Freshman textbook literaryanalysisactivitybookgoldgr9

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Freshman textbook literaryanalysisactivitybookgoldgr9

  1. 1. Hall RATURE imeLedd VoiCed" TimeLedd ThemedLiterary Analysis Activity Book GOLD PRENTICE HALL Upper Saddle River, New Jersey Glenview, Illinois Needham, Massachusetts
  2. 2. Copyright © 2000 by Prentice-Hall. Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458. All rightsreserved. Student worksheets may be duplicated for classroom use, the number not toexceed the number of students in each class. Notice of copyright must appear on all copies.No other part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage­and-retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in theUnited States of America. ISBN 0-13-437571-8 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 03 02 01 00 99 PRENTICE HALL
  3. 3. Contents Unit 1: Spine Tinglers"The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , l ,"The Most Dangerous Game" by Richard Connell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 21 "Casey at the Bat" by Ernest Lawrence Thayer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 "The Birds" by Daphne du Maurier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 "The Red-headed League" by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 "The Listeners" by Walter de la Mare "Beware: Do Not Read This Poem" by Ishmael Reed "Echo" by Henriqueta Lisboa. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 "Caucasian Mummies Mystify Chinese" by Keay Davidson . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Unit 2: Challenges and Choicesfrom A Lincoln Preface by Carl Sandburg . . . . . . . . ... ~ . . . . ......... 8 "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King from Rosa Parks: My Story by Rosa Parks with Jim Haskins "There Is a Longing ... to by Chief Dan George "I Hear America Singing" by Walt Whitman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 9 "The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind" by Ray Bradbury . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 "The Road Not Taken" by Robert Frost "New Directions" by Maya Angelou "To Be of Use" by Marge Piercy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 "Old Man of the Temple" by R. K. Narayan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 "Perseus" by Edith Hamilton. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 "Slam, Dunk, &: Hook" by Yusef Komunyakaa "The Spearthrower" by Lillian Morrison "Shoulders" by Naomi Shahib Nye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Unit 3: Moments of Discovery"Children in the Woods" by Barty Lopez . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 "Rules of the Game" by Amy Tan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
  4. 4. "Checkouts" by Cynthia Rylant "Fifteen" by William Stafford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 "Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar "Caged Bird" by Maya Angelou "We never know how high we are" by Emily Dickinson from In My Place by Charlayne Hunter-Gault . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 "The Interlopers" by Saki (H. H. Munro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 "The Rug Merchant" by James A. Michener . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 "Combing" by Gladys Cardiff "Women" by Alice Walker "maggie and mOUe and mollie and may" by E.E. Cummings "Astonishment" by Wislawa Szymborska. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Unit 4: The Lighter Side"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 "The Inspector General" by Anton Chekhov . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 "Go Deep to the Sewer" by Bill Cosby "Fly Away" by Ralph Helfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 "An Entomological Study of Apartment 4A" by Patricia Volk ... , . . . . . . 25 "Macavity: The Mystery Cat" by T. S. Eliot "The Problem With Hurricanes" by Victor Hernandez Cruz "Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 "Talk" by Harold Courlander and George Herzog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 "One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts" by Shirley Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Unit 5: Visions of the Futurefrom The Road Ahead by Bill Gates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 "The Machine That Won the War" by Isaac Asimov . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... 30 "Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost ••All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace" by Richard Brautigan "There Will Come Soft Rains" by Sara Teasdale "The Horses" by Edwin Muir . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
  5. 5. "If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth... " by Arthur C. Clarke from Silent Spring by Rachel Carson "To the Residents of A.D. 2029" by Bryan Wooley. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 "Gifts.. by Shu Ting "Glory and Hope" by Nelson Mandela . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Unit 6: Short Stories "The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . c~i) "Sonata for Harp and Bicycle" by Joan Aiken . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 "The Scarlet Ibis" by James Hurst . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 "Blues Aint No Mockin Bird" by Toni Cade Bambara . "UncI e Marcos" by Isabel Allende . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C/ 3f! ;::;. "The Man to Send Rain Clouds" by Leslie Marmon Slim "The Invalids Story" by Mark Twain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 "The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant "The Harvest" by Thomas Rivera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Unit 7: Nonfiction "Single Room, Earth View" by Sally Ride . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 "The Washwoman" by Isaac Bashevis Singer "On Summer" by Lorraine Hansberry "A Celebration of Grandfathers" by Rudolfo A. Anaya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 from A White House Diary by Lady Bird Johnson "Arthur Ashe Remembered" by John McPhee "Georgia OKeeffe" by Joan Didion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 "Understanding Comics" by Scott McCloud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 "Earhart Redux" by Alex Chadwick In These Girls, Hope Is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais, a book review by Steve Gietschier In These Girls, Hope is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais, book jacket. . . . . . . . 44 Unit 8: Drama The Dancers by Horton Foote. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 ." The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act I. by William Shakespeare . . . . . . 46
  6. 6. The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act n. by William Shakespeare. . . ... 47 The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act In. by William Shakespeare. . . ... 48 The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act IV, by William Shakespeare . . . . . . 49 The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act V. by William Shakespeare . . . . . . 50 Unit 9: Poetry"I Wandered Lonely as a Cloudto by William Wordsworth . . . . . . . . . . . ... 51 "The Eagle" by Alfred, Lord Tennyson "Hope is the thing with feathers-to by Emily Dickinson "Dream Deferred" and "Dreams" by Langston Hughes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 "Blackberry Eating" by Galway Kinnell "Memory" by Margaret Walker "Womens Work" by Julia Alvarez "Meciendo" by Gabriela Mistral "Eulogy for a Hermit Crab" by Pattiann Rogers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 "Uphill" by Christina Rossetti "Summer" by Walter Dean Myers Ecclesiastes 3:1-8, The King James Bible "The Bells" by Edgar Allan Poe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 "The Raven" by Edgar Allan Poe "The Seven Ages of Man" by William Shakespeare . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 "On the Grasshopper and the Cricket" by John Keats Sonnet 30 by William Shakespeare Three Haiku by Basho and Chiyojo "Hokku Poems" by Richard Wright . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Unit 10: The Epicfrom the Odyssey, Part I, by Homer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 from the Odyssey, Part 2, by Homer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 "An Ancient Gesture" by Edna St. Vincent Millay "Siren Song" by Margaret Atwood "Prologue" and "Epilogue" from the Odyssey by Derek Walcott "Ithaca" by Constantine CavafY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
