messenger of Allah (Muhammad ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬you ( have a perfect example to follow for him who hopes in (the Meeting with) Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much. (Al-Ahzab: 21)
  4. 4. The Prophet’s ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ lineage  Name “Muhammad”: eternally praised, “Ahmad”: who praises… Allah the most, root: h-m-d: praise  Prophet also called “Mustafa” – the Chosen one; Allah (swt) Chose him ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬as the best in every way; even his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬lineage was impeccable: Kinana (descendents of Ismail [as]) → Quraysh (the tribe) → Banu Hashim (the clan)  Born in Arabia, Arabs known for their chivalry and hospitality – values later on polished and perfected by Islam
  5. 5. Lineage contd…  Father of monotheistic faiths: Ibrahim (as)  Mother: Hajrah (as)  Their (I and H’s) son: Ismail (as) The story of the well of Zamzam; well in a desert attracted tribe of warriors called Jurham who spoke Arabic and Ismail (as) grew in their company  Descendants of Ismail (as) were the Quraysh  ‘Hashim’ was named after the Prophet’s great-grandfather ‘Amr b. Kusaiyi who was nick-named Hashim  ‘Abd al-Muttalib (had 10 sons) → ‘Abdullah → Muhammad ‫صلى ال عليه‬ ‫وسلم‬
  6. 6. Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and Marriage  Muhammad’s ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬personality different from others  Hard childhood: lost father, ‘Abdullah even before he was born, then lost mother, Aaminah when he was six, then lost grandfather, ‘Abd al-Muttalib when eight, then taken care of by uncle, Abu Talib till he was forty; no siblings to support him; lonely orphan’s plight in Arabia  His ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬fitrah: did not indulge in partying or idol-worship; was contemplative by nature
  7. 7. Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and Marriage…  Responsibility of ‘shepherd’ – following the Sunnah of the Prophets: why shepherd… o Accountability of shepherd for his herd, a monitor o Protects herd from seen and unseen danger o Animals closer to earth, has to be in touch with Nature, closeness to Allah as it pulls you away from artificial, urbanized life-style o Simplicity yet hardness of the desert  Hadith: “You are all shepherds, and each is responsible for his/her flock.” “Stick with the flock because the wolf (Shaytan) eats the estranged sheep.”
  8. 8. Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and Marriage…  Profession ↔ Personality Our work affects our temperament; Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬demonstrated forbearance and patience yet extreme love for his ummah just as a shepherd shows affection and authority for his flock; he is their leader and their caretaker, has responsibility and authority over them ٌ ‫ِن ُن ُمْ ُ ِ ّو َ ا َ َا ّ ِ ُو ِي ُحْ ِبْ ُ ُ ا ُ َ َغْ ِرْ َ ُمْ ُ ُو َ ُمْ ۗ َا ُ َ ُو ٌ ّ ِي‬ ‫إ ك ت تحب ن ّ ف تبع ن ي ب كم ّ وي ف لك ذن بك و ّ غف ر رح م‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ “…If you (really) love Allah then follow me (‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬follow the , Qur’an and the Sunnah), Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” (Aal-‘Imran: 31)
  9. 9. Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the Person before Prophethood – Birth, Adolescence and Marriage…  Marriage to Khadija (ra), a powerful business- woman, hired Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬for his honesty and trustworthiness; admirable qualities, she proposed and he agreed  Values to seek in one whom we are to marry: not his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬wealth or name or background but integrity  Societal/cultural ideas about marriage: he ‫صلى ال‬ ‫ عليه وسلم‬was 25, she (ra) was 40; bond built on respect of character and mutual understanding
  10. 10. Prophethood  Contemplative by nature; the jahilliyah of his ‫صلى ال‬ ‫ عليه وسلم‬time worried him and he would think and ponder over the condition of his society (rather than accepting and complaining about the ignorance that surrounded him)  Searched for answers and the Truth of his ‫صلى ال‬ ‫ عليه وسلم‬forefathers Ibrahim and Ismail (as);; seclusion in Mount Hira to be with himself to ponder  Disillusioned by his people and their ways
  11. 11. Prophethood  Jibrail (as) came in his angelic form asked him ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬to recite – twice – the command “recite (or read)” and the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ being unlettered declined  First Words of Revelation: ‫ر ب م ربك لذ خلق‬ َ ََ ‫اقْ َأْ ِاسْ ِ َ ّ َ اّ ِي‬ ‫خلق لْ س ن م علق‬ ٍ ََ ْ‫ََ َ ا ِنْ َا َ ِن‬ ‫ر وربك لْ رم‬ ُ َ ْ‫اقْ َأْ َ َ ّ َ ا َك‬ ‫لذ علم ب قلم‬ ِ ََ ْ‫اّ ِي َّ َ ِال‬ ْ‫َّ َ ا ِنْ َا َ َا َمْ َعَْم‬ ‫علم لْ س ن م ل ي ل‬ Read [Recite]! In the Name of your Lord, Who has created, Has created man from a clot. Read [Recite]! And your Lord is the Most Generous, Who has taught by the pen, Has taught man that which he knew not.
  12. 12. Prophethood…  The first Word: ‫ اقْرَأ‬and the Word “Qur’an” are phonetically similar: emphasis on Knowledge, and no Knowledge being comparable to the Knowledge given to us by Allah through the Qur’an for we “know not” and what He has Taught us in the Qur’an and through His Messenger ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬is Perfect  Allah is Our Creator and our birth is a miracle (man made from a clot) just as the Qur’an is the Final Miracle of the Final Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬who recited the Revelation despite his being unlettered  Hadith: “Knowledge precedes action”;  The jahilliyah lacked knowledge and hence were ignorant
  13. 13. Prophet’s ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬reaction  He ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬said to Khadija (ra): “Wrap me, wrap me in a garment”; she (ra) said: “Allah will never forsake you as you are righteous”  His ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬reaction was normal: he was terrified and thought it were a hallucination or magic and his wife comforted him rather than doubting or ridiculing him; she gave him the support that he needed at the time  Waraqah b. Nawfal (ra), Christian scholar (who embraced Islam immediately henceforth) and cousin to Khadija (ra) reassured them both – the Truth was confirmed and the Final Prophet had been Chosen
  14. 14. Order of Subsequent Revelations  The Second and Third Revelations: Al-Muddathir, Chapter 74 and Al-Muzzammil, Chapter 73 ‫ي أيه مدثر‬ ُ ّ ّ ُ ْ‫َا َ ّ َا ال‬ ْ‫ُمْ ََنْ ِر‬ ‫ق فأ ذ‬ ْ‫َ َ ّ َ َ َ ّر‬ ‫وربك فكب‬ O you (Muhammad ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬enveloped (in ( garments)! Arise and warn! And your Lord (Allah) magnify!
