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The Underwater World

"Traian" High School, Constanta-Romania

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The Underwater World

  1. 1.  Turtles are reptiles with hard shells that protect them from predators. They are among the oldest and most primitive groups of reptiles, having evolved millions of years ago. Turtles live all over the world in almost every type of climate. Turtles spend most of their lives in water. They are adapted for aquatic life, with webbed feet or flippers and a streamlined body. Sea turtles rarely leave the ocean, except to lay eggs in the sand. Freshwater turtles live in ponds and lakes, and they climb out of the water onto logs or rocks to bask in the warm sun.
  2. 2.  Dolphins are highly intelligent marine mammals and are part of the family of toothed whales that includes orcas and pilot whales. They are found worldwide, mostly in shallow seas of the continental shelves, and are carnivores, mostly eating fish and squid. Dolphin coloration varies, but they are generally gray in color with darker backs than the rest of their bodies. Dolphins are well known for their agility and playful behavior, making them a favorite of wildlife watchers. Many species will leap out of the water and follow ships, often synchronizing their movements with one another. Scientists believe that dolphins conserve energy by swimming alongside ships.
  3. 3.  Sharks belong to a family of fish that have skeletons made of cartilage, a tissue more flexible and lighter than bone. They breathe through a series of five to seven gill slits located on either side of their bodies. All sharks have multiple rows of teeth, and while they lose teeth, new teeth continue to grow in and replace those they lose. Shark ‘skin’ is made up of a series of scales that act as an outer skeleton for easy movement and for saving energy in the water. The upper side of a shark is generally dark to blend in with the water from above and their undersides are white or lighter colored to blend in with the lighter surface of the sea from below. This helps to camouflage them from predators and prey.
  4. 4.  Whales belong to the order cetacea, which includes whales, dolphins and porpoises. Whales are divided into two suborders: baleen and toothed whales. Baleen whales have a comb-like fringe, called a baleen, on the upper jaw, which is used to filter plankton, as well as small fish and crustaceans. They are the largest species of whale. Toothed whales have teeth and prey on fish, squid, other whales and marine mammals. They sense their surrounding environment through echolocation.  Did You Know?  The Blue Whale is the largest known mammal that has ever lived, and the largest living animal, at up to 110 feet long and 150 tons.
  5. 5. Connecting Europe to Asia Minor, the Black Sea is full of surprises and mysteries. From the various theories about how it got its name and rumors about it being the landing point of Noah’s Ark to the gruesome facts, such as the intact bodies still resting at the bottom of the sea, it is surely a place worth visiting. Because the low and high tides in the Black Sea are absent, there are not fluctuations in the water levels. Consequentially, the sea surface is always calm, quiet and even serene. The Black Sea accommodates ten small islands, all of them incorporating unique eco systems with amazing flora and fauna. Add the fact that the islands are currently part of three different countries and you will understand why visiting these exotic islands is such a thrilling and interesting adventure.
  6. 6.  Moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita is another medusa, common in the Black Sea. Its thread-cells located on the canopy fringe tentacles are less potent weapon than those of Rhizostoma; they cannot penetrate even children's skin. Contact of this jellyfish with eyes still should be avoided.  Jellyfish immobilize or even kill their prey (small planktonic animals mostly) with the use of thread-cells containing venom capsule with a sharp, saw-edged coiled harpoon attached to it. The spring uncoils and hit the prey when it touches sensitive hair on the thread-cell surface. Spike of the hollow dart breaks inside the victim body, and paralyzing venom pours out. Thread-cell is a disposable weapon.
  7. 7.  Black Sea scorpion-fish Scorpaena porcus. It is a monster: a big head covered with skin flaps, protruding red eyes, huge mouth with thick lips. Dorsal fin's rays of scorpaena became poisoned spikes - venom glands locate at the base of each ray. Another couple of hard poisoned prickles grow from gill flaps. These thorns are scorpaena's defense weapon, whereas its weapon of attack is a great many sharp crooked teeth. Scorpion- fish is a predator hiding between rocks and algae, indistinguishable from them due to the camouflage of color spots and skin shreds. Scorpaena waits until smaller fish approach within attacking distance - a violent rush follows and the prey being swallowed within a split second.
  8. 8. Turtles are… A. Reptils B. Shellfish Dolphins are… A. Fish B. Mammals
  9. 9. A. The Great Hammerhead B. The Whale Shark D. The Elephant C. The Blue Whale Who is the largest living animal?
  10. 10. A. Northen Europe B. Southestern Europe C. North America D. South America Where is the Black Sea located?

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"Traian" High School, Constanta-Romania

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