  7. 7. Name ______________________________________________ Date ____________ "The Cask of Amontillado" by Edgar Allan Poe (text page 5) Literary Analysis: Setting and Mood Throughout "The Cask of Amontillado." Poe uses specific words to create a particular mood.When reading the story. you can identify the mood from the descriptive details that Poe uses.For example, the words "with a leer" create a threatening mood in the following sentence: "Heraised it to his lips with a leer." Often a single word can be used to describe the mood of astory. One important way Poe establishes the mood of the story is through the different settings.The setting of a story is the time and place of the action. Time can include not only the his­torical period of the story (the past, present, or future) but also the time of year and even thetime of day. The place may involve not only the geographical place (the country, state, or town)but also the social, economic, or cultural environment of the story.DIRECTIONS: In "The Cask of Amontillado," the mood is related to the different settings of thestory. As the setting changes, the mood changes too. Complete the chart to examine howthe setting affects the mood. Identify the descriptive details in each of the settings listed, thenidentify the mood of each setting. The first one has been completed for you. Finally, answerthe questions that follow. Setting Descriptive Details Mood 1. Beginning of story: "the supreme madness frenzied and delirious a street at dusk i of the carnival season" during carnival 2. Middle of story: the catacombs of the Montresors 3. End of story: interior crypt I 4. How do you think the mood of the story relates to the plot? 5. How does the mood shift as the characters move from one setting to another in the begin­ ning, middle, and end of the story?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 1
  8. 8. Name Date __________________ "The Most Dangerous Garnett by Richard Connell (text page 16) Literary Analysis: Connecting Elements of a Short Story1. The plot of a story is made up of a series of related events that include the conflict, the climax, and the resolution. The conflict is a struggle between opposing people or forces. The conflict may be either external, between a character and another character or an out­ side force, or internal, within a characters mind. The climax is the turning point of the story, the point at which the conflict comes to a head. The resolution is how the conflict turns out. IdentifY the conflict, climax, and resolution of "The Most Dangerous Game." Cite passages from the story to support each answer.2. Characters are the people, and in some cases animals, involved in the action of a story. A writer can reveal a characters personality through a variety of techniques, including direct statements about the character, the characters actions and comments, and what other characters say about the character. Briefly describe the two main characters in The Most Dangerous Game," and explain how Connell develops each of these characters. Cite exam­ ples from the story for support.3. Point of view is the vantage point from which a story is told. In a first-person point of view, the narrator is a character who is involved in the action. In a third-person limited point of view, the narrator is not involved in the story and reveals the thoughts of a Single charac ­ ter. In a third-person omniscient point of view, the narrator, who is not involved in the story, can see into the minds of all the characters. IdentifY the point of view of "The Most Dangerous Game," and explain how you think the point of view affected how you responded to the events in the story.4. The setting is the time and place of the events in the story. IdentifY the setting of The Most Dangerous Game." Explain why the setting is a key element of the story. and analyze how the setting affects the storys mood, or atmosphere.5. Theme is the general idea about life that the author wants to communicate. Sometimes, the theme is revealed directly. More often, the theme is revealed indirectly through the characters and events in the story. State the theme of "The Most Dangerous Game," and identifY how it is revealed.2 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  9. 9. Name ______________________________________________ Date ___________ "Casey at the Bat" by Ernest Lawrence Thayer (text page 36) Literary Analysis: Plot The plot of a piece of writing is like a pyramid. Each event builds on the one(s) before, untilthe poem or story reaches the climax, the pOint of greatest interest or excitement, at the top.The anticlimax is a kind of letdown, when the ending is not what you expected--"MightyCasey" does strike out. DIRECTIONS:Use the plot diagram and the lines provided to identifY the major events of thepoem that lead to the anticlimax. IdentifY the anticlimax in item 8. The first entry has beencompleted for you. Then answer the question that follows. anticlimax 1. The Mudville team was losing. but most of the crowd remained to see Casey. 2. _____________________________________________ 3. ________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________ 5. ________________________________________________ 6. ___________________________________________________ 7. _________________________________________________________ 8. _________________________________________________________ 9. Look at your completed plot outline. How do the plot events in the poem lead you to believe that Casey will not strike out? _____________________________© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 3
  10. 10. Name ________________________ Date _________ "The Birds" by Daphne du Maurier (text page 46) Literary Analysis: Mood Writers often use foreshadowing to create suspense by hinting at events to come. In sus­penseful works of literature, foreshadowing can contribute to the mood or atmosphere. Byusing clues to suggest what has yet to occur, a writer can create a particular feeling in thereader.DIRECTIONS: Complete the chart to examine how foreshadowing is linked to the mood of "TheBirds." Read the clues in the first column. Then explain what events these clues foreshadow.In the last column, identify the mood created by the foreshadowing. When you have completedthe chart, answer the question that follows. Story Clues Event Foreshadowed Mood l. Nat drew the blanket round him, the turmoil they will apprehension, leaned closer to the back of his soon face uncertainty sleeping wife, and stayed wakeful, watchful, aware of misgivings without cause. 2. "Householders are warned to see to their windows, doors, and chimneys, and to take reasonable precautions for the safety of their children." I T 3. Nat did not want to scare her. He thought it possible that she might not go to town tomorrow. I 4. And now, in the midst of many problems, he realized that it was dance music only coming over the air. Not Childrens Hour, as it should have been. 5. He was filled with misgivings. He ~ did not want his wife or the children to go down to the farm. i i 6. In general, what kind of mood is created by the use of foreshadowing in "The Birds"? How is this mood created?4 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  11. 11. Name ________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "The Red-headed League" by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (text page 82) Literary Analysis: Suspense in a Mystery A mystery is a story of suspense that usually contains the following elements: a crime, acrime solver, suspects, a criminal, and key details such as clues, alibis, and charactersmotives, The suspense. or feeling of curiosity or uncertainty, in the mystery is created by thewriters use of details that arouse the readers curiosity by hinting at events to come.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart to examine how Sir Arthur Conan Doyle creates sus ­pense in "The Red-Headed League." Read the description from the story in the first column.Then identify the details from the description that help to create suspense. Finally, explainhow this suspense adds to the readers interest in the mystery. The first one has been donefor you. I Details That Create How Details Increase Interest in Mystery Description From Story Suspense 1. "I went to the landlord ... and I Landlord said he Readers want to find out asked him if he could tell me never heard of Red- what had happened to the what had become of the Red- headed League. organization. headed League. He said that he had never heard of any such body." 2. When I saw him that afternoon so enwrapped in the music at St. Jamess Hall I felt that an evil time might be coming upon those whom he had set himself to hunt down. 3. "And, I say, Doctor, there may be some little danger, so kindly put your army revolver in your pocket." 4. "It is our French gold," whis­ pered the director. "We have had several warnings that an attempt might be made upon it." 5. "These are daring men, and though we shall take them at a disadvantage, they may do us some harm unless we are careful. " I I I© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 5
