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Oscilloscope:
VIPUL POPHALE
RATNESH SAHU
RAGHURAJ SINGH DODIYA
SANDEEP KUMAR GUPTA
Oscilloscope:
CATHO
        RAY
 DE
INTRODUCTION:
•
Oscilloscope is an very
important test instrument in
electrical and electronics field.
•
It is used to look at the 'shape'
of electrical signals by

displaying a graph of voltage
against time on its screen.
•
It is like a voltmeter with the
valuable extra function of
showing how the voltage
varies with time.
CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE
 Popular instrument to show time,
  voltage both DC and AC. Shows Volts
  / Time.
 Display waveforms. Spectrum scope shows volts to
    Frequency

 Cathode (-ve ) is heated, emits
  electrons,
 accelerated toward a (+ve)
  fluorescent screen. Intensity grid, Focus
    grid, Accelerating anode. (Electron gun)

                                                     6

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Oscilloscope:

  • 2. VIPUL POPHALE RATNESH SAHU RAGHURAJ SINGH DODIYA SANDEEP KUMAR GUPTA
  • 4. CATHO RAY DE
  • 5. INTRODUCTION: • Oscilloscope is an very important test instrument in electrical and electronics field. • It is used to look at the 'shape' of electrical signals by displaying a graph of voltage against time on its screen. • It is like a voltmeter with the valuable extra function of showing how the voltage varies with time.
  • 6. CATHODE RAY OSCILLOSCOPE  Popular instrument to show time, voltage both DC and AC. Shows Volts / Time.  Display waveforms. Spectrum scope shows volts to Frequency  Cathode (-ve ) is heated, emits electrons,  accelerated toward a (+ve) fluorescent screen. Intensity grid, Focus grid, Accelerating anode. (Electron gun) 6
  • 7. An oscilloscope a device that displays a graph of an electrical signal. the vertical (Y) axis represents voltage and the horizontal (X) axis represents time. The intensity or brightness of the display is sometimes called the Z axis. WHAT IS AN OSCILLOSCOPE ?
  • 8. History of CRO >> The earliest mode of creating an image of waveform was through a labourious and painstaking process. This was known as Hand- drawn Oscilloscope.. In the late 19 century , CRT were developed, then with the help of crt “Karl Ferdinand Braun” invented the first crt oscilloscope by applying an
  • 9. Power Supply Unit Cathode Ray Tube Vertical Amplifier Horizontal Amplifier Time Base Generator(Sweep Generato Trigger Circuit Delay Line
  • 11. BASIC CATHODE RAY TUBE : The CRT uses an evacuated glass envelope which is large, deep, heavy, and relatively fragile.
  • 12. Electron gun
  • 13. Deflection system
  • 14. Fluorescent screen
  • 17. TRIGGER CIRCUIT >> << DELAY LINE:
  • 19. From figure V1T = V1 sin θ1, V2T = V2 sin θ2 But V1T = V2T V1 sin θ1 = V2 sin θ2 Or V2/V1 = sin θ1 / sin θ2 This the reason why focussing system in CRT is termed as “ ELECTRON LENS ”
  • 20. The pre-accelerating and accelerating anodes are connected to the same potential while focussing anode is connected to lower potential. On account of potential difference between focussing and 2 accelerating anodes ,a non-uniform field exists on each of 2 ends of focussin g anode . The surfaces thus form, “ DOUBLE CONCAVE LENS ”.
  • 21. D= SldEd 2dEa S=Distance between screen and centre Of deflecting plates Ed=Potential between deflecting plates ld=Length of deflecting plates d=Distance between deflecting plates Ea=Voltage of pre-accelerating anode
  • 24. Control The Brightness By Controlling Electron Flow
  • 25. To focus the electron into narrow beams on the screen.
  • 27. Electron beam:
  • 28. Working Principle: It basically works on the amplifier and triggering networks.
  • 29. O/P Power Screen Intensity Focus Volt/Div Time/Div Channel
  • 30. Panel Function VOLTS/DIV Select the vertical deflection factor of the CRT display TIME/DIV Select the horizontal deflection factor of the CRT display INTEN (Intensity) Control The INTEN (intensity) control (sometimes called BRIGHTNESS) adjusts the brightness of the beam on the CRT. The control is rotated in a clockwise direction to increase the intensity of the beam and should be adjusted to a minimum brightness level that is comfortable for viewing. FOCUS and ASTIG The FOCUS control adjusts the beam size. The ASTIG (astigmatism) control adjusts (Astigmatism) Controls the beam shape. The FOCUS and ASTIG controls are adjusted together to produce a small, clearly defined circular dot TRACE ROTATION The TRACE ROTATION control allows for minor adjustments of the horizontal portion Control of the trace so that you can align it with the horizontal lines on the graticule. BEAM FINDER Control When pushed, the BEAM FINDER pulls the beam onto the screen so that you can use the horizontal and vertical POSITION controls to center the spot. Horizontal and Vertical The horizontal and vertical POSITION controls are used to position the trace. Because POSITION Controls the graticule is often drawn to represent a graph, some oscilloscopes have the positioning controls labeled to correspond to the X and Y axes of the graph. The X axis represents horizontal movement; the Y axis represents the vertical movement. AC-GDN-DC AC- Ac Signal GDN - grounding the signal DC- Dc Signal
  • 31. APPLICATIONS OF OSCILLOSCOPES: • 1. Ac & Dc voltage measurement. • 2. Measurement of the voltage between two points on the waveform • 3. Elimination of undesired signal components • 4. Time measurements • 5. Time difference measurements • 6. Pulse width measurements • 7. Pulse risetime and falltime measurements • 8. Phase difference measurements • 9. Frequency measurements • 10. Relative measurements • 11. Sweep multiplication (magnification) • 12. Application of x-y operation

Editor's Notes

  1. The &lt;a href=&quot;http://www1.tek.com/in/products/oscilloscopes/&quot; title=“High Quality Oscilloscope – Tektronix India“&gt;oscilloscope&lt;/a&gt; is basically a graph-displaying device that draws a graph of an electrical signal. In most applications, the graph shows how signals change over time: the vertical (Y) axis represents voltage and the horizontal (X) axis represents time. The intensity or brightness of the display is sometimes called the Z axis.