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Construction technology 3

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Construction technology 3

  1. 1. SUBMITTED TO: PROF. S. SAPRE
  2. 2.            Shop drawing, material requirement and procurement Cutting Straightening Welding Assembling Finishing Filing, grinding, machining Punching, drilling Bending Slicing painting
  3. 3. Laser  Plasma  Oxy acetylene  Oxy LPG  Shearing 
  4. 4.  LASER › For industrial setup › Laser cutting is a technology that uses a laser to cut materials, and is typically used for industrial manufacturing applications. Laser cutting works by directing the output of a highpower laser, by computer, at the material to be cut. › The material then either melts, burns, vaporizes away, or is blown away by a jet of gas, leaving an edge with a highquality surface finish. › Industrial laser cutters are used to cut flat-sheet material as well as structural and piping materials.  PLASMA CUTTING › Plasma cutting is a process that is used to cut steel and other metals of different thicknesses (or sometimes other materials) using a plasma torch. › In this process, an inert gas (in some units, compressed air) is blown at high speed out of a nozzle; at the same time an electrical arc is formed through that gas from the nozzle to the surface being cut, turning some of that gas to plasma. › The plasma is sufficiently hot to melt the metal being cut and moves sufficiently fast to blow molten metal away from the cut.
  5. 5.   In oxy-fuel cutting, a cutting torch is used to heat metal to kindling temperature. A stream of oxygen then trained on the metal combines with the metal which then flows out of the cut (kerf) as an oxide slag. Fuels used are acetylene, gasoline, hydrogen etc Metal cut by oxygen propane torch
  6. 6. When a great enough shearing force is applied, the shear stress in the material will exceed the ultimate shear strength and the material will fail and separate at the cut location.  This shearing force is applied by two tools, one above and one below the sheet.  the tool above the sheet delivers a quick downward blow to the sheet metal that rests over the lower tool.  A small clearance is present between the edges of the upper and lower tools, which facilitates the fracture of the material. 
  7. 7.  A drill line has long been considered an indispensible way to drill holes and mill slots into beams, channels and sections. CNC drill lines are typically equipped with feed conveyors and position sensors to move the element into position for drilling, plus probing capability to determine the precise location where the hole or slot is to be cut.
  8. 8.  Punching is a metal forming process that uses a punch press to force a tool, called a punch, through the work piece to create a hole via shearing. The punch often passes through the work into a die. A scrap slug from the hole is deposited into the die in the process. Depending on the material being punched this slug may be recycled and reused or discarded. Punching is often the cheapest method for creating holes in sheet metal in medium to high production volumes.
  9. 9.  Bending of sheet metal is a common and vital process in manufacturing industry. Sheet metal bending is the plastic deformation of the work over an axis, creating a change in the part's geometry. Similar to other metal forming processes, bending changes the shape of the work piece, while the volume of material will remain the same. In some cases bending may produce a small change in sheet thickness.  bending is also used to impart strength and stiffness to sheet metal 
  10. 10. It forms a protective layer over section hence enhances the life of element  It is done due to time lapse between manufacturing and usage of the element  MILL SCALE – thin film of rust is formed over the section which changes the color of element from metallic to rust  Two stages of painting are  1. Surface preparation 2. painting
  11. 11.   Emery paper Wire brushing  Manual  Machine brushing   Acid pickling Sand blasting / metal blasting
  12. 12.  The wire brush is primarily an abrasive implement, used for cleaning rust and removing paint. When cleaning stainless steel, it is advisable to use a stainless steel bristle wire brush, as a plain carbon steel brush can contaminate the stainless steel and cause rust spots to appear.
  13. 13.     Pickling is a metal surface treatment used to remove impurities, such as stains, inorganic contaminants, rust or scale from ferrous meta, copper, and aluminium alloys. A solution called pickle liquor, which contains strong acids, is used to remove the surface impurities. It is commonly used to descale or clean steel in various steelmaking processes. The primary acid used is hydrochloric acid, although sulphuric acid was previously more common. Hydrochloric acid is more expensive than sulphuric acid, but it pickles much faster while minimizing base metal loss. In this method section is lifted with crane and dipped in the acid tank and then kept in clean water tank
  14. 14. Very fine quartz sand is used for this purpose.  Three equipments used in it are   Compressor  Pneumatic chamber  Pipe  Sand is sprayed on the surface with very high pressure to give smooth finish.
  15. 15.        Roller Brushing Spraying Metalizing Hot dip galvanizing two layers are applied on surface base layer and finishing layer Alcometer is a digital instrument measuring the paint thickness in microns
  16. 16.   Derrick pole Cranes  Telescopic  Towers  Goliath  Tools  Pulley  winches
  17. 17. A derrick is a lifting device composed of one tower, or guyed mast such as a pole which is hinged freely at the bottom.  It is controlled by lines (usually four of them) powered by some means such as man-hauling or motors, so that the pole can move in all four directions. 
  18. 18. Telescopic crane Tower crane Goliath crane
  19. 19.   Can be manually operated or motorized A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind out) or otherwise adjust the "tension" of a rope or wire rope
  20. 20.  Shackles- for wire connections  Dee shackle  Bow shackle  Temporary permanent clamping  Grip  Bull dog grip  Turn buckle or
  21. 21. DEE SHACKLE BOW SHACKLE
  22. 22. TURN BUCKLES
  23. 23. It is a thin membrane element.  It has a thin slab.  Better in corrosive environment.  Gives better cooling.  Better fire resistance. 
  24. 24. Cylindrical shell  Trapezoidal shell  ‘V’ shell  Hyperbole shell  Parabolic shell  Hyper/umbrella shell  Pyramid shell 
  25. 25. It has very less slab thickness.  M25 , M30 grade concrete used.  Beam span is larger. 

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