  12. 12. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________ "The Listeners" by Walter de la Mare (text page 104) "Beware: Do Not Read This Poem" by Ishmael Reed (text page 106) "Echo" by Henriqueta Lisboa (text page 107) Literary Analysis: Comparative Figurative Language Poets use imagery to appeal to the readers five senses-touch, taste. smell. hearing.and sight. Often this imagery relies on figures of speech. such as metaphor. personification.and hyperbole. These figures of speech create vivid impressions in the readers minds. • A metaphor implies a direct comparison between two unlike things. • Personification gives human characteristics to a nonhuman subject. • Hyperbole is exaggeration and overstatement for emphasis.DIRECTIONS: For each of the passages listed below. identify the figure of speech used by thepoet. Then describe the impression created in your mind. Type of Example of Figure of Impression Poem Figures of Speech Speech Created 1. "The Listeners" And how the silence surged personification makes the silence seem softly backward, almost lifelike. like When the plunging hoofs one of the ghostly were gone. characters in the poem 2. "Beware" the hunger of this poem is legendary it has taken in many victims I I I 3. "Beware" it is a greedy mirror ! 4. "Beware" this poem aint got no manners 5. "Echo" Thousands of parrots screamed together I 6. "Echo" steely screams rained and rained down. I I6 Literary Analysis.Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  13. 13. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________ "caucasian Mummies Mystify Chinese" by Keay Davidson (text page 112) Literary Analysis: Fact and Opinion A news articles main purpose is to inform the reader about the subject of the article byanswering six basic questions: who. what;. when. where, why, and how. The opening sen­tences of a news article, called the lead, are written to capture the audiences attention bysummarizing the main pOints of the stoxy and answer as many of the six questions as possible. The main idea in a news article is supported by important details. Some of these details arefacts. which can be proved true. Other details are expert opinions. which are what peoplethink or feel about the main idea or what they believe to be true about it. An opinion can besupported, but it cannot be proved to be true. Complete the following chart by writing one fact and one opinion from "CaucasianDIREcTIONS:Mummies Mystify Chinese" that provide details about the main idea. Main Idea Fact Opinion 1. The discovexy was described by The first of the more This discovexy could a scientist writing in Discover than 100 mummies have a greater effect magazine in April 1994. were found in 1978 on our theories of and 1979. evolution than the idea of a lone "ice man." 2. The discovexy of the mummies received little press attention in the West. 3. Only five years ago, Chinese authorities would not have granted Westerners access to tissue samples from the mummies. 4. The mummies are found at burial sites in a 500-mile­ wide region of northwest China. 5. It has taken a long time for the news of these Chinese mummies to get the attention of Western scholars. i 6. When Matr first saw the Chinese mummies, he immediately recognized their faces as Caucasians.© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 7
  14. 14. Name ____________~___________ Date __________ from A Lincoln Preface by Carl Sandburg (text page 129) Literary Analysis: Anecdotes and Mood Carl Sandberg uses anecdotes in A Lincoln Preface to entertain readers and to make certainpOints about Abraham Lincoln. But these anecdotes also help to create particular feelings inthe reader. The feeling that a piece of writing creates is its mood. The mood of a work often issuggested by the descriptive details a writer uses-the kinds of details often found in anecdotes.DIRECTIONS: Read each anecdote about Lincoln from A Lincoln Preface in the first column. Thenidentify the mood that the anecdote creates. In the last column. explain how the anecdotehelps to create the particular mood. The first one has been done for you. ! How Anecdote Anecdote i Mood Creates Mood 1. As they were finishing their talk of the days of eerie and It foreshadows blood, he said, "I shant last long after its over." sad Lincolns assassination. 2. "I dont intend precisely to throw the Constitution overboard, but I will stick a hole in it if I can," he told a Cabinet officer. The enemy was violating I ! the Constitution to destroy the Union, he argued, and therefore, "I will violate the Constitution, if necessary, to save the Union." 3. When his white kid gloves broke into tatters while shaking hands at a White House reception, he remarked, "This looks like a general bustificaiton." 4. He mentioned "the politicians," over and over again "the politicians," with scorn and blame. As the platoons filed before him at a review of an army corps, he asked, "What is to become of these boys when the war is over?" i 5. He threw a cashiered officer of hi the I White house, crying, "I can bear censure, but not insult. I never wish to see your face again." i !8 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  15. 15. Name ___________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "I Have a Dream" by Martin Luther King, Jr. (text page 140) from Rosa Parks: My Story by Rosa Parks with Jim Haskins (text page 143) "There Is a Longing... " by Chief Dan George (text page 145) "I Hear America Singing" by Walt Whitman (text page 146) Literary Analysis: Comparing Tone Tone is the attitude a writer takes toward the subject of his or her writing. A writers tone isoften influenced by his or her purpose for writing. This Is especially true in the case of nonfic ­tion. For example, the tone of a persuasive speech might be forceful and resolute in order tomake the writers argument more compelling. To identify the tone of a literary work, pay atten­tion to the words, phrases. and details a writer uses and the attitudes and feelings that thesewords. phrases, and details reveal.DIRECTIONS: For each of the following works, identify the authors purpose for writing. Then.identify the tone of each work. Last, briefly describe how the tone Is established in the work.The first one has been done for you. Authors How Tone Is Purpose Tone Established "I Have a Dream" i to persuade powerful, optimistic King uses very powerful images and uplifting language to create a persuasive and moving speech. Rosa Parks: My Story "There Is a Longing..... "I Hear America Singing"© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 9
  16. 16. Name ______________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "The Golden Kite, the Silver Wind" by Ray Bradbury (text page 152) Literary Analysis: Figurative Language in a Fable In this fable, the author uses figurative language to emphasize the theme and moral of thestory. Figurative language is not meant to be taken literally. It is a heightened use of languageto create vivid and striking impressions by setting up comparisons between unlike ideas,objects. and concepts. There are different kinds of figurative language. A simile makes thecomparison using the words like or as. A metaphor makes comparison directly.Personification gives human qualities to a nonhuman thing.DIRECTIONS: Read each passage from "The Golden Kite. the Silver Wind" in the first column.Then. in the second column. identify the type of figurative language used by the writer.Finally, describe what association and impressions this figurative language brings to mind.The first one has been done for you. I Idea, Feeling, or Example of Type of State of Mind Created by Figurative Language Figurative Language I Figurative Language 1. Death rattled his cane in personification i Death becomes a physical the outer courtyard. I presence, like a human character in the story. 2. Fireworks were set off and the demons of death and poverty, did not linger, as all worked together. 3. But the pleasure was like a winter flower; it died swiftly. 4. The Mandarins heart sickened within him like an autumn fruit upon an ancient tree. 5. liTe II my stonemasons," I said the whisper that was a falling drop of rain. 6. Like a rusted machine, the city ground to a halt.10 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  17. 17. Name ________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost (text page 166) to "New Directions" by Maya Angelou (text page 168) "To Be of Use" by Marge Piercy (text page 171) Literary Analysis: Figurative Language and Theme Figurative language is writing or speech not meant to be interpreted literally. It createsvivid impressions by connecting an abstract idea to a concrete thing. Figurative language isoften used by writers to emphasize the theme of their works. The theme of a work. or its cen­tral message about life. can be stated directly or implied. When the theme is not stateddirectly. you have to read between the lines to discover it.DIRECTIONS: Read each example of figurative language in the chart. Then. explain what ideasor concepts are being compared and how this comparison relates to the theme of the selec ­tion. Finally, answer the question that follows. Passage Comparison Theme l. Two roads diverged in a wood, and 1 ­ The writer is compar ­ The theme of the poem 1took the one less traveled by, ing choosing two roads is that choosing a "safe" And that has made all the difference to travel on to choosing path in life is not always -"The Road Not Taken II two paths in life. the most rewarding. 2. "I looked up the road 1was going and back the way I come, and since 1wasnt satisfied, 1decided to step off the road and cut me a new path." -IINew Directions" 3 .... if the future road looms ominous or un­ promising, and the roads back uninviting, then we need to gather our resolve and, carrying only the necessary baggage/ step off that road into another direction. -"New Directions" 4. 1 love people who harness themselves, an ox to a heavy cart, who pull like water buffalo, with massive patience ... -liTo Be of Use ll I 5. What similar ideas about life do these three works share?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 11
