data collection method-
it include following sub points-
1) definition of research tool
3) primary and secondary data
4) observation method
7) physiological measure
RESEARCH TOOL &
Tools are instruments used to collect
information for performance assessments, self-
evaluations, and external evaluations.
Tools need to be strong enough to support what
the evaluations find during research.
Depending on the nature of the information to
be gathered, different instruments are used to
conduct the assessment forms for gathering
DEFINITION OF TOOL:
It is a testing device for measuring a given
event, such as , a questionnaire, an
interview or a set of guidelines or checklist
It is an instrument or machine that aids in
accomplishing a task.
MEANING OF RESEARCH TOOLS:
Research tools are:
the Instruments used for the purpose of data
are measurable and observable for data
analysis & interpretation
constructed by researcher according to
PRINCIPLES FOR CONSTRUCTION OF
words must be
Keep in mind the
order of question
other. Tool must not be
too long or too
short. It should
DEFINITION OF DATA
Data collection is a systematic process of collecting
detail information about desire objective from
selected sample under controlled settings.
face to face
contact with the
PRIMARY DATA COLLECTION:
• to gain general answers to basic
• When the researcher is directly
involved with the study group.
• used to gain more in depth answers
to complex questions.Interviews
• certain sample groups are asked their
opinion about a certain subject or
These data collection tools:
allow for a true measurement of accuracy and let the
researcher obtain any unspoken observations about
the participants while conducting research.
E.g. Socio-economic surveys, studies related to rural
or tribal communities, nursing research, hospital
management studies, knowledge awareness practice
SECONDARY DATA COLLECTION:
It is done :
when very large group of
population is required.
When Personal contact is
not possible for the
researcher to collect the
e.g: Institutional survey,
organizational research etc.
METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION:
Method refers to the way of gathering data,
a tool is an instrument used for the
(1) observation method
(2) interview method
(4) physiological measurement
ONE OR MORE METHODS HAS/HAVE TO BE
CHOSEN. THE CHOICE OF A METHOD DEPENDS UPON
THE FOLLOWING FACTORS:
The nature of the study of the subject-matter.
The unit of enquiry.
The size and spread of the sample.
Scale of the survey.
The educational level of respondents.
The type and depth of information to be
The availability of skilled and trained manpower.
1) OBSERVATION TECHNIQUE:
One of the basic method and oldest
Data is obtained by investigator own direct
observation without asking from the
If observation is systematically planned
and recorded can be used to checked for
their validity and reliability.
Assessed through senses with or without
Commonly used for behavioral studied.
Types of Observation Technique:
• Standardized condition
• Careful definition of
units to be observed.
• The style of recording
• E.g. Descriptive studies
• The observation
does not take place
as in structured
• E.g. Explanatory
Instruments/ Tools for observation
Advantages & Disadvantages of
1) Subject bias is
1) An expensive method
2) Relates to what is
2) Information is very
3) Independent of
3) Unforeseen factors
may interfere with the
2) INTERVIEW METHOD
The interview method of collecting of data
involves presentation of oral stimuli and
reply in terms of oral response.
It can be used through personal interviews
and if possible, through telephone interview
2.1. Personal interview
2.2. Telephonic interview
2.1 Personal interviews:
Asking question generally in a face to
face to collect the information.
The sort of investigation may be in the
form of direct personal investigation or
may be indirect .
a) Structured interview:
Involve the use of a set of predetermined
questions and of highly standardized
techniques of recording.
Require less knowledge
Provide only superficial
Less time consuming More rigid hence no
More systematic and
Not possible in all
b) Unstructured interviews:
Flexibility of approach to questioning.
It doesn’t follow a system of predetermined
questions and standardized techniques of
Allow greater freedom to ask
It demands knowledge and
Methods provide flexibility
according to situation
Difficult to analyze the
Data are more adequate and
c) Focused interview:
To focus attention on the given experience of
the respondent and its effects.
d) Clinical interview:
it is concerned with broad underlying feelings of
individual's life experience.
e) Non-directive interview:
encourage the respondent to talk about the
given topic with a bare minimum of direct
II. Telephone interview:
collecting information consists in contacting
respondents on telephone.