  15. 15. Order of Subsequent Revelations ‫ي أيه مزمل‬ ُ ّ ّ ُ ْ‫َا َ ّ َا ال‬ ‫قم ل ل إل قل ل‬ ً ‫ُ ِ الّيْ َ ِ ّ َِي‬ ‫ن ف ه أو ق م ه ق ل ل‬ ً ‫ِصْ َ ُ َ ِ انْ ُصْ ِنْ ُ َِي‬ ‫أ ز عل ه ورتل ق ن ت ت ل‬ ً ‫َوْ ِدْ ََيْ ِ َ َ ّ ِ الْ ُرْآ َ َرْ ِي‬ ‫إن سن ق عل ك ق ل ثق ل‬ ً ‫ِ ّا َ ُلْ ِي ََيْ َ َوْ ً َ ِي‬ O you wrapped in garments (i.e. Prophet Muhammad ‫(! صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ Stand (to pray) all night, except a little. Half of it, or a little less than that, Or a little more; and recite the Qur’an (aloud) in a slow, (pleasant tone and) style. Verily, We shall send down to you a weighty Word (i.e. obligations, legal laws, etc.)
  16. 16. Order of Subsequent Revelations  Order: ْ‫اقْ َأ→ ُمْ → ُم‬ ‫ق‬ ‫ر ق‬  Entire programme of action for Islam laid in this order: Knowledge → Action → Worship  Knowledge will enable one to act and one must act as Allah’s slave and according to His Teachings  The movement of da‘wah should be from the Private to the Public  The ignorance or reluctance that one is “wrapped” in must be cast off
  17. 17. First Public Revelation and Response  The First Public Revelation: Ash-Shu‘ara, Chapter 26, Verse 214 ‫ََنْ ِرْ َ ِي َ َ َ ا َقْ َ ِين‬ ‫وأ ذ عش رتك لْ رب‬ And warn your tribe (O Muhammad ‫.صلى ال عليه وسلم‬of near kindred (  Response to the Reaction: Al-Masadd, Chapter 111, Verses 1 and 2 ‫تب يد أب لهب وتب‬ ّ َ َ ٍ َ َ ‫َ ّتْ َ َا َ ِي‬ َ َ َ ‫َا َغْ َىٰ َنْ ُ َاُ ُ َ َا‬ ‫م أ ن ع ه م له وم كسب‬ Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab (an uncle of the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ ) and perish he! His wealth and his children (etc.) will not benefit him.
  18. 18. First Public Revelation and Response  Asked to “Warn” his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬kindred and society  The Truth that went against the norm (of the jahilliyah) was challenged and hence was met with doubt, mockery defiance, and later and eventually persecution  The Response was expressed as a Curse that all those who oppose the Truth would “Perish” and what we still hold dear to: our wealth, children, status would do us no good
  19. 19. Events Leading to Persecution  First believer and First Lady of Islam: Khadija (ra), first slave to embrace Islam: Zaid b. Harith (ra), first child: Ali b. Abi Talib (ra), first free man: Abu Bakr  Sadiq and Amin, the two names given to Muhammad ‫صلى‬ ‫ ال عليه وسلم‬due to his integrity; again, focus on his righteousness  Gathered his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬people and called on to them at Mount Saffa using the word, “Wasubha” which was for alarm and warning; people testified to the truth of his character; first public speech was simple: “I am here to warn you of a punishment that’ll befall if you do not pay heed.”
  20. 20. Events Leading to Persecution  Abu Lahab’s blunt reaction: “You’ve ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ gathered us for this!”; Response from Allah: Surah Al- Masadd  Love for duniya blinds us and makes us indifferent towards the reality of akhirah; Arabs were rich and busy tradesmen and talk of Jannah and Jahannum was a waste of time for them; Allah’s Response: wealth and children (what you run after) would not benefit you and you will perish  Arch-enemies of Islam then: Abu Jahl (Father of Ignorance), Abu Lahab, Utba b. Rabi’ah, Mughirah b. Utbah, Ummayah b. Khalaf, Uqbah b. Abi Mo’id; reported by ‘Abdullah b. Masud: “I have seen with my own eyes that all these men were killed in the Battle of Badr.”
  21. 21. Pattern of Persecution  The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬faced opposition in the following ways: o Mockery o Insults o Injury o Defamation of the Message o Bargaining and negotiation (by the opponents) o Allurements o Setting challenges o Jealousy o Attempts of assassination  The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬and his steadfast followers were patient during each of the above schemes intended to undermine their mission and they did not give up but stood firm; examples: the plight of Bilal (ra), Summaiya (ra) and her husband Yasir (ra), Prophet’s journey to Taif
  22. 22. Later Events  Migration to Abyssinia: i) 12 men and 4 women; ii) 83 men, 19 women; Jafar b. Abi Talib (ra) selected as spokesperson in front of the ruler, Najashi  Skill of da‘wah: Surah Maryam selected to be recited: message of Tawhid, common grounds of Christianity and Islam, and general morals of the deen of Islam; the Muslims were therefore protected as Najashi was moved by the Message and the plan of the opponents was duly foiled  Why the minor hijrah to Abyssinia: o To flee persecution o Safeguard faith o Giving up social and cultural heritage/status for the deen o In search of justice o Arabs familiar with Abyssinia o Abysinnians were Christians (a monotheistic faith as opposed to the mushriks of Makkah)
  23. 23. Later Events  Reversion of Hamza b. Abi Muttalib (ra), his uncle and Umar b. Khattab (ra), one of the most powerful men of Makkah; Islam’s force being fortified  Base in Abysinnia, Umar (ra) and Hamza (ra) led to mounting frustration of the Quraysh; embargo began in Makkah and Banu Hashim was boycotted until the Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was surrendered; embargo eventually lifted after 2-3 years due to the efforts of Hisham b. Harith
  24. 24. Later Events  Splitting of the moon: The Makkans kept asking for a sign despite the ayahs of the Qur’an; ‫ت ر بت س عة و ش ق قم ر‬ ُ َ َ ْ‫اقْ َ َ َ ِ ال ّا َ ُ َان َ ّ ال‬ The Hour has drawn near, and the moon has been cleft asunder ‫وإ ير ية ي رض ويق ل س ر م تمر‬ ّ ِ َ ْ‫َِن َ َوْا آ َ ً ُعْ ِ ُوا َ َ ُوُوا ِحْ ٌ ّس‬ And if they see a sign, they turn away, and say: “This is continuous magic.” ّ ِ َ ْ‫َ َ ّ ُوا َا ّ َ ُوا َهْ َا َ ُمْ ۚ َ ُ ّ َمْ ٍ ّس‬ ‫وكذب و تبع أ و ءه وكل أ ر م تقر‬ They belied (the Qur’an), and followed their own lusts. And every matter will be settled.