  18. 18. Name _ _~__ Date _ _ _~_ _ _ __ "Old Man of the Temple" by R. K. Narayan (text page 176) Literary Analysis: Comparing Narrators A narrator is someone who tells a story. The narrator of a story can be a character in thestory or an outside observer who does not participate in the action of the story. The type of narrator a writer uses will determine the amount of information revealed to youas you read. Often. if the narrator is a character in the story. you will only get as much infor­mation as that character knows. This is first-person narration. When the narrator is an outside observer, you usually have access to what all the charac­ters think, know, and feel. This kind of omniscient, or all-knowing, narration is referred to asthird-person narration. Compare the type of narration used in "Old Man of the Temple" to that used in TheDIRECTIONS:Most Dangerous Game." Complete the chart. Then answer the question that follows. I Is Narrator a Story Character in Story? Type of Narration Used 1. "The Most Dangerous Game" 2. "Old Man of the Temple" 3. How does the type of narration used in each story affect the mood?12 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  19. 19. Name ____ ~ ________________________________________ Date _________________ "Perseus" by Edith Hamilton (text page 186) Literary Analysis: Judging Character The hero in a myth is a character who performs great acts of strength and courage. Thehero usually finds himself or herself in a story involving supernatural beings and fantasticevents and is often aided by magical elements. In addition. the hero exhibits admirable quali­ties such as courage, loyalty. and fairness. A heros character traits cause him or her tobehave in a certain way, just as a character in realistic fiction does. By examining these traits,you can better understand the heros actions and make judgments about him or her.DIRECTIONS: Examine the character of Perseus. Complete the following chart with informationabout Perseuss character and how his character influences the action in the story. Identifywhat character trait is revealed in each episode and then tell what happens as a result. Thefirst one has been done for you. Then answer the question that follows. Character Trait I What Happens as a Episode in Story Revealed I Result 1. Perseus attends the kings He wants to prove He offers to kill Medusa celebration. himself better than I and bring her head the kings other guests. back to the king. 2. Perseus meets the Gray Women. 3. Perseus finds Medusa. i 4. Perseus sees Andromeda. 5. Perseus returns home. 6. Perseus returns to Greece to see his grandfather. 7. How would you describe Perseuss character, based on his actions in this story?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 13
  20. 20. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________ "Slam. Dunk. &: Hook" by Yusef Komunyakaa (text page 198) "The Spearthrower" by Lillian Morrison (text page 200) "Shoulders" by Naomi Shihab Nye (text page 201) Literary Analysis: Repetition in Poetry Repetition is the use of an element of language more than once. whether it is a sound, aword, a phrase, or a sentence. Poets often use repetition for musical effects or to emphasizean idea or feeling. A poet can repeat the initial sound of a consonant letter. known as allitera·tion; the sound of a word, known as rhyme; or the rhythm of words and phrases. Thesesound patterns can create striking effects when the poem is read aloud.DIRECTIONS: Examine the use of repetition in the three poems in this section. For each poem inthe chart, identify the kind of repetition used by the poet and then provide an example fromthe poem. Poem Type of Repetition Used Example 1. "Slam. Dunk. & Hook" 2. "The Spearthrower" 3. "Shoulders" 14 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  21. 21. Na~e ______________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "Children in the Woods" by Bany Lopez (text page 215) Literary Analysis: Tone People wrtte essays to make a point. One way to make a point is to state a central idea andthen support it with details. However, a wrtter can also make his or her point in more subtleways. The wrtters tone. or attitude toward his or her subject, influences the readers reactionto the essay. A wrtters tone can often be described in one word, such as formal or informal,serious or playful, bitter or ironic. When you listen to a speaker, you can easily detect thespeakers attitude through gestures, faCial expression, and tone of voice. When you read, youcan detect tone through the wrtters choice of words.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following word web in order to examine Barry Lopezs tone in"Children in the Woods." In the outer ovals, identifY words and phrases from the essay thatyou think help to create the tone. Then, describe the tone in the center oval. When you havecompleted the web, answer the question that follows.How does understanding the wrtters tone help you understand his or her message?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 15
  22. 22. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________ "Rules of the Game" by Amy Tan (text page 224) Literary Analysis: Point of View When we read a short story. we learn about events through the narrator, or the personwho tells the story. The writers choice of narrator determines the storys point of view, orperspective. Waverly, the narrator of "Rules of the Game," is a young girl who was born inAmerica. Her mother, who comes from a different generation and a different culture, sees thestory events differently. A generational conflict, like the one between Waverly and her mother,usually occurs because people who are in different generations have different pOints of view.DIRECTIONS: Examine how the choice of narrator affects a storys point of view. Retell the storyevents in "Rules of the Game" from Mrs. Jongs point of view. beginning middle end16 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  23. 23. Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "Checkouts" by Cynthia Rylant (text page 236) "Fifteen" by William Stafford (text page 241) Literary Analysis: Comparing the Use of Irony Irony is a literary technique in which the writer says or shows the opposite of what isexpected. When writers use words that suggest the opposite of what they really mean, it iscalled verbal irony. Writers who show a contradiction between what readers know and whatthe characters think are using dramatic irony. Irony of situation involves a contradictionbetween a characters or readers expectations of what will happen and what really happens ina story.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart by first identifYing whether each passage is anexample of verbal irony, dramatic irony, or irony of situation. Then explain why the thepassage is ironic. When you have completed the chart, answer the question that follows. Passage Type of Irony Why It Is Ironic 1. Then one day the bag boy dropped her irony of situation We expect customers jar of mayonnaise and that is how she fell to feel angry if the in love. bag boy drops their groceries. 2. He believed he must have looked the jackass in her eyes, and he envied the sureness of everyone around him ... 3. For some perverse reason she would not have been able to articulate, the girl did not bring her cart up to the bag boys checkout when her shopping was done. And the bag boy let her leave the store, pretending no notice of her. I 4. I led it gently to the road and stood with that companion, ready and friendly, I was fifteen. 5. He ran his hand over it, called me a good man, roared away. 6. Why do you think each writer uses irony? How does the irony contribute to the overall impact of the story and the poem?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 17
  24. 24. Name ____________________________________________ Date ____________ "Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar (text page 246) "Caged Bird" by Maya Angelou (text page 247) "We never know how high we are" by Emily Dickinson (text page 249) from In My Place by Charlayne Hunter-Gault (text page 250) Literary Analysis: Comparing Symbols and Theme A symbol is a word or image that has another meaning beyond its literal meaning. Writers,especially poets, often use symbols to emphasize the theme, or central message about life, ofa work.DIRECTIONS: In the first box, describe what you think the caged bird symbolizes in each poem.Then. in the second box. state the theme of each poem. When you have finished. answer thequestion that follows. "Sympathy" "Caged Bird" Meaning of Symbol Meaning of Symbol Theme ThemeCompare the symbol of the caged bird used by Dunbar and Angelou in their poems. Whatother symbols do you think the poets could have used to emphasize their themes?18 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall. Inc.