It is more flexible in comparison to mailing
It is faster than other methods
Recall is easy, call back are simple and
Shortage of time for respondents to reply
Restricted to respondents who have
It comprises a series of questions prepared
by the researcher that are answered and filled
by all the respondent.
This is usually popular self report or self-
It commonly used to get demographic data.
It allow the collection of larger data from
large no. of sample quickly and inexpensively.
Structure of Question:
Open ended question
•When researcher want
• difficult to analyze. •Easy to analysis
e.g. Why did you choose to take
your graduate work at this
e.g. Have you ever taken a course
( ) yes
( ) No
Can be posted, e-mailed or faxed.
Can cover a large number of people or
Wide geographic coverage.
No prior arrangements are needed.
Avoids embarrassment on the part of the
Respondent can consider responses.
Questions have to be relatively simple.
Historically low response rate (although
inducements may help).
Time delay whilst waiting for responses to be
Require a return deadline.
Several reminders may be required.
Assumes no literacy problems.
No control over who completes it.
Not possible to give assistance if required.
TYPES OF CLOSED ENDED QUESTION
A. Dichotomous questions
B. Multi choice questions
C. Cafeteria questions
D. Rank order questions
E. Rating scale
G. Visual analogue scales[VAS]
A. Dichotomous questions
It makes the respondent to make a
choice between two responses such
as “Yes/No” “Male/Female”
E.g. Have you been hospitalized?
B. Multi-choice questions
It offers more than two response alternatives
Graded alternatives are preferable for opinion or
attitude questions that give more information
E.g. how important is to you to avoid a pregnancy
at this time
1. Extremely important
2. Very important
3. Somewhat important
4. Not at all important
C. Cafeteria questions
These are special type of MCQ that ask
respondents to select a respondent’s response that
most closely corresponds to their view.
E.g. People have different opinion or attitude about
use of estrogen replacement therapy for women in
menopause, which of the following statements best
represents our joint view?
1. Estrogen replacement is dangerous and should
2. Estrogen replacement has some side effects that
suggest need for caution
3. I am undecided about view of Estrogen
4. Estrogen replacement has many beneficial
D. Rank-order questions
It asks respondents to rank target concept along
some continuum such as most favorable or most
to least important.
Respondents are asked to mark 1,2,3,4….
According to their importance and their should not
be more than10 alternatives
E.g. people value different things about life. Below is a list
of principles or ideas that are often cited when people are
asked to name things they value most by putting 1,2,3.etc.
i. Achievement and success
ii. Family relationship
F. Rating scale
It asks the respondent to judge something
along an order dimension.
e.g. How satisfied are you with the nursing care
during your hospitalization?
Extremely dissatisfied Extremely satisfied
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
G. VISUAL ANALOG SCALE
It is useful for assessing perception of
physic stimuli such as pain, sleep, quality
and shortness of breath.
It is easy to develop for researcher.
Widest possibility range of expression.
It includes concern with reliability and validity.
4) PHYSIOLOGICAL MEASUREMENT:
It can be classified as In Vivo and In Vitro.
In Vivo includes measurements of those
which are performed directly within or living
organisms themselves; such as blood flow
determination through radiography, IVP,
An In Vitro measurement by contrast is
performed outside the organism’s body, such
as blood glucose, blood urea, serum Na+, K+.
Physiological measurement can also be
classified as listed below:
Physical measurement – Temperature,
volume, pressure, electrical measures.
Chemical measurements – hormones levels,
sugar, urea, Hb%, potassium level, etc.
Microbiological measurement – bacterial
counts and identification.
Anatomical and Cytological measurement
– X-rays, tissue biopsies, tomography, CAT