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Research tools & data collection method_vipin


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data collection method-
it include following sub points-
1) definition of research tool
2) data
3) primary and secondary data
4) observation method
5) interview
6) questionnaire
7) physiological measure

Published in: Education
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Research tools & data collection method_vipin

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION  Tools are instruments used to collect information for performance assessments, self- evaluations, and external evaluations.  Tools need to be strong enough to support what the evaluations find during research.  Depending on the nature of the information to be gathered, different instruments are used to conduct the assessment forms for gathering data.
  3. 3. DEFINITION OF TOOL:  It is a testing device for measuring a given event, such as , a questionnaire, an interview or a set of guidelines or checklist for observation.  It is an instrument or machine that aids in accomplishing a task.
  4. 4. MEANING OF RESEARCH TOOLS: Research tools are:  the Instruments used for the purpose of data collection,  are measurable and observable for data analysis & interpretation  constructed by researcher according to objectives.
  5. 5. PRINCIPLES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF RESEARCH TOOL: Principles questioning words must be concise, complete and definite. Keep in mind the sequence and order of question i.e. psychological order. One question should not influence the other. Tool must not be too long or too short. It should complete within 25-30 minutes. Should be attractive in appearance.
  6. 6. DEFINITION OF DATA Data collection is a systematic process of collecting detail information about desire objective from selected sample under controlled settings.
  7. 7. DATA COLLECTION: Primary data collection personal contact observations is needed face to face contact with the participants is required. Secondary data collection no direct contact to gather information.
  8. 8. PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION: • to gain general answers to basic questions. In-person surveys • When the researcher is directly involved with the study group. Direct observation • used to gain more in depth answers to complex questions.Interviews • certain sample groups are asked their opinion about a certain subject or theory. Focus groups
  9. 9. CONTD……..  These data collection tools:  allow for a true measurement of accuracy and let the researcher obtain any unspoken observations about the participants while conducting research.  E.g. Socio-economic surveys, studies related to rural or tribal communities, nursing research, hospital management studies, knowledge awareness practice studies etc.
  10. 10. SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION: Postal mail Electronic mail Telephone Web-based surveys It is done : when very large group of population is required. When Personal contact is not possible for the researcher to collect the data. e.g: Institutional survey, organizational research etc.
  11. 11. METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION: Method refers to the way of gathering data, a tool is an instrument used for the method. (1) observation method (2) interview method (3) Questionnaire (4) physiological measurement
  12. 12.  ONE OR MORE METHODS HAS/HAVE TO BE CHOSEN. THE CHOICE OF A METHOD DEPENDS UPON THE FOLLOWING FACTORS:  The nature of the study of the subject-matter.  The unit of enquiry.  The size and spread of the sample.  Scale of the survey.  The educational level of respondents.  The type and depth of information to be collected.  The availability of skilled and trained manpower.
  13. 13. 1) OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE:  One of the basic method and oldest method.  Data is obtained by investigator own direct observation without asking from the respondent.  If observation is systematically planned and recorded can be used to checked for their validity and reliability.  Assessed through senses with or without mechanical devices.  Commonly used for behavioral studied.
  14. 14. Types of Observation Technique: STRUCTURED • Standardized condition of observation. • Careful definition of units to be observed. • The style of recording the observed information • E.g. Descriptive studies UNSTRUCTURED • The observation does not take place as in structured observation. • E.g. Explanatory studies
  15. 15. Instruments/ Tools for observation method:  Field notes Anecdotes Checklist
  16. 16. Advantages & Disadvantages of Observation Technique: Advantages Disadvantages 1) Subject bias is eliminated. 1) An expensive method 2) Relates to what is currently happening. 2) Information is very limited 3) Independent of respondent. 3) Unforeseen factors may interfere with the observational task.
  17. 17. 2) INTERVIEW METHOD  The interview method of collecting of data involves presentation of oral stimuli and reply in terms of oral response.  It can be used through personal interviews and if possible, through telephone interview
  18. 18. CLASSIFICATION 2.1. Personal interview A. Structured B. Unstructured C. Focused D. Clinical E. Non-directive 2.2. Telephonic interview
  19. 19. 2.1 Personal interviews:  Asking question generally in a face to face to collect the information.  The sort of investigation may be in the form of direct personal investigation or may be indirect .
  20. 20. a) Structured interview: Involve the use of a set of predetermined questions and of highly standardized techniques of recording. Advantage Disadvantage Require less knowledge and skill Provide only superficial information Less time consuming More rigid hence no freedom More systematic and authentic Not possible in all situations