  25. 25. Name ______________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "The Interlopers" by Saki (H.H. Munro) (text page 262) Literary Analysis: Conflict and Resolution Stories are usually built around conflict. or a struggle between opposing forces. A conflictmay be internal. or inside the mind of a character. An external conflict is between a charac­ter and an outside force. That outside force may be another character or an aspect of societyor nature. The resolution is the part of the plot in which the conflict is finally resolved.However. not all stories offer resolution to their conflicts, or a writer may only imply the reso­lution to a conflict without stating it directly.DIRECTIONS: Identify the conflict in each passage listed in the following chart. Tell whether it isinternal or external and name the two opposing sides in the conflict. Then tell how each con­flict is resolved. When you are done. answer the question that follows. Opposing Type of Is Conflict Passage Forces Conflict Resolved? 1. Ulrich von Gradwitz patrolled Ulrich von Gradwitz external yes the dark forest in quest of a and Georg Znaeym human enemy. 2. A fierce shriek of the storm had been answered by a splitting crash over their heads, and ere they could leap aside a mass of falling beech tree had thundered down on them. 3. In the pain and languor that Ulrich himself was feeling the old fierce hatred seemed to be dying down. 4. "I can see figures coming through the wood. They are following in the way I came down the hillside." i I 5. How do you think the final external conflict between the two men and the wolves will be resolved? Why do you think Saki chose not to resolve this conflict in the story?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 19
  26. 26. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________ "The Rug Merchant" by James Michener (text page 272) Literary Analysis: Characterization and Tone In his essay, Michener relates his experiences with a rug merchant in Afghanistan. In fact.the subject of his essay is the rug merchant himself. When nonfiction writers write about aperson, they use the same techniques to create and develop their characters that fiction writersdo. As with fiction, the goal is to create a striking portrait of a person in words. Because the rug merchant is the subject of Micheners essay, you can use his characteriza­tion to help you determine the tone of the work. Tone is the particular feeling or attitude thata writer has toward his or her subject. By paying careful attention to the writers choice ofwords, you can identifY the tone. Note, however, that a writer can have more than one toneand can also change his or her attitude toward a subject or topic over time.DIRECTIONS: As you read "The Rug Merchant." you may have noticed that Micheners attitudetoward the merchant changes. Complete the following diagram by identifying the ways Michenercharacterizes the rug merchant from the start of his essay to the end. Then use this informa­tion to determine the tone of the essay at the beginning and then at the end. Rug Merchant Tone "perSistent rascal" who is confident he could wear Michener down + ~ + + ingenious man who spent days persuading Michener to buy rugs20 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  27. 27. Name ______________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "Combing" by Gladys Cardiff (text page 282) "Women" by AlIce Walker (text page 283) "maggie and milly and molly and may" by E.E. Cummings (text page 284) "Astonishment" by Wislawa Szymborska (text page 285) Literary Analysis: Comparing Sensory Details A poems exploration of ideas and feelings frequently results in a moment of insight, or aflash of understanding when you see something in a whole new way. These moments ofinsight are brought about through a poets use of particular images and details, which oftenappeal to your five senses-sight, sound. touch. taste, and smell. By identifying these sensorydetails in a poem, you can make your reading experience more rewarding.DIREcTIONS: For each passage in the following chart, first list the sensory details used by thepoet. Then identifY the senses being appealed to. Then answer the question that follows. Sensory Senses Passage Details Appealed To 1. My daughters hair wet. fragrant. sight, touch, smell Curls against the comb, orange Wet and fragrant-orange Pairings. -"Combing" 2. Beneath My mothers hands I feel The braids drawn up tight As a piano wire and singing, Vinegar-rinsed. -"Combing" 3. How they battered down Doors And ironed Starched white Shirts -"Women" 4. Why... do I sit and stare into a dark corner, just as it looks up, suddenly raising its head, this growling thing that is called a dog? _"Astonishment" 5. In "Combing" and "Women," how do the sensory details contribute to the overall effect of the poems? Why do you think each poet chose to use these details?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 21
  28. 28. Name ___.___________- __________ Date ____- -_ _ __ "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" by James Thurber (text page 299) Literary Analysis: Point of View and Narration The narrator is the speaker or character who tells a story. James Thurber tells the story ofWalter Mittys secret life from the limited third-person point of view. The narrator is not acharacter in the story, but he or she does have access to Walters thoughts and feelings.However, to an observer who cant see into Walters mind as the reader does, Walters actionsmight seem very different.DIRECTIONS: Take the role of one of the other characters in "The Secret Life of Walter Mitty" andnarrate a part of the story. Tell the story from that characters point of view. Make sure yourpoint of view remains consistent with the character you choose. The Secret Life of Walter Mitty by _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ (characters name)----_ .... _-------------------------------­ -- --- ---------------------------------------_ ...... _ - ... _----,-------------­22 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  29. 29. Name ________________________________________________ Date _________________ "The Inspector-General" by Anton Chekhov (text page 310) Literary Analysis: Characterization Writers use irony to show that things may not be as they appear by creating a contrastbetween an expected outcome and the actual outcome. Much of the irony in Chekhovs playresults from the ways the Inspector-General is characterized. A writer reveals the personality of a character through the technique of characterization.Direct characterization occurs when a writer makes direct statements about a characterstraits. In indirect characterization, the reader must draw conclusions about the characterbased on the way he or she looks, acts, and thinks, as well as what other characters think ofhim or her.DIRECTIONS:Complete the following character web to examine the character traits of theInspector-General. In each oval, identifY a trait of the Inspector-General and then writewhether the trait is an example of direct or indirect characterization. Inspector-General© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 23
  30. 30. Name _______________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "Go Deep to the Sewer" by Bill Cosby (text page 319) "Fly Away" by Ralph Helfer (text page 324) Literary Analysis: Comparing Theme A theme is the central message about life that is revealed in a literary work. Sometimes aworks theme is stated directly by the writer. Other times, the theme is implied and you mustdraw conclusions based on details in the work.DIRECTIONS:Use the passages in the following chart to help you identify a major theme in eachwork. Then answer the question that follows. Passage Theme of Work 1. The essence of childhood, of course, is play, which my friends and I did endlessly on streets that we reluctantly shared with traffic. As a daring receiver in touch foot­ ball, I spent many happy years running up and down asphalt fields, hoping that a football would hit me before a Chevrolet did. "Go Deep to the Sewer" 2. Sometimes affection training was not the only answer. One could not "pet" a fly or earn its respect. I knew I would have to resort to the laws of nature for the answer to this one. Id had the opportunity to work with various insects in the past. But 5,00011 hoped I hadnt bitten off more than I could chew. -"Fly Away" 3. How do you think the use of humor impacts upon the theme of each work?24 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  31. 31. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________________ "An Entomological Study of Apartment 4Att by Patricia Volk (text page 332) Literary Analysis: Feature Articles and Authors Purpose Feature artIcles, which often appear in newspapers and magazines, are lengthy news storiesthat focus on the experiences, problems, or ideas of a person or group of people. Often, theauthors purpose, or reason, for writing will influence the subject matter and style of thearticle. Authors generally write to inform or explain, to express an opinion, to entertain, or topersuade readers to do or believe in something. When you determine an authors purpose forwriting, you can better understand and interpret what you read.DIRECTIONS: Patricia Volks feature article is meant both to entertain readers and provide infor­mation about insects. Complete the following chart by providing three examples from thearticle that illustrate each of these purposes for writing. Purpose Examples to entertain 1. 2. 3. to inform 1. 2. 3.© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 25
