Dispositional TheoryAnother well-known job satisfaction theory is the Dispositional Theory Template:JacksonApril2007. It is a very general theory that suggests that people have innate dispositions that causethem to have tendencies toward a certain level of satisfaction, regardless of one’s job. Thisapproach became a notable explanation of job satisfaction in light of evidence that jobsatisfaction tends to be stable over time and across careers and jobs. Research also indicates thatidentical twins have similar levels of job satisfaction.A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy A. Judge in 1998. Judge argued that there are four CoreSelf-evaluations that determine one’s disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, generalself-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the belief in one’s owncompetence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Having an internal locus of control (believing onehas control over herhis own life, as opposed to outside forces having control) leads to higher jobsatisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction. Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory)Frederick Herzberg’s Two factor theory (also known as Motivator Hygiene Theory) attempts toexplain satisfaction and motivation in the workplace This theory states that satisfaction anddissatisfaction are driven by different factors – motivation and hygiene factors, respectively. Anemployee’s motivation to work is continually related to job satisfaction of a subordinate.Motivation can be seen as an inner force that drives individuals to attain personal andorganizational goals (Hoskinson, Porter, & Wrench, p. 133). Motivating factors are those aspectsof the job that make people want to perform, and provide people with satisfaction, for exampleachievement in work, recognition, promotion opportunities. These motivating factors areconsidered to be intrinsic to the job, or the work carried out. Hygiene factors include aspects ofthe working environment such as pay, company policies, supervisory practices, and otherworking conditions.While Hertzbergs model has stimulated much research, researchers have been unable to reliablyempirically prove the model, with Hackman & Oldham suggesting that Hertzbergs originalformulation of the model may have been a methodological artifact. Furthermore, the theorydoes not consider individual differences, conversely predicting all employees will react in anidentical manner to changes in motivating/hygiene factors. Finally, the model has beencriticised in that it does not specify how motivating/hygiene factors are to be measured.According to Maslow, a person’s needs are the main motivator that drives a human. He categorized theneeds of a person into 5 levels. They are physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needsand self- actualisation needs respectively.( in ascending order) As the needs on lower levels fulfilled, theupper level needs act as motivator and the person would like to satisfy the upper level needs.(HassanAli,2005)Physiological needs: It is the lowest level among 5 levels. These are needs which must be satisfied in
order to survive such as food, air, water etc. This only represents the basic needs of people for survival.But for any organisations including my company, the physiological needs of the staff is adequate salaryand work conditions. So, in order to satisfy my employees’ needs, I will pay them salaries. Besides, I willcreate good working conditions for them such as providing adequate lighting, up to date computers andequipments, comfortable chairs, enough ventilation and providing a leisure room for them to relaxduring lunch time.( Hassan Ali,2005 & Davidson et al 2005 p.306) They will feel comfortable about theenvironment of workplace and can concentrate on their work.Safety needs: People will have safety needs upon the satisfaction of physiological needs. Safety needsmeans the “…desire for protection from physical danger, economic security…”(Dixon 1997, p.74) Thesafety needs for employees are paying salaries on time; never owe their salaries for one day. Also, I willprovide health cover and insurance to my staff such as sick pay and retirement funds. Besides, I willmake them to feel secured by setting up trust between me and my employees. Trust can be set up bysigning work contract to protect them. In addition, I have a great faith in my employees’ ability; I believethat they can handle their job well. By adopting these policies, they will feel secured in the organisationand no worries at all. They can concentrate on their work and perform the best.Social needs: The third level is social needs. It can be defined as “the need to be a group or to beaccepted by peers”(Dixon 1997p.74) I will divide my staff into teams and require them to work in teams,try to cooperate with their group members. Besides, I will hold some informal gathering and trainingcamps during weekends which aim to help establishing friendships among peers. By allowing “socialinteraction, employees may feel like a part of a team.”(Davidson et al 2005 p.307)Esteem needs: Upon satisfaction of social needs, employees may want to pursue esteem needsaccording to Maslow. Esteem needs “…include self-esteem and for the esteem of others…”(Dixon1997,p.74) Self esteem means self confidence, self respect while esteem for others is the respect toother people.( Davidson et al 2005 p.307) If the performance of a worker is highly rated, employees cangain respect from the manager and being rewarded or promoted. After promotion, employees will beproud of themselves who can gain self-respect and self confidence. Employees may think that there isan opportunity to promote if they work hard. Rewards including promotion can be motivator.(Copperspeaking cited in Taylor,2006 p.8) Besides, I will say thank you when they finish their work. They maythink that manager respect and appreciate their hardworking. As a result, morale will be boosted.Self- actualisation needs: This is the highest level. “These involve realising one’s potential for continuedgrowth and individual development”(Davidson et al 2005 p.307).This level are varied among individuals.Self-actualization needs “creating challenging tasks that are stimulating.” (Hassan Ali,2005, P.1) I willgive my employees a chance to create a task and involved in decision making. Letting my employeeinvolved creating new sales strategies and making decision can help them to feel they are a part of theorganisation.They will think that they are in a crucial status in the company. They won’t let theorganisation being collapsed. As a result, productivity can be improved.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Job_satisfaction
Recognition. Individuals at all levels of the organization want to be recognized for theirachievements on the job. Their successes dont have to be monumental before they deserverecognition, but your praise should be sincere. If you notice employees doing something well,take the time to acknowledge their good work immediately. Publicly thank them for handling asituation particularly well. Write them a kind note of praise. Or give them a bonus, if appropriate.You may even want to establish a formal recognition program, such as “employee of the month.”Responsibility. Employees will be more motivated to do their jobs well if they have ownership oftheir work. This requires giving employees enough freedom and power to carry out their tasks sothat they feel they “own” the result. As individuals mature in their jobs, provide opportunities foradded responsibility. Be careful, however, that you do not simply add more work. Instead, findways to add challenging and meaningful work, perhaps giving the employee greater freedom andauthority as well.Salary. The old adage “you get what you pay for” tends to be true when it comes to staff members.Salary is not a motivator for employees, but they do want to be paid fairly. If individuals believe they arenot compensated well, they will be unhappy working for you. Consult salary surveys or even your localhelp-wanted ads to see whether the salaries and benefits youre offering are comparable to those ofother offices in your area. In addition, make sure you have clear policies related to salaries, raises andbonuses.ResponsibilityDo individuals perceive that they have ownership of their work?Do you give them sufficient freedom and authority?Do you provide opportunities for added responsibility (not simply adding more tasks)?RecognitionDo you recognize individuals for their major accomplishments on the job?Do you recognize individuals small victoriesDo you give employees recognition in a timely, meaningful way?Does the practice have a formal program (such as “employee of the month”) for recognizing staffmembers achievements on the job?