  21. 21. b) Unstructured interviews:  Flexibility of approach to questioning.  It doesn’t follow a system of predetermined questions and standardized techniques of recording information. Advantage: Disadvantage Allow greater freedom to ask question It demands knowledge and greater skill Methods provide flexibility according to situation Difficult to analyze the information Data are more adequate and accurate Time consuming
  22. 22. c) Focused interview:  To focus attention on the given experience of the respondent and its effects. d) Clinical interview:  it is concerned with broad underlying feelings of individual's life experience. e) Non-directive interview:  encourage the respondent to talk about the given topic with a bare minimum of direct questioning
  23. 23. II. Telephone interview:  collecting information consists in contacting respondents on telephone. Advantage:  It is more flexible in comparison to mailing method  It is faster than other methods  Recall is easy, call back are simple and economical Disadvantage:  Shortage of time for respondents to reply  Restricted to respondents who have telephone facilities
  24. 24. It comprises a series of questions prepared by the researcher that are answered and filled by all the respondent. This is usually popular self report or self- administered method. It commonly used to get demographic data. It allow the collection of larger data from large no. of sample quickly and inexpensively. 3) QUESTIONNAIRE:
  25. 25. Structure of Question: Open ended question Close ended/fixed/alternative •When researcher want more information. •Limited respond. • difficult to analyze. •Easy to analysis e.g. Why did you choose to take your graduate work at this university? e.g. Have you ever taken a course in statistics? ( ) yes ( ) No
  26. 26. ADVANTAGES Can be posted, e-mailed or faxed. Can cover a large number of people or organizations. Wide geographic coverage. Relatively cheap. No prior arrangements are needed. Avoids embarrassment on the part of the respondent. Respondent can consider responses.
  27. 27. DISADVANTAGES: Design problems. Questions have to be relatively simple. Historically low response rate (although inducements may help). Time delay whilst waiting for responses to be returned. Require a return deadline. Several reminders may be required. Assumes no literacy problems. No control over who completes it. Not possible to give assistance if required.
  28. 28. TYPES OF CLOSED ENDED QUESTION A. Dichotomous questions B. Multi choice questions C. Cafeteria questions D. Rank order questions E. Rating scale F. Checklist G. Visual analogue scales[VAS]
  29. 29. A. Dichotomous questions It makes the respondent to make a choice between two responses such as “Yes/No” “Male/Female” E.g. Have you been hospitalized?
  30. 30. B. Multi-choice questions  It offers more than two response alternatives  Graded alternatives are preferable for opinion or attitude questions that give more information  E.g. how important is to you to avoid a pregnancy at this time 1. Extremely important 2. Very important 3. Somewhat important 4. Not at all important
  31. 31. C. Cafeteria questions  These are special type of MCQ that ask respondents to select a respondent’s response that most closely corresponds to their view. E.g. People have different opinion or attitude about use of estrogen replacement therapy for women in menopause, which of the following statements best represents our joint view? 1. Estrogen replacement is dangerous and should be banned 2. Estrogen replacement has some side effects that suggest need for caution 3. I am undecided about view of Estrogen replacement therapy 4. Estrogen replacement has many beneficial effects
  32. 32. D. Rank-order questions  It asks respondents to rank target concept along some continuum such as most favorable or most to least important.  Respondents are asked to mark 1,2,3,4…. According to their importance and their should not be more than10 alternatives  E.g. people value different things about life. Below is a list of principles or ideas that are often cited when people are asked to name things they value most by putting 1,2,3.etc. i. Achievement and success ii. Family relationship iii. Health iv. Money v. Religion
  33. 33. F. Rating scale  It asks the respondent to judge something along an order dimension. e.g. How satisfied are you with the nursing care during your hospitalization? Extremely dissatisfied Extremely satisfied 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
  34. 34. G. VISUAL ANALOG SCALE  It is useful for assessing perception of physic stimuli such as pain, sleep, quality and shortness of breath.  Advantage  It is easy to develop for researcher.  Widest possibility range of expression.  Disadvantage  It includes concern with reliability and validity.
  35. 35.
  36. 36. 4) PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT: It can be classified as In Vivo and In Vitro.  In Vivo includes measurements of those which are performed directly within or living organisms themselves; such as blood flow determination through radiography, IVP, cholecystography. An In Vitro measurement by contrast is performed outside the organism’s body, such as blood glucose, blood urea, serum Na+, K+.
  37. 37. Physiological measurement can also be classified as listed below: Physical measurement – Temperature, volume, pressure, electrical measures. Chemical measurements – hormones levels, sugar, urea, Hb%, potassium level, etc. Microbiological measurement – bacterial counts and identification. Anatomical and Cytological measurement – X-rays, tissue biopsies, tomography, CAT scan, etc.
  38. 38. Thank you