  32. 32. Name ____________________________________________ Date _________ "Macavity: The Mystery Cat" by T.S. Eliot (text page 346) "Problems With Hurricanes" by Victor Hernandez Cruz (text page 350) "Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll (text page 352) Literary Analysis: Fantasy and Reality These poems not only rely on humorous diction for comic effect, but also blend togetherfantasy and reality in highly amusing ways. Fantasy allows our imaginations to run wildbecause it is a realm in which events are not dictated by reality-where the impossible canhappen.DIRECTIONS: Choose one of the poems in this section and complete the following chart. In thefirst column. list those elements from the poem that are realistic or true to life. In the secondcolumn, list the fantastical elements.Poem: _________________________________________ Realistic Elements Fantastical Elements26 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  33. 33. Name ______________________________________________ Date ______________ "Talk" by Harold Courlander and George Herzog (text page 358) Literary Analysis: Folk Tale Folk tales are stories that have been passed down orally through generations. They are partof a particular cultures heritage. The stories in folk tales typically follow simple plots andinvolve either human characters interacting with animals or animals alone. Folk tales oftenrely on humor and exaggeration to entertain listeners, but they also provide an importantfunction by expressing a cultures values and beliefs.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following web to examine how "Talk" exemplifies the characteristicsof a folk tale. simple plot Folk Tale expresses a cultures humor and exaggeration values and beliefs© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 27
  34. 34. Name ______________________________________________ Date ______________ "One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts" by Shirley Jackson {text page 364J Literary Analysis: Rising Action and Climax The plot for "One Ordinary Day, With Peanuts" does not follow the usual pattern of exposi­tion, rising action, climax, falling action, and resolution. Instead, the plot is mostly risingaction with a steep turn in the last few paragraphs of the story-a typical scenario for storieswith surprise endings.DIRECTIONS: Use the rising action and climax diagram and the lines provided to identify plotevents in the story that lead to the climax. Then identify the climax in item 5 and the endingof the story in item 6. The first entry has been completed for you. 3 2 1 1. Mr. Johnson watches a young boy as his mother moves out of an apartment. 2. 3. ____________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________ 6. 28 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  35. 35. Name ______________________________________________ Date _______________ from The Road Ahead by Bill Gates (text page 385) Literary Analysis: Main Idea in Expository Writing Expository writing. such as a newspaper or a magazine article. informs or explains some­thing. When reading expository writing. it is helpful to identify the main idea and the support­ing details that provide more information about this idea. Sometimes. the main idea is stateddirectly: other times the main idea is only implied. and you must read between the lines todetermine what it is.DIRECTIONS: Read the following paragraphs from The Road Ahead. Then. in the second column.identify the main idea. either stated or implied. and give two details that support the mainidea. You can summarize these details in your own words. The first one has been done foryou. Then answer the question that follows. Paragraph Main Idea Supporting Details l. Paragraph 2. page 385. Conventional television The technical term for beginning. "Conventional allows us to decide what this sort of broadcasting television ... " we want to watch but not is "synchronous." when we watch. it. 2. Paragraph 3. page 385. beginning. "In the early 1980s ... " 3. Paragraph 5. page 385. beginning. "Once a form of communication ... " 4. Paragraph 6. page 386. beginning. "Television has been around ... " 5. Paragraph 11. page 387. beginning. "The digitized data ... " 6. In your own words. sum up the main idea of the entire work.© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 29
  36. 36. Name ____________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "The Machine That Won the War" by Isaac Asimov (text page 394) Literary Analysis: Fantasy and Reality In science fiction. a WIiter creates settings. characters, and situations that are not foundin reality. These changes rely on real scientific knowledge and on predictions based on thatknowledge. Science fiction frequently is set in the future and/or on other planets. Writers con­sider the effects of scientific possibilities on human beings. Unlike fantasy. science fictiondepends on situations that are true to life or possible in the real world. even though the set­ting is made up.DIRECTIONS: Examine the elements of The Machine That Won the War" that are real and thosethat are fantasy. For each category in the following chart. list examples from the story that arescience fact and science fiction. The first one has been started for you. Category Science Fact Science Fiction 1. Characters real people, with thoughts and feelings we recognize 2. Setting 3. Plot30 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  37. 37. Name ________________~___________________________ Date _____________ "Fire and Ice" by Robert Frost (text page 412) "All Watched Over by Machines of Loving Grace" by Richard Brautigan (text page 413) "There Will Come Soft Rains" by Sara Teasdale (text page 414) "The Horses" by Edwin Muir (text page 415) Literary Analysis: Comparing Theme The theme of a poem is its central idea. It is not necessarily the subject of the poem, but ageneralization about human nature or life. Often, in a poem, the theme is not stated directly.Instead. you need to think about what the poet Is trying to say about human nature.DIRECTIONS: Compare the themes of "There Will Come a Soft Rain" and "The Horses." First listdetails from each poem that you think develop the theme. Then identifY the theme of eachpoem. Finally. answer the question that follows. Details from "There Will Come Soft Rains" Details from "The Horses"Theme: __________________________ Theme: ___________________________How are the themes of the two poems similar? How are they different?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 31
  38. 38. Name ________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth ... " by Arthur C. Clarke (text page 426) from Silent Spring by Rachel Carson (text page 430) "To the Residents of A.D. 2029" by Bryan Woolley (text page 434) Literary Analysis: Exhortation and Theme An exhortation is an urgent appeal or warning. The warning can be stated directly in thetext. or it can be implied by the authors words. Directly stated exhortations more often occurin nonfiction because the writer often tries to persuade you to agree with his or her theme.DIRECTIONS: Read each exhortation in the chart. In the second column. write the meaning ofthe exhortation in your own words. In the next column, write the theme of the work. Then, inthe last column, explain how the exhortation relates to the theme. How Exhortation Meaning of Relates Exhortation Exhortation Theme to Theme 1. There was no sign that men had Take care of It is impor ­ If we dont protect ever explored this land, but once and preserve tant that our planet, one day they passed the skeleton of a our planet we protect we will be forced to crashed rocket, and beside it a stone so it isnt our planet. abandon it because cairn surmounted by a metal cross. destroyed. life here will be -"If I Forget Thee, Oh Earth ... " impossible. 2. In the town the doctors had become more and more puzzled by new kinds of sickness appearing among their patients. There had been several sudden and unexplained deaths.... -Silent Spring 3. The roadsides, once so attractive, were now lined with browned and withered vegetation as though swept by fire. These, too, were silent, deserted by all living things. -Silent Spring 4. Scientists say the last wisp of pure, nat­ ural air in the continental United States was absorbed into our generally polluted atmosphere over Flagstaff, Arizona, sev­ eral years ago. Parts of our land are over­ crowded, parts neglected, parts destroyed. -"To the Residents of A.D. 2029"32 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  39. 39. Name ________________________________________________ Date __________ "Gifts" by Shu Ting (text page 442) "Glory and Hope" by Nelson Mandela (text page 443) Literary Analysis: Tone and Authors Purpose Tone is a writers attitude toward his or her topic. Sometimes a single work reflects severaldifferent tones. A writer uses specific words and details to create a tone, so it is important tothink carefully about the writers choice of words in order to understand how and why theselection makes you feel a certain way. When examining the tone of a work, it helps to think about the authors purpose for writ­ing. Often, the tone of a work is related to the reasons the writer is writing it.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart to examine how the tone of a work is related to theauthors purpose. Read each passage. Then, identify the key words that create a tone. Next,identify the tone. Finally, identify the authors purpose. The first one has been done for you.Then answer the question that follows. Authors Passage Key Words Tone Purpose l. My joy is the joy of sunlight. joy of sunlight joyful to entertain, In a moment of creation to express an I will leave shining words an opinion In the pupils of childrens eyes Igniting golden flames. -"Gifts" 2. We would also like to pay tribute to our security forces ... for the distinguished role they have played in securing our first democratic elections and the transition to democracy, from bloodthirsty forces which still refuse to see the light. -"Glory and Hope" 3. We have, at last, achieved our political emancipation. We pledge ourselves to liberate all our people from the continu ­ ing bondage of poverty, deprivation, suf­ fering, gender and other discrimination. -"Glory and Hope" 4. In each work, how does the authors purpose for writing affect the tone?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 33
