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Perceptions in management


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Perceptions in management

  1. 2. Perception and Individual Decision Making Presented By: Ishan Patil 09 Harshal Mhatre 56 Sujeet Mhatre 45 Virendra Kharbale 26 Dattaji More 42 Submitted To: Prof. Manore.N.N. sir
  2. 3. What Is Perception, and Why Is It Important? <ul><li>Perception: </li></ul><ul><li>A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. </li></ul><ul><li>People’s behavior is based on their perception of what reality is, not on reality itself. </li></ul><ul><li>The world as it is perceived is the world that is behaviorally important. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Factors That Influence Perception
  4. 5. Person Perception: Making Judgments About Others <ul><li>Attribution Theory </li></ul><ul><li>When individuals observe behavior, they attempt to determine whether it is internally or externally caused. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Attribution Theory
  6. 7. Errors and Biases in Attributions <ul><li>Fundamental Attribution Error </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Serving Bias </li></ul>
  7. 8. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others <ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast Effects </li></ul><ul><li>Projection </li></ul>
  8. 9. Specific Applications in Organizations <ul><li>Employment Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Profiling </li></ul><ul><li>Performance Evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Effort </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Link Between Perceptions and Individual Decision Making <ul><li>Problem A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. </li></ul><ul><li>Decisions Choices made from among alternatives developed from data perceived as relevant </li></ul>Perception of the decision maker Outcomes
  10. 11. DECISION MAKING <ul><li>Meaning and Definition:- </li></ul><ul><li>according to James stoner the decision making means ”the process of identifying and selecting a course of action to solve a specific problem.” </li></ul>
  11. 12. Process of decision making <ul><li>Defining the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Generating alternative solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Selecting best alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Implementing the chosen alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up. </li></ul>
  12. 13. The Three Components of Creativity <ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. </li></ul><ul><li>Component of Creativity: </li></ul><ul><li>Expertise </li></ul><ul><li>Creative-thinking skills </li></ul><ul><li>Task motivation </li></ul>
  13. 14. How Are Decisions Actually Made in Organizations? <ul><li>Bounded Rationality </li></ul><ul><li>How/Why problems are identified </li></ul><ul><li>Alternative Development </li></ul>
  14. 15. Common Biases and Errors in Decision Making <ul><li>Overconfidence Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Anchoring Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Confirmation Bias </li></ul><ul><li>Availability Bias </li></ul>
  15. 16. Ways to Improve Decision Making <ul><li>Analyze the situation </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of biases </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t assume that your specific decision style is appropriate to every situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance personal creativity by looking for novel solutions or seeing problems in new ways, and using analogies </li></ul>
  16. 17. Toward Reducing Bias and Errors <ul><li>Focus on goals </li></ul><ul><li>Look for information that disconfirms beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t try to create meaning out of random events </li></ul><ul><li>Increase your options </li></ul>
  17. 18. Case Study <ul><li>In a college of 60 students studying MMS who are having internal exams & lectures. They have limited time period of three months in which they have to complete their exams, presentations, projects and assignments. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s a big responsibility on both students and Professors to ensure that it gets over in time . During such decision making they have to analyze factors like form of presentation, tests, duration and distribution of topics. Only good co-ordination of time, students, and professors will result in successful completion of MMS. </li></ul><ul><li>Questions:- </li></ul><ul><li>1.What is the perception and conclusion of lecturer when he assigns marks to any given student in his/her exams? </li></ul><ul><li>2. what is the student’s perception of that lecturer and that of the basis on which he assigns marks in the exams? </li></ul>