  25. 25. Later Events  The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was accused of magic, revelation of Surah Qamar; Makkans gathered at Mina  Importance of the splitting of the moon: this sign cannot be compared to any of the Signs of the Prophets as this was witnessed in the vastness of the universe going beyond the laws of Nature confirming the Truth brought forth by the Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬as the miracle took place in the skies and was witnessed on earth.
  26. 26. Later Events  ‘Aam al-Huzn, the Year of Grief  After embargo, Abu Talib, his uncle and man who had supported him despite his disbelief died on the “religion of my father Abu Muttalib” despite the Prophet’s ‫صلى ال عليه‬ ‫ وسلم‬plea to make him recite the shahadah – the man who supported him ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬from the age of 8 to 50 left him and he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was Forbidden by Allah to seek forgiveness for him: mission is to convey, not to convert  Two months later, Khadija (ra) died; the Prophet ‫صلى ال‬ ‫ عليه وسلم‬was completely dismayed and prayed to Allah and set all his reliance on Him alone through tawwakul despite his loneliness and plight
  27. 27. Later Events  Reward – the Night Journey or the Me‘raj  The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬traveled from Makkah to the Heavens up to Bayt ul-Ma‘mur (The Ka‘bah of the Heavens) to Jerusalem and back during one night accompanied by Jibrail (as) and he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬met with the following anbiya respectively at each of the 7 levels: Adam (as), ‘Isa and Yahya (as), Yusuf (as), Idris (as), Harun (as), Musa (as) and lastly, Ibrahim (as)  Then he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬saw the Sidrah-tul Muntaha (end of the Heavens and beginning of the realm of the afterlife) then he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬went higher up till he met and spoke to Allah (swt)… Who Commanded nothing but salah – the daily prayer
  28. 28. The Lessons of the Night Journey  The importance of the commandment of salah – the only Order Given by Allah from the Heavens to the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬the number of ; the daily prayers reduced on Musa’s (as) insistence and advice from 50 to 5 (and the reward of the 5 being set at 50) and the Muslims’ negligence for the commandment made by Allah to the Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬in person  The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬leading all the anbiya in prayer at Jerusalem’s Bayt al-Muqqadas signifying his stature as the Seal of the Prophets and the testimony of all the anbiya; the importance of Jerusalem as the Holy Land  Reward from Allah in the time of the Prophet’s ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬difficulty and dismay; the best is Reserved for you by Allah even in the hardest of times; one must be patience and have trust in Allah’s Mercy  A Sign for the people of Makkah to yet again believe in the Prophet ‫صلى‬ ‫ ال عليه وسلم‬although he was still denied
  29. 29. The Hijrah – Background  Yathrib divided into tribes of Aws and Khazraj (who after hijrah became the Ansar or the Protectors/Helpers), plus the Jewish population (tribes of Thalabah, Hudl, Qurayzah, Nadir and Qaynuqa)  The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬met with the Khazraj and they accepted Islam; Aws and Khazraj in constant warfare and needed a promising leader to herald peace, monotheism of Islam appealed to them as they were familiar with Jewish beliefs  Acceptance of Islam by six men, after one year the Pledge of Aqabah took place, the next year 70 people embraced Islam  The search and need for a base to safeguard Islam was rewarded after nearly 12 years of struggle
  30. 30. The Hijrah – Background  After 12 years of struggle and strife hope for Islam’s progress was seen; The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was Commanded by Allah to migrate despite his love for Makkah, where he had lived for 52 years: (Command of Hijrah): Az-Zumar, Verse 10 ۗ ٌ َ ِ ‫ُلْ َا ِ َا ِ اّ ِي َ آ َ ُوا ا ّ ُوا َ ّ ُمْ ۚ ِّ ِي َ َحْ َ ُوا ِي َـٰ ِ ِ ال ّنْ َا ح َ َ ٌ ۗ ََرْ ُ ا ِ َا‬ ‫ق ي عب د لذ ن من تق ربك للذ ن أ سن ف ه ذه د ي َسنة وأ ض ّ و سعة‬ ‫ل‬ ‫إنم يوف ص بر ن أ ره بغ ر حس ب‬ ٍ ‫ِ ّ َا ُ َ ّى ال ّا ِ ُو َ َجْ َ ُمْ ِ َيْ ِ ِ َا‬ Say (O Muhammad ‫صلى ا عليه وسلم‬O My slaves who believe, be afraid of your” :( Lord and keep your duty to Him. Good is (the reward) for those who do good in this world, and Allah’s earth is spacious (so if you cannot worship Allah at a place, then go to another)! Only those who are patient shall receive their rewards in full, without reckoning.”