  40. 40. Name ________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "The Gift of the Magi" by O. Henry (text page 459) Literary Analysis: Conflict Like a novel, a short story has a plot. However. the plot of a short story is usually simplerthan that of a novel because the writer must accomplish his or her purpose in relatively fewwords. The plot. therefore, typically involves one or two main characters who face one majorproblem. or conflict. A conflict is a struggle between opposing forces and can be external orinternal. An external conflict involves a struggle with an outside force, such as another char­acter or an aspect of society. When a conflict occurs within a character, it is internal.DIRECTIONS: In the following chart. identity the external and internal conflicts in The Gift ofthe Magi." Use the information in each box at the top to help you identity each conflict. Thenanswer the questions that follow. Information Information It is Christmas. Della wants to buy Jim a gift. Della has no extra money after paying The only way she can make money for a the bills. gift is to sell her hair. External Conflict Internal Conflict 1. How do you think these two conflicts are related? 2. How do you think these conflicts contribute to the impact of the story?34 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  41. 41. Name ______________________________________________ Date ________________ "Sonata for Harp and Bicycle" by Joan Aiken (text page 470) Literary Analysis: Foreshadowing Foreshadowinl is the use of clues that hint at what will happen later in a story.Foreshadowing helps create suspense-a feeling of curiosity or anxiety in the reader, whichhelps keep his or her attention and build excitement. However, authors must be careful­they dont want to give away too much and ruin the story for readers!DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart after reading "Sonata for Harp and Bicycle. Read Heach event from the story. Then list at least one clue from the story that foreshadows eachevent. If you dont find all of them the first time through. dont worry. Sometimes these hintsare easier to see on a second or third reading. Event or Outcome Foreshadowinl 1. Jason enters the buildIng after 5:00. 2. The ghost of the Wailing Watchman threatens Jason in the corridor. 3. Jason and MIss Golden fall in love. 4. Miss Bell answers the phone. 5. The estranged lovers meet. 6. Jason Jumps off the fire escape.© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 35
  42. 42. Name ________________________________________________ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ __ "The Scarlet Ibis" by James Hurst (text page 484) Literary Analysis: Symbol At the very end of Hursts story, the narrator calls Doodle "my fallen scarlet ibis." By linkingDoodle and the ibis in this way, Hurst makes clear what you already may have suspected­that the bird symbolizes Doodle. A symbol is an object. a person, or an event that stands for itself but also represents some­thing else. A flag, for instance, may symbolize a country. Writers use symbols in many ways tohelp illuminate a storys theme, or to show an aspect of a character or situation cannot bedescribed easily.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart by comparing the ibis to the character of Doodle.Reread the description of the scarlet ibis and then, in the left column, list the birds qualities.In the right column, list traits or aspects of Doodles character that seem Similar that of thebird. Then answer the questions that follow. Scarlet Ibis Doodle I 1. What do these similarities seem to say about Doodle? 2. How does the use of this symbol illuminate the storys theme?36 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  43. 43. Name ______________________________________________ Date ___________ "Blues Aint No Mockin Bird" by Toni Cade Bambara (text page 498) "Uncle Marcos" by Isabel Allende (text page 504) Literary Analysis: Dialect A dialect is a way of speaking that is characteristic of a particular region or group ofpeople. It is a form of language that reflects where someone is from and the community inwhich he or she lives. A writer often uses dialect to give a sense of local color to a story and to be true to a specificregion or people. Using dialect can help a writer add depth to characters by letting the readerhear 1ww a character speaks, as well as what he or she says. In "Blues Aint No MockingBird," Barnbara writes the story from the granddaughters perspective and uses an AfricanAmerican dialect of the rural South. Bambaras ear for dialect makes her story rich and dis­tinctive because of the attention she pays to capturing the feel of the setting and the peoplewho inhabit the story.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart by finding examples of dialect in the story (either inthe narrators voice or the speech of other characters). Then, rewrite each example you findthem in standard, formal English. Finally, answer the question that follows. Example of Dialect Rewritten in Standard English l. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. What difference do your rewrites make? What is lost in terms of character?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 37
  44. 44. Name ________________________ Date ____________ "The Man to Send Rain Clouds" by Leslie Marmon Silko (text page 522) "The Invalids Story" by Mark Twain (text page 526) Literary Analysis: Comparing Tone If the setting of a story can contribute to its atmosphere or mood, so can the tone that awriter uses. Tone refers to the writers attitude toward his or her subject. This tone can beangry, tender, hopeful. or sarcastic. Tone is expressed not only in what the writer says butalso in the words and phrases that he or she chooses to express himself or herself.DIRECTIONS: Look carefully at "The Man to Send Rain Clouds" and The Invalids Story." Bothstories deal with the death of a loved one, but their tones are very different. Compare thetones by completing a web for each story. (Youll need to make another copy of the web.) In theouter ovals, record the words, phrases, and details in the story that stand out in your mind.Then look at what you have recorded. What tone do you think is revealed by these words,phrases, and details? Record your answer in the center oval.38 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  45. 45. Name __________________________________ Date ____________ "The Necklace" by Guy de Maupassant (text page 536) "The Harvest" by Tomas Rivera (text page 542) Literary Analysis: Irony Irony is a powerful technique that a writer can use for communicating the theme of a story.Irony occurs when there is a difference between appearance and reality, expectation andresult, or meaning and intention. Verbal irony is the simplest form of irony. This occurs when a character says the oppositeof what he or she means. For example, when the narrator of "Uncle Marcos" deSCribes Marcosas suffering a "deep depression," she is using verbal irony because the depression cant bevery deep if it lasts only two or three days. Dramatic irony occurs when there is a difference between what the characters believe isgoing on and what the reader knows to be true. For example. in "The Invalids Story," thereader knows the casket the narrator is traveling with is full of guns and Limburger cheese,but the other characters believe the terrible odor to be coming from a dead body. Irony of situation occurs when events in a story directly contradict the expectations of thecharacters or the reader.DIRECTIONS: Complete the following chart to examine the use of irony of situation in both "TheNecklace" and The Harvest." In the first column, record your expectations while reading eachstory. Then, in the second column. record the actual situation in each story. Finally, answerthe question that follows. Story My Expectations Actual Situations 1. "The Necklace" 2. "The Harvest" I 3. How does the use of irony contribute to each storys theme?© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 39
