RELIGION – Desire to return to animism
OBJECTION AGAINST ECONOMIC POLICIES
• Our group, ANTI POLO AND BANDALA, will be reporting on
the revolts aginst Economic impositions.
ENCOMIENDA SYSTEM – the first economic policy that granted
the Spanish conquistadores the right to collect tribute in certain
POLO Y SERVICIO - forced labor; all men from 16-60 years old
had to render polo y servicio for 40 days in one year.
BANDALA – compulsory sale of products to the government
TRIBUTES AND OTHER TAXES – Symbolized one’s recognition
the authority of the King of Spain.
MONOPOLY and GALLEON TRADE
LAND GRABBING FOR THE HACIENDA SYSTEM
REVOLT of MAGALAT
1589 – Magalat of Cagayan launched
a revolt against the collection of tribute
by the Spaniards. The revolt ended
when Magalat was killed by Filipinos
who were hired by the Spaniards to kill
REVOLTS AGAINST POLO AND BANDALA
The government then
incurred a large debt
on the Pamapangos
after it requisition
their rice harvest. In
the end, the Spanish
the help of Juan
Macapagal, a former
chief of Arayat, to
suppress the revolt.
REVOLTS OF MALONG AND ALMAZAN
Simultaneous with the Maniago revolt was the
Andres Malong rebellion in Pangasinan.
Malong’s revolt was also rooted over the
abuses of polo y servicio and it soon spread to
Ilocos, Zambales and Cagayan. Due his
numerous followers, he declared himself king
of Pangasinan and allowed his military leaders
to take command of other places. His revolt
ended when he and his followers were
captured and killed by the Spaniards. Malong’s
revolt was followed by Pedro Almazan’s revolt
in Ilocos. Almazan declared himself king of
Ilocos. However, the Spaniard were also able
to crush his revolt.
JUAN DELA CRUZ PALARIS REBELLION
In the 18th century,
revolts continued to
spread in Pangasinan,
Ilocos and neighboring
places. Juan dela Cruz
Palaris led the revolt in
Pangasinan against the
collection of tribute of
Alcalde Mayor Joaquin
Gamboa from his post
and the revolt had been
The British Siege of Manila
The British occupation of Manila was a result of the
war between France and Great Britain. This is known
as “The Seven Years War” which lasted from 17561763. This was partly due to the two countries’
struggle for power over India and North America.
Since Spain sided with France, Great Britain
attacked the Spaniards in Manila.
Inspired by the British
When the British attacked Manila
in September of1762, Diego was
there waiting for the galleon that
would be arriving from Mexico. At
that time, Philippines was being
governed by a friar, Archbishop
Manuel Rojo. The colony lacked
able leadership and in addition,
the British were far superior. The
defeat of the Spaniards was
witnessed by Diego Silang which
led him to believe that Spain was
not that powerful after all. He
planned to challenge the authority
of Spain in Ilocos. His revolt
inspired people from neighboring
parts of Northern Ilocos to revolt
also and Silang was able to
temporarily wrestle power in Ilocos
from the Spaniards.
Who is Diego Silang?
Diego Silang y Andaya (December 16, 1730 – May 28, 1763)
was a revolutionary leader who conspired with British forces to
overthrow Spanish rule in the northern Philippines and establish
an independent Ilocano nation. His revolt was fueled by
grievances stemming from Spanish taxation and abuses, and by
his belief in self-government, that the administration and
leadership of the Roman Catholic Church and government in the
Ilocos be invested in trained Ilocano officials.
Though Silang initially wanted to replace Spanish functionaries in
the Ilocos with native-born officials and volunteered to head
Ilocano forces against the British, desperate Spanish
administrators instead transferred their powers to the Catholic
Bishop of Nueva Segovia (Vigan), who rejected Silang's offer.
Silang's group attacked the city and imprisoned its priests. He
then began an association with the British who appointed him
governor of the Ilocos on their behalf and promised him military
reinforcement. The British force never materialized.
Why was Silang’s revolt significant?
Diego Silang’s revolt was
significant because even for a
short period of time, he was able
to liberate Ilocos from the
Spaniards. When the Spaniards
handed over Manila to the British,
Silang assumed that Spanisg
colonialism was no longer
legitimate in all parts of the colony.
Because of this, he agued that the
collection of tribute and polo y
servicio were no longer legitimate.
He also insisted that Ilocos be
governed by a Filipino.
The story of Silang showed his
role as one of the early advocates
of Filipino nationalism.
Death and Legacy
Diego Silang was killed by one of his
friends, a Spanish-Ilocano mestizo
named Miguel Vicos, whom church
authorities paid to assassinate Silang
with the help of Pedro Becbec. He
was 32 years old.
After Silang's death, his SpanishIlocana mestiza wife, Josefa Gabriela,
took command of the revolt and
fought courageously. The Spanish
sent a strong force against her. She
was forced to retreat to Abra. Gabriela
led her troops towards Vigan but was
driven back. She fled again to Abra,
where she was captured. Gabriela
and her men were summarily hanged
on September 20, 1763; she being
hanged the last.
The Basi Revolt
In 1807, another revolt took place in
Ilocos. This was a reaction to the
monopoly on wine implemented by
the Spaniards. The basi or sugarcane
wine was the native wine in Ilocos.
The Spaniards forced the Ilocanos to
sell their basi to the colonial
government. They were also
prohibited from drinking their own
native wine. If they wanted to have a
taste of their basi, they were ordered
to buy from the stores owned by the
Spanish government. This led to the
outbreak of the “basi revolt”.
In the Visayas, Agustin
Samuroy led the revolt on
Samar in 1649 – 1650. The
revolt was against polo y
sercivio. Governor General
Fajardo polistas (the ones who
render polo y sercivio) from
Visayas to be brought to Cavite
for galleon building. The revolt
spread to Albay, Camarines,
Cebu, Masbate, and northern
Mindanao but it was defeated
by the Spanish forces.