  31. 31. Hijrah – The Journey, Concept and Process  Revelation to emigrate for the Cause of Allah: whoever leaves something for Allah, He’ll bestow something greater  Plots to kill The Prophet ‫( صلى ال عليه وسلم‬mainly headed by Abu Jahl); but Allah is the Best of Planners (3:54);  He ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬made special dua‘ for safe entry and exit and of a supporting authority to accompany him (17:80); Abu Bakr (ra) asked him the next day if he could accompany him ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬he agreed and he (ra) wept for it was an ; honour to make that momentous journey with the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬
  32. 32. The Hijrah…  Journey was that of fear yet trust; no risk can be taken without faith; tawwakul on Allah despite the real threat of the persecutors, The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬comfort to Abu Bakr (ra)  In the Cave: At-Taubah, Chapter 9, Verse 40 ‫ِ ّ َنْ ُ ُو ُ َ َدْ َ َ َ ُ ا ُ ِذْ َخْ َ َ ُ اّ ِي َ َ َ ُوا َا ِ َ اثْ َيْ ِ ِذْ ه َا ِي الْ َا ِ ِذْ َ ُو ُ ِ َا ِ ِ ِ ل‬ َ ‫إل ت صر ه فق نصره ّ إ أ رجه لذ ن كفر ث ني ن ن إ ُم ف غ ر إ يق ل لص حبه‬ ‫ل‬ ‫َحْ َنْ ِ ّ ا َ َ َ َا ۖ َ َن َ َ ا ُ َ ِي َ َ ُ ََيْ ِ ََ ّ َ ُ ِ ُ ُو ٍ َمْ َ َوْ َا َ َ َ َ َِ َ َ اّ ِي َ َ َ ُوا‬ ‫ت ز إن ّ معن فأ ْزل ّ سك نته عل ه وأيده بجن د ل تر ه وجعل كلمة لذ ن كفر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫س ل ٰ وكلمة ّ هي ع ي و ّ عز ز حك م‬ ٌ ‫ال ّفَْى ۗ َ َِ َ ُ ا ِ ِ َ الْ ُلْ َا ۗ َا ُ َ ِي ٌ َ ِي‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ If you help him (Muhammad ‫ ) صلى ال عليه وسلم‬not (it does not matter), for Allah did indeed help him when the disbelievers drove him out, the second of two, when they (Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬and Abu Bakr) were in the cave, and he (‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬said to his companion (Abu ( Bakr): “Be not sad (or afraid), surely Allah is with us;” then Allah sent down His Sakinah upon him, and strengthened him with forces (angels) which you saw not, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowermost, while it was the Word of Allah that became the uppermost, and Allah is All-Mighty, All-Wise.
  33. 33. The Hijrah…  Soldiers of Allah: even the weakest of Creation can be His soldier: The spider – its web the most feeble of houses yet Used to protect them  Stayed for 3 days; meeting with Suraha who later became their bodyguard, stay at Umm-e Ma’bat’s house who later became Muslim
  34. 34. The Hijrah…  Hadith: “Hijrah is to leave what Allah (swt) Dislikes.” From (move from) sin → (submit to) obedience; make hijrah (h-j-r: to separate) from something impure to pure  Rationale: o Unlike hijrah to Abyssinia, this was to establish an Islamic community o economic boom: brought talents of the Makkans and the Medinians together; o manifestation of the conflict between good and evil; o Sunnah of the anbiya’ – to face harship and then emigrate for the Cause of Allah
  35. 35. Arrival to Medina  Arrived at Quba (September 4, 622), zenith of sun, the Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was first spotted by the Jews of Yathrib; first mosque built at Quba (reward for offering 2 rak‘ah prayer = ‘umrah); Long-awaited arrival, Medinians rejoiced, gave gifts, offered lodgings etc)  Ethnic variety in Medina: 2 tribes of Aws and Khazraj (who became the Ansar) were Arabs, 3 tribes of Jews (Qurayzah, Nadir and Qaynuqa’); conflict and bitter relations between themselves (A + K) and the Jews; different beliefs and practices – Islam expected to unify which was not easy  ‘Abdullah b. Ubayy; chief of the Khazraj tribe showed resentment as he was to be the next leader but the Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬was chosen by the people as their leader; later became the head of the Munafiquun (hypocrites)
  36. 36. At Medina  4 major projects: o Institution of the Masjid – organized worship o Establishment of Brotherhood between Ansar (people of Medina, the Aws and Khazraj and the Muhajirs (people of Makkah, the migrants) o Covenant that governed relationship between the different people of Medina (The Arab tribes, the Muhajirs and the Jews) o Establishment of the army
  37. 37. At Medina… The Masjid At Quba and then Masjid-al Nabawi; o Center for learning for Muslims, expansion of the role of the Dar al- Arqam (at Makkah) which was private, this was public and out in the open; halaqahs (study circles) carried out for tarbiyah of the Muslims o Location of his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬living quarters o Organized worship and establishment of salah and adhan; house where His Name could be exalted; a place of sakinah and Allah’s Rahma, surrounded by Angels, and those gathered therein will have their names mentioned in a gathering better than theirs o Social/community center; function of the jam‘at to signify unity o Dwelling place for the wayfarers and poor (Ahl-al Suffa and Abu Hurayrah [ra]) o Departure point of armies o Center for da‘wah (Christians from Najran and Yemen)
  38. 38. At Medina… Brotherhood  Command: Aal-‘Imran, Verse 103 and An-Anfal, Verses 72 and 74 ْ‫َاعْ َ ِ ُوا ِ َبْ ِ ا ِ َ ِي ًا َ َ َ َ ّ ُوا ۚ َاذْ ُ ُوا ِعْ َ َ ا ِ ََيْ ُمْ ِذْ ُنْ ُمْ َعْ َا ً ََّ َ َيْ َ ُُو ِكم‬ ُ ‫و تصم بح ل ّ جم ع ول تفرق و كر ن مت ّ عل ك إ ك ت أ د ء فألف ب ن قل ب‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ ‫فأ ب ت بن مته إ و ن وك ت عل ٰ شف ح رة من ن ر فأ قذك م ه كذلك يبين ّ لك ي ته‬ ِ ِ ‫ََصْ َحْ ُمْ ِ ِعْ َ ِ ِ ِخْ َا ًا َ ُنْ ُمْ ََى َ َا ُفْ َ ٍ ِ َ ال ّا ِ ََنْ َ َ ُمْ ِنْ َا ۗ َ َ‌ِ َ ُ َ ّ ُ ا ُ َ ُمْ آ َا‬ ‫ل‬ ٰ ‫َ َّ ُمْ َهْ َ ُون‬ ‫لعلك ت تد‬ And hold fast, all of you together, to the Rope of Allah (i.e. the Qur’an), and be not divided among yourselves, and remember Allah’s Favor on you, for you were enemies one to another but He joined your hearts together, so that, by His Grace, you became brethren and you were on the brink of a pit of Fire, and He saved you from it. Thus Allah makes His Ayat clear to you, that you may be guided.