  46. 46. Name ___ " _ _ _ ~ _________________ Date _________ "Single Room, Earth View" by Sally Ride (text page 559) Literary Analysis: Observation Sally Rides essay is an observation-firsthand account of travel in a space shuttle. Butobservation, or what we see and how we go about looking, is also the subject of her essay. AsRide describes the details of her "view," she also gives readers a chance to view their ownworld from a new perspective and makes a point about the difference good observations canmake.DIRECTIONS:Complete the following chart. Describe the thing or event as you might see it fromEarth. Then, describe the thing or event as seen from the space shuttle. The first one hasbeen done for you. Then answer the question that follows. Thing or Event View From Earth I View From Space Shuttle 1. islands or continents i cant see details of landscape ! see maplike outline of islands 2. storms 3. ocean , 4. New York City I I 5. pollution I 6. sunrise I I 7. How does the view from the space shuttle change our perspective on Earth?40 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  47. 47. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________ "The Washwoman" by Isaac Bashevis Singer (text page 568) "On Summer" by Lorraine Hansberry (text page 572) "A Celebration of Grandfathers" by Rudolfo A. Anaya (text page 576) Literary Analysis: Modes of Writing The essays in this section all have different purposes and use different kinds of writing.However. all of them contain examples of other modes. or kinds, of writing. The four mainmodes of writing are exposition. narration, description. and persuaSIon. All of them are usedin every kind of writing. from drama to essays to poetry. • Exposition defines, explains. or presents information. This definition is an exam ­ ple of expository writing. • Narration tells a story or describes a series of related events. Narration answers the question, "What happened?" • Description is intended to create a mood. or to paint a portrait in words of a person, place. or thing. Description often works by creating images that appeal to the senses. • Persuasion attempts to convince the reader to agree with a partIcular opinion or follow a course of action. Persuasion can use logic to appeal to reason. or use lan ­ guage that appeals to the emotions.DIRECTIONS: As you read the essays. note passages that fit each of the following categories. Essay Exposition Narration Description Persuasion 1. The Washwoman" First paragraph sets the scene and introduces his topic. i 2. "On Summer" I I 3. "A Celebration of Grandfathers"© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 41
  48. 48. Name ______________________________________________ Date _________ from A White House Diary by Lady Bird Johnson (text page 586) "Arthur Ashe Remembered" by John McPhee (text page 590) "Georgia OKeeffe" by Joan Didion (text page 592) Literary Analysis: Objective and Subjective Writing An important aspect of autobiographical writing is the access it allows into the subjectsfeelings and thoughts. Biography, on the other hand. often gives a broader view of the sub­jects life, including background and details the subject couldnt have known. Another way toput this is that biographical writing is usually more objective, while autobiography is moresubjective. • Objective writing reports, without revealing the authors personal emotions, opin­ ions, or judgments. We expect objectivity when we read newspapers, history books, or science articles. • Subjective writing reveals the authors judgments, biases, and feelings. We expect this kind of writing in editorial pages, personal essays, and autobiographies. This distinction, however, is not always so clear. A biographer may have strong feelingsabout the subject that he or she wants to communicate or share. In the two biographicalselections listed above, the authors admiration for their subjects clearly comes across. LadyBird Johnson describes her own experience, but she also includes some factual details thatshe could not have known at the time.DIRECTIONS: As you read the selections, record passages from each that are objective and sub­jective in the following chart. Then answer the question that follows. Selection Objective Subjective 1. A White House Diary descriptions of other peoples reactions to the event i 2. "Arthur Ashe Remembered" 3. "Georgia OKeeffe" i i i 4. Why do you think its important to distinguish between objective and subjective writing?42 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  49. 49. Name ________ ~ ___________________________________ Date _______ from "Understanding Comics." by Scott McCloud (text page 606) Literary Analysis: Comparing Types of Essays At first, a visual essay may seem to have little in common with the other essays youve read.However, a closer look may uncover more similarities than you expect. How is each kind ofessay structured? What purposes can it serve? How do the authors communicate meaning ineach?DIRECTIONS: Use the following Venn diagram to compare a written essay with a visual essay.Record the differences in the outer portions of both circles. Record the similarities in theoverlapping center space of both circles. express authors point of view© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 43
  50. 50. Name ___________.______ ~ _ _ _ _ __ Date __ . ~_ _ _ _ __ "Earhart Redux" by Alex Chadwick (text page 618) In These Girls, Hope Is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais. a book review by Steve Gietschier (text page 621) In These Girls, Hope Is a Muscle by Madeleine Blais. book jacket (text page 623) Literary Analysis: Writing With a Purpose The selections above are all examples of workplace writing: They were all written as part ofthe writers employment. Yet each has a very different purpose-to convey information about ahistoric flight, to express an opinion about a recent book. and to persuade potential readers tomake a purchase. That purpose helps a writer make choices and affects his or her approachand tone.DIRECTIONS: Choose a selection from this textbook. Imagine that youve been asked to write aninterview with the author, a review of the work, or book jacket copy. Write a draft in the spacebelow. Think about your purpose--and your audience-before you start. What information willuseful to include? What details or examples will help you achieve your aims?_.__._-----------_. -----~---------------.~~--------44 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  51. 51. Name ___________________ ~ __ Date _________ The Dancers by Horton Foote (text 640) Literary Analysis: Drama Drama is a genre of literature wtth its own particular characteristics. • Plot. Like other works of fiction, a work of drama Is made up of series of events involving both characters and a central conflicts. • Characters. A work of drama contains characters similar to those kinds found in prose stories. • Dialogue. A work of drama uses spoken conversations between characters to reveal character and to advance the plot. • Stage DirectioDs. A work of drama includes notes to describe how the work is to be performed or staged. These instructions give information about the setting, scenery. and props as well as how characters move, look, and speak.DlREcTIONS: Identify the characteristics of The Dancers that make it a drama by completing thechart that follows. Characteristics of Drama Examples from The Dancers 1. Plot 2. Characters 3. Dialogue 4. Stage directions© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 45
  52. 52. Name _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Date _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet, Act I. by William Shakespeare (text page 674) Literary Analysis: Dramatic Foils The characters in a play are the people or animals who take part in the action. A maincharacters personality usually is revealed through his or her interactions with other charac­ters, When characters in a play have contrasting character traits and personalities, they areknown as dramatic foils. By using a foil, a writer can call the readers attention to a maincharacters particular qualities and traits.DIRECTIONS: Romeo and Mercutio are dramatic foils in Act I. Compare and contrast these twocharacters in the following diagram, Use the dialogue in Act I to help you. Then use this infor­mation to draw conclusions about each of the two characters. Characters Alike Different Conclusion46 Literary Analysis Activity Book © Prentice-Hall, Inc.
  53. 53. Name ___________________________________________ Date ______________ The Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Act U, by William Shakespeare (text page 698) Literary Analysis: Verse and Character The way a character speaks in Shakespeares plays is often an important clue to his or hercharacter. Lower-class or comic characters speak in prose, while the aristocratiC, more seriouscharacters usually speak in blank verse. Blank verse expresses the characters passions.thoughts, and deepest feelings. The prose of the lower characters is often filled with jokes.puns. and ribald humor.DIRECTIONS:Examine the ways a characters traits are related to the way he or she speaks.Read both excerpts from Act II. Then fill in the chart with the appropriate information.JULIET. Tis almost morning. I would have thee gone-And yet no farther than a wantons bird, That lets it hop a little from his hand, Like a poor prisoner in his twisted gyves, And with a silken thread plucks it back again. So loving-jealous of his liberty. NURSE. And a speak anything against me, Ill take him down, and a were lustier than he is, and twenty such Jacks; and if I cannot, Ill find those that shall. Scurvy knave! I am none of his flirt-gills; I am none of his skainsmates. And thou must stand by too, and suffer every knave to use me at his pleasure! I j Character Manner of Speaking Characters Traits 1. Juliet 2. Nurse I© Prentice-Hall, Inc. Literary Analysis Activity Book 47

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