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Managingdemandandcpacity 111011090245-phpapp01

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Managingdemandandcpacity 111011090245-phpapp01

  1. 1. Chapter 14 Managing Demand and Capacity • The Underlying Issue: Lack of Inventory Capability • Understanding Capacity Constraints • Understanding Demand Patterns • Strategies for Matching Capacity and Demand • Yield Management • Waiting Line Strategies McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  2. 2. Objectives for Chapter 14: Managing Demand and Capacity • Explain the underlying issue for capacity-constrained services: lack of inventory capacity. • Present the implications of time, labor, equipment, and facilities constraints combined with variations in demand patterns. • Lay out strategies for matching supply and demand through (a) shifting demand to match capacity or (b) flexing capacity to meet demand. • Demonstrate the benefits and risks of yield management strategies. • Provide strategies for managing waiting lines. McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Figure 14.1 Variations in Demand Relative to Capacity McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4. Understanding Capacity Constraints and Demand Patterns Capacity Constraints Demand Patterns • Time, labor, equipment, and facilities • Optimal versus maximal use of capacity • Charting demand patterns • Predictable cycles • Random demand fluctuations • Demand patterns by market segment McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5. Table 14.1 Demand vs. Supply McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6. Table 14.2 Constraints on Capacity Nature of the constraint Type of service Time Legal Consulting Accounting Medical Labor Law firm Accounting firm Consulting firm Health clinic Equipment Delivery services Telecommunication Utilities Health club Facilities Hotels Restaurants Hospitals Airlines Schools Theaters Churches McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7. Figure 14.3 Strategies for Shifting Demand to Match Capacity Demand Too High Shift Demand • Use signage to communicate busy days and times. • Offer incentives to customers for usage during non-peak times. • Take care of loyal or “regular” customers first. • Advertise peak usage times and benefits of non-peak use. • Charge full price for the service--no discounts. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Demand Too Low • Use sales and advertising to increase business from current market segments. • Modify the service offering to appeal to new market segments. • Offer discounts or price reductions. • Modify hours of operation. • Bring the service to the customer. ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8. Figure 14.4 Strategies for Flexing Capacity to Match Demand Demand Too High Flex Capacity • Stretch time, labor, facilities and equipment. • Cross-train employees. • Hire part-time employees. • Request overtime work from employees. • Rent or share facilities. • Rent or share equipment. • Subcontract or outsource activities. • Outsource. McGraw-Hill/Irwin Demand Too Low • Perform maintenance, renovations. • Schedule vacations. • Schedule employee training. • Lay off employees. ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  9. 9. Waiting Issues • • • • • • • unoccupied time feels longer preprocess waits feel longer anxiety makes waits seem longer uncertain waits seem longer than finite waits unexplained waits seem longer unfair waits feel longer longer waits are more acceptable for “valuable” services • solo waits feel longer McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10. Waiting Strategies • • • • Employ operational logic to reduce wait Establish a reservation process Differentiate waiting customers Make waiting fun, or at least tolerable McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11. Figure 14.5 Waiting Line Strategies McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12. Figure 14.6 Waiting Line Configurations McGraw-Hill/Irwin ©2003. The McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved

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