  39. 39.  ‫إن لذ ن من وه جر وج هد بأ و له وأ فسه ف سب ل ّ و ّذ ن و ونصر أ ل ٰئك‬ َ ِ ‫ِ ّ اّ ِي َ آ َ ُوا َ َا َ ُوا َ َا َ ُوا َِمْ َاِ ِمْ ََنْ ُ ِ ِمْ ِي َ ِي ِ ا ِ َال ِي َ آ َوْا َ َ َ ُوا ُوَـ‬ ‫ل‬ ٰ ‫ب ضه أ لي ء ب ض و لذ ن من ول يه جر م لك م وليته م ش ء حت‬ ‫َعْ ُ ُمْ َوِْ َا ُ َعْ ٍ ۚ َاّ ِي َ آ َ ُوا ََمْ ُ َا ِ ُوا َا َ ُمْ ِنْ َ َ َ ِ ِمْ ِنْ َيْ ٍ َ ّى‬ ْ‫ُ َا ِ ُوا ۚ َِن اسْ َنْ َ ُو ُمْ ِي ال ّي ِ َ ََيْ ُ ُ ال ّصْ ُ ِ ّ ََى َوْ ٍ َيْ َ ُمْ َ َيْ َ ُم‬ ‫وإ ِ ت صر ك ف د ن فعل كم ن ر إل عل ٰ ق م ب نك وب نه‬ ‫يه جر‬ ٌ ‫ۗ َا ُ ِ َا َعْ َُو َ َ ِي‬ ‫و ّ بم ت مل ن بص ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫مثق‬ ٌ ‫ِي َا‬ Verily, those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard and fought with their property and their lives in the Cause of Allah as well as those who gave (them) asylum and help, - these are (all) allies to one another. And as to those who believed but did not emigrate (to you O Muhammad ‫ ,) صلى ال عليه وسلم‬you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate, but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance, and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.  ۚ ‫َاّ ِي َ آ َ ُوا َ َا َ ُوا َ َا َ ُوا ِي َ ِي ِ ا ِ َاّ ِي َ آ َوْا َ َ َ ُوا ُوَـ ِ َ ُ ُ الْ ُؤْ ِ ُو َ َ ّا‬ ‫و لذ ن من وه جر وج هد ف سب ل ّ و لذ ن و ونصر أ ل ٰئك هم م من ن حق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫له م فرة ور ق كر م‬ ٌ ‫َ ُمْ َغْ ِ َ ٌ َ ِزْ ٌ َ ِي‬ And those who believed, and emigrated and strove hard in the Cause of Allah (Al-Jihad), as well as those who gave (them) asylum and aid; - these are the believers in truth, for them is forgiveness and Rizqun Kareem (a generous provision i.e. Paradise).  
  40. 40. At Medina… Brotherhood  Basis of bond of brotherhood was iman – faith-based community; not built on family ties, social-standing, tribal bonds etc.; question of loyalty: who should be considered an ally and WHY?; loyalty should be given to none but Allah and His Messenger ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬and those who, therefore, follow Islam  Migrants in need of help; the Ansar pledged to help them; brotherhood established in pairs at first which later on was dissolved when circumstances stabilized  The Prophet ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬instilled spirit of gratitude, “one who is not grateful towards people is not grateful towards Allah”  Hadith: “Only a believer would love them (the Ansar) and only a munafiq (hypocrite) will hate them. Whoever loves them, Allah will love him; whoever hates them, Allah will hate him.”
  41. 41. At Medina… The Covenant  The covenant or the Al-Waseeqa was written to govern the relationship between the different ethnic groups in Medina  It stipulated conditions for the welfare of the citizens of Medina and was issued in the Name of Allah and on grounds of justice and equality  The good was to upheld and enjoined and the bad was to be forbidden  Believers were urged to offer all forms of help, shelter, sanctuary; rules for fighting in and for Allah’s Cause were established; rules for retaliation and punishment were also instated  Jews were to pay their own expenses along with Muslims as long as they were allies in warfare; Jews were to have their own religion and Muslims their own but none would go to war except with the permission of Muhammad ‫صلى ال‬ ‫عليه وسلم‬  All matters of difference must be referred to Allah and His Messenger ‫صلى ال‬ ‫عليه وسلم‬
  42. 42. War and War Ethics  Threat from Quraysh in Makkah real; Muslims established their army whose fidelity was to Allah and His Cause only  The tradition of the ghazu: an acquisition raid which was was an unavoidable necessity during times of scarcity and a custom of the Bedouin tradition upheld by the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬  The last day of Rajab and Muslims drew first blood; Prophet’s ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬confusion (Rajab one of the four sacred months in which fighting forbidden)
  43. 43. War and War Ethics…  Revelation of Confirmation: Al-Baqarah, Verse 217 ِ ِ ْ‫سَُْو َ َ َ ِ ال ّهْ ِ الْ َ َا ِ ِ َا ٍ ِي ِ ۖ ُلْ ِ َا ٌ ِي ِ َ ِي ٌ ۖ َ َ ّ َن َ ِي ِ ا ِ َ ُفْر ِ ِ َالْ َس‬ ‫أل نك عن ش ر حر م قت ل ف ه ق قت ل ف ه كب ر وصد ع سب ل ّ وك ٌ به و م جد‬ ‫ل‬ ِ ْ‫الْ َ َا ِ َِخْ َا ُ َهِْ ِ ِنْ ُ َكْ َ ُ ِن َ ا ِ ۚ َالْ ِتْ َ ُ َكْ َ ُ ِ َ الْ َت‬ ‫حر م وإ ر ج أ له م ه أ بر ع د ّ و ف نة أ بر من ق ل‬ ‫ل‬ They ask you concerning fighting in the Sacred Months (i.e. 1st, 7th, 11th and 12th months of the Islamic calendar). Say “Fighting therein is a great (transgression) but a greater (transgression) with Allah is to prevent mankind from following the Way of Allah, to disbelieve in Him, to prevent access to Al Masjid-Al-Haram (at Makkah), and to drive out its inhabitants, and oppression (Al Fitnah) is worse than killing.  19 battles (major and minor) fought in all by the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬  Jihad (j-h-d = struggle or to exert oneself) to be understood as struggle for Allah against one own base self (nafs) and against all others who “prevent mankind from following the Way of Allah” (2:217)
