Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Perceptions in management

827 views

Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Perceptions in management

  1. 2. Perception and Individual Decision Making Presented By: Ishan Patil 09 Harshal Mhatre 56 Sujeet Mhatre 45 Virendra Kharbale 26 Dattaji More 42 Submitted To: Prof. Manore.N.N. sir
  2. 3. What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? <ul><li>Perception: </li></ul><ul><li>A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Factors That Influence Perception
  4. 5. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others <ul><li>Attribution Theory </li></ul><ul><li>When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Attribution Theory
  6. 7. Errors and Biases in Attributions <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Serving Bias </li></ul>
  7. 8. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others <ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul>
  8. 9. Specific Applications in Organizations <ul><li>Employment Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Profiling </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Effort </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making <ul><li>Problem A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant </li></ul>Perception of the decision maker Outcomes
  10. 11. DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Meaning and Definition:- </li></ul><ul><li>according to James stoner the decision making means ”the process of identifying and selecting a course of action to solve a specific problem.” </li></ul>
  11. 12. Process of decision making <ul><li>Defining the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Generating alternative solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting best alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing the chosen alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Three Components of Creativity <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Component of Creativity: </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Creative-thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Task motivation </li></ul>
  13. 14. How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations? <ul><li>Bounded Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>How/Why problems are identified </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Development </li></ul>
  14. 15. Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making <ul><li>Overconfidence Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Availability Bias </li></ul>
  15. 16. Ways to Improve Decision Making <ul><li>Analyze the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of biases </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate to every situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and using analogies </li></ul>
  16. 17. Toward Reducing Bias and Errors <ul><li>Focus on goals </li></ul><ul><li>Look for information that disconfirms beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to create meaning out of random events </li></ul><ul><li>Increase your options </li></ul>
  17. 18. Case Study <ul><li>In a college of 60 students studying MMS who are having internal exams & lectures. They have limited time period of three months in which they have to complete their exams, presentations, projects and assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a big responsibility on both students and Professors to ensure that it gets over in time . During such decision making they have to analyze factors like form of presentation, tests, duration and distribution of topics. Only good co-ordination of time, students, and professors will result in successful completion of MMS. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions:- </li></ul><ul><li>1.What is the perception and conclusion of lecturer when he assigns marks to any given student in his/her exams? </li></ul><ul><li>2. what is the student’s perception of that lecturer and that of the basis on which he assigns marks in the exams? </li></ul>

×