  44. 44. Summary of Significant Battles  Badr: 2 A.H.; (favors mentioned by Allah in Al-Anfal)  314 Muslims vs. Makkans led by Abu Jahl; Angels sent down as Allah’s Soldiers:  ‫إ ت تغ ث ن ربك ف تج ب لك أن ممدك بأ ف من ملئكة م دف ن‬ َ ‫:ِذْ َسْ َ ِي ُو َ َ ّ ُمْ َاسْ َ َا َ َ ُمْ َ ّي ُ ِ ّ ُم َِلْ ٍ ّ َ الْ َ َ ِ َ ِ ُرْ ِ ِي‬ (Remember) when you sought help of your Lord and He answered you (saying): “I will help you with a thousand of the angels each behind the other (following one another) in succession.” (8:7)  Quraysh deprived of water and rain sent down by Allah to remove doubt from the fighters’ hearts and terror was cast into the disbelievers’ hearts  Other events: Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬married Hafsa (ra); Ali (ra) married Fatima (ra), Ruqqayah (ra) died; Banu Qaynuqa’ broke the Covenant, siege of 2 weeks but no violence
  45. 45. Summary of Significant Battles  Uhad: 3 A.H.;  Abu Sufyan leading 3000 men vs 1000 Muslims (3:1 ratio); Jews refused to fight (Banu Nadir broke agreement and helped Abu Sufyan; later tribe expelled to Khyber after 2 weeks siege), Ibn Ubayy withdrew;  Issue of the archers, disobeyed Muhammad’s ‫صلى‬ ‫ ال عليه وسلم‬command to hold ground (3:121)  Other events: 2 years 2 Jewish tribes expelled, Muslims began to control markets held by Jews;
  46. 46. Summary of Significant Battles  Trench: 5 A.H.; (details mentioned in Al-Ahzab)  10,000 Makkans vs. 3000 Muslims; all sides of Medina protected except the North; Salman Farsi’s (ra) idea to dig the trench; one-month heavy siege in which Muslims showed extreme forbearance (33:10-11); Ibn Ubayy and munafiqs raised doubt (33:12); Abu Sufyan recognized defeat  Treason of the Jews: Banu Qurayzah supported the Quraysh; exiled Banu Nadir chief tried to persuade Qurayzah to enter and attack from rear or smuggle 200 Nadiris to slaughter women and children; initial reluctance but eventually agreed but Qurayzah failed to deliver
  47. 47. Battle of The Trench…  Punishment of the Jews: Jews asked Sa‘d b. Muadh, a former ally of the Jews to be an arbiter and to deliver a verdict; Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬agreed; Sa‘d’s judgment over the security risk and manifest treason of the Jews: 700 men to be executed, women and children taken as slaves and property to be taken by Muslims; decision confirmed by Allah in 29:46 and approved by Muhammad‫صلى ال‬ ‫ عليه وسلم‬You have judged according to the ruling of Allah above the seven” : skies.”  Violation of trust and threat to the Muslim ummah; decision moderated by their former trusted confidante but crime inexcusable and far worse than Banu Nadir and Qaynuqa’s
  48. 48. Events Preceding Return to Makkah… Hudaibiyyah  March 628, 6 A.H.; Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬dreamed of Hajj, pilgrims to enter without arms to the Holy City – nature of Makkah as sanctuary, Hajj as pinnacle of ‘ibadah  2000 men led by Khalid b. Walid to attack pilgrims  Qaswa’s refusal to budge at Hudaibiyyah; “sit-in” of the pilgrims; Uthman b. Affan (ra) sent as goodwill ambassador but false news of his death  Oath of Rizwan (Good Pleasure); Uthman not killed after all, negotiations with the Quraysh  Suhayl b. ‘Amr, chief of the clan of Amir in Makkah, pious pagan, stipulated conditions that were clearly disadvantageous to the Muslims; a proper “secular” document  Rituals of Hajj to be completed at Hudaibiyyah; pilgrims’ anxiety, Muhammad’s ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬confusion; Umm-e Salamah’s (ra) suggestion for him ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬to take initiative and others followed suit
  49. 49. Hudaibiyyah  Return to Medina; Revelation of Surah Al-Fath; “open victory”: ‫ِ ّا َ َحْ َا َ َ َتْ ًا ّ ِي ًا‬ ‫إن فت ن لك ف ح مب ن‬ Verily, We have given you (O Muhammad ‫.صلى ا عليه وسلم‬a manifest victory ( ‫ّ َغْ ِ َ َ َ ا ُ َا َ َ ّ َ ِن َن ِ َ َ َا ََ ّ َ َ ُ ِ ّ ِع َ َ ُ ََيْ َ َ َهْ ِ َ َ ِ َا ًا ّسْ َ ِي ًا‬ ‫لي فر لك ّ م تقدم م ذ بك وم تأخر ويتم ن ْمته عل ك وي ديك صر ط م تق م‬ ‫ل‬ That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His Favour on you, and guide you on the Straight Path, ‫َ َن ُ َ َ ا ُ َصْ ًا َ ِي ًا‬ ‫وي صرك ّ ن ر عز ز‬ ‫ل‬ And that Allah may help you with strong help. ۗ ْ‫ُ َ اّ ِي َن َ َ ال ّ ِي َ َ ِي ُُو ِ الْ ُؤْ ِ ِي َ ِ َزْ َا ُوا ِي َا ًا ّ َ ِي َا ِ ِم‬ ‫هو لذ أ زل سك نة ف قل ب م من ن لي د د إ م ن مع إ م نه‬ He it is Who sent down As-Sakinah into the hearts of the believers, that they may grow more in Faith along with their (present) Faith.
  50. 50. Hudaibiyyah…  Treaty of Hudaibiyyah managed to canvass much support; many embraced Islam henceforth, Revelation of Surah Nasr: ‫إذ ج ء ن ر ّ و ف ح‬ ُ ْ‫ِ َا َا َ َصْ ُ ا ِ َالْ َت‬ ‫ل‬ When there comes the Help of Allah (to you, O Muhammad ‫صلى ا‬ ‫.عليه وسلم‬and the conquest ( ‫َ ََيْ َ ال ّا َ َدْ ُُو َ ِي ِين ا ِ َفْ َا ًا‬ ‫ورأ ت ن س ي خل ن ف د ِ ّ أ و ج‬ ‫ل‬ And you see that the people enter Allah’s religion (Islam) in crowds. ‫َ َ ّحْ ِ َمْ ِ َ ّ َ َاسْ َغْ ِرْ ُ ۚ ِ ّ ُ َا َ َ ّا ًا‬ ‫فسب بح د ربك و ت ف ه إنه ك ن تو ب‬ So glorify the Praises of your Lord, and ask His Forgiveness. Verily, He is the One Who accepts repentance and Who forgives.
  51. 51. Events Preceding Return to Makkah  629, 7 A.H.; the month of Hajj; 2600 pilgrims departed for ‘umrah  Defeat at Mu’tah: death of Ja‘far, Zayd and ten other Muslims, death of his ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ daughter Zaynab  November 629, Quraysh broke the Treaty of Hudaibiyyah; the tribe of Bakr attacked the tribe of Khuza’ah that had joined Muhammad’s ‫صلى ال عليه‬ ‫ وسلم‬confederacy
  52. 52. Return to Makkah  630, 10 Ramadhan, 8 A.H.; largest force of Muslims (nearly all the men of the ummah volunteered) plus Bedouin allies who joined the force along the road: number rose to 10,000  Abu Sufyan awe-struck by the zeal and spirit of the Muslim army, told the Makkans that defiance was now useless  Suhayl, Safwan and Ikrimah decided to attack a small band of Khalid b. Walid’s (ra) soldiers but fled soon after 
  53. 53. Conquest of Makkah  ۚ ُ ِ ‫ِ ّ الْ َا ِ َ َا َ َ ُو ًا َ ُلْ َا َ الْ َ ّ َ َ َ َ الْ َا‬ ‫إن ب طل ك ن زه ق وق ج ء حق وزهق ب طل‬ And say: “Truth has come and Batil (falsehood) has vanished. Surely! Batil is ever bound to vanish.” Al-‘Isra, Verse 81  Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬as the Iconoclast – idols broken, shirk created by the jahilliyah removed; the Haram sanctified once more according to the values of his forefather, Ibrahim’s (as) deen; Hanif – the straight way i.e. Tawhid, the only deen i.e. Islam, the last Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬
  54. 54. Conquest of Makkah  ۚ ‫َا َ ّ َا ال ّا ُ ِ ّا ََقْ َا ُم ّن َ َ ٍ َُن َىٰ َ َ َلْ َا ُمْ ُ ُو ًا َ َ َا ِ َ ِ َ َا َ ُوا‬ ‫ي أيه ن س إن خل ن ك م ذكر وأ ث وجع ن ك شع ب وقب ئل لتع رف‬ ٌ ‫ِ ّ َكْ َ َ ُمْ ِن َ ا ِ َتْ َا ُمْ ۚ ِ ّ ا َ َِي ٌ َ ِي‬ ‫إ ن أ ر م ك ع د ّ أ ق ك إ ن ّ عل م خ ب ر‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ل‬ O Mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honorable of you with Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware. (49:13)  Mount Safa, another declaration and invitation to Islam, full circle, he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬began his da‘wah from there  Quraysh pledged fealty to Islam; 10 people on the black-list who had injured Muhammad’s ‫ , صلى ال عليه وسلم‬his family or spread anti-Muslim propaganda; some on the list asked for pardon and they were spared
  55. 55. From Makkah Back to Medina  January 630, Battle of Hunayn between tribes of Hawazin and Thaqif who were ready for battle at Taif, Hawazin joined Muhammad ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ confederacy  Prayer made at the time hijrah fulfilled: Medina had made been more loving in his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬eyes; chose to return to Medina
  56. 56. Munafiquun and the Masjid-e Dharar ّ ‫َِ َا ِي َ َ ُمْ آ ِ ُوا َ َا آ َ َ ال ّا ُ َاُوا َ ُؤْ ِ ُ َ َا آ َن ال ّ َ َا ُ ۗ َ َ ِ ّ ُمْ ُ ُ ال ّ َ َا ُ ََـٰ ِن‬ ‫وإذ ق ل له من كم من ن س ق ل أن من كم م سفه ء أل إنه هم سفه ء ول ك ل‬ ‫ي لم ن‬ َ ‫َعَْ ُو‬ And when it is said to them (hypocrites): “Believe as the people (followers of Muhammad ‫صلى ا عليه وسلم‬Al-Ansar and Al-Muhajirun) have believed,” , they say: “Shall we believe as the fools have believed?” Verily, they are the fools, but they know not. َ ‫َِ َا َ ُوا اّ ِي َ آم ُوا َاُوا آ َ ّا َِ َا ََوْا َِىٰ َ َا ِي ِ ِمْ َاُوا ِ ّا َ َ ُمْ ِ ّ َا َحْ ُ ُسْ َهْ ِ ُو‬ ‫وإذ لق لذ ن َن ق ل من وإذ خل إل شي ط نه ق ل إن معك إنم ن ن م ت زئ ن‬ And when they meet those who believe, they say: “We believe,” but when they are alone with their Shayatin, they say: “Truly, we are with you; verily, we were but mocking.” ‫ّ ي ت زئ به ويمده ف ط ي نه ي مه ن‬ َ ‫ُ َسْ َهْ ِ ُ ِ ِمْ َ َ ُ ّ ُمْ ِي ُغْ َا ِ ِمْ َعْ َ ُو‬ ‫ل‬ Allah mocks at them and gives them increase in their wrong-doing to wander blindly. Surah al-Baqarah: 13-15
  57. 57. Munafiqun and the Masjid-e Dharar  Camp of Ibn Ubayy gained strength in his ‫صلى ال‬ ‫ عليه وسلم‬absence; mosque built by the Munafiqs called the Masjid-e Dharar which was destroyed on his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬arrival;  Death of Ibn Ubayy  Mosque: a symbol of the unity and fraternity of the Muslim ummah but its foundation built on anything other than love for the deen and the unity of ummah  Comparison with other mosques built on purity of iman
  58. 58. The Last Sermon (Khutbatul Wada’)  Last Hajj of the Prophet ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬sermon given at ; Mosque Namira near Mount ‘Arafat  “Lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore, listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.”  Emphasis on the life of a Muslim as a sacred trust just as the city of Makkah, the ritual of Hajj, and the month of Hajj, of justice, of equity in money matters; of bewaring Shaytan; rights and duties towards wives and viceversa; the duty of Hajj; of mankind being one family; what sets apart is taqwa and good deeds;  Meeting with Allah when we would be Questioned
  59. 59. The Last Sermon (Khutbatul Wada’)…  People, no prophet or apostle will come after me and no new faith will be born. Reason well therefore, O people, and understand words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Qur’an and the Sunnah, and if you follow these you will never go astray.  Affirmation and acknowledgement of his ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ mission being duly fulfilled: All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others and those to others again; and may the last ones understand my words better than those who listened to me directly. Be my witness, O Allah, that I have conveyed Your Message to Your people
  60. 60. The Last Sermon (Khutbatul Wada’)…  Lend an attentive ear: same tone as his ‫صلى ال عليه وسلم‬ sermon at Mount Saffa  Much emphasis on those who could not be present on that day: may the last ones understand it better than those who heard the words directly: trust and hope in his ‫صلى ال عليه‬ ‫ وسلم‬ummah to carry his mission forward  To hold life and pledges, duties and rights sacred; to be one ummah and the oneness to be established on holding onto the Qur’an and his Sunnah which will guide mankind to do good so that it is successful in its Meeting with Allah  To live by His deen Chosen as a Completed Favor upon us (5:3) as no one else would come again to explain it as perfectly as Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬has
  61. 61. Last Hours and Demise  He ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬remained sick for 13-14 days; when condition persisted he asked all his wives (ra) where he should stay and they all knew that he wanted to stay with ‘Aishah (ra)  12 Rabi-ul Awwal, 11 A.H.; last fajr which was his ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬last prayer: Abu Bakr (ra) leading the prayer as he had been doing since the past 3 days; he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬raised the curtain and smiled to see his ummah in jama‘t offering salah; Abu Bakr (ra) stepped aside for him ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬to lead the prayer but he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬asked him (ra) to continue, he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬prayed seated;  He ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬asked to meet daughter Fatimah (ra), his grandsons (ra) and all his wives (ra)  His ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬last command which he said repeatedly: Be careful of prayer and of those whom you possess or have under your charge  Last words: With those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace with the Prophets and the Truthful ones, the martyrs and the good doers. O Allah, forgive me and have mercy upon me and join me to the Companionship on high…The most exalted Companionship on high. To Allah we turn and to Him we turn back for help and last abode
  62. 62. Last Hours and Demise  Abu Bakr’s words: And now, he who worships Muhammad, Muhammad ‫صلى‬ ‫ ا عليه وسلم‬is dead now. But he who worships Allah, He is Ever Living and He never dies. Allah says: ‘Muhammad is no more than a Messenger, and indeed (many) Messengers have passed away before him. If he dies or is killed, will you then turn back on your heels (as disbelievers)? And he who turns back on his heels, not the least harm will he do to Allah, and Allah will give reward to those who are grateful.’ (3:144)  Last hours: he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬met with his family and spend his final moments with his most beloved wife after Khadijah (ra): the Prophet’s ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬attitude as a family man and yet his concern and joy over his ummah as he watched the fulfillment of his mission by seeing it aligned in jam‘at; the importance of salah and to have responsibility when one is in authority  Last words: even as Prophet he ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬begged for Allah’s Forgiveness and Mercy and for his ranks to be Raised and fulfilled his duty that to Allah is his and everyone’s return
  63. 63. Muhammad ‫ – صلى ال عليه وسلم‬The Best There Ever Would Be  ْ‫َا َ ّ َا اّ ِي َ آ َ ُوا َ َرْ َ ُوا َصْ َا َ ُمْ َوْ َ َوْ ِ ال ّ ِ ّ َ َ َجْه ُوا َ ُ ِالْ َوْ ِ َ َهْ ِ َعْ ِ ُم‬ ‫ي أيه لذ ن من ل ت فع أ و تك ف ق ص ت نبي ول ت َر له ب ق ل كج ر ب ضك‬ ‫لب ض أ ت بط أ م لك وأ ت ل ت عر ن‬ َ ‫ِ َعْ ٍ َنْ َحْ َ َ َعْ َاُ ُمْ ََنْ ُمْ َ َشْ ُ ُو‬ O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet ‫صلى ا عليه‬ ‫ , وسلم‬nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds may be rendered fruitless while you perceive not. (Al-Hujraat, Verse 2)  Prophet Muhammad ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬is the Greatest Rahma that Allah has bestowed on all of humanity and as he was Chosen by Allah as the Final Messenger and the Message he was Commanded to Deliver was of Islam, that Message like Its Messenger ‫ صلى ال عليه وسلم‬is Perfect and has been sent for all of humanity َ ‫ّن ُ ِ ِ ال ّ ُو َ َ َدْ َ َا َ ا‬ ‫ل‬ ّ ‫م يطع رس ل فق أط ع‬ He who obeys the Messenger (Muhammad ‫(,صلى ا عليه وسلم‬ has indeed obeyed Allah (4:80)

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