安捷倫科技LTE長期演進技術論壇Volume 2
Agenda • LTE Context and Timeline • LTE Major Features • LTE Transmission Schemes • LTE vs. HSPA+ and WiMAX • Multiple Ant...
Physical Signal Definitions DL Signals Full name                                           Purpose P-SS            Primary...
Signal Modulation and Mapping                                                                                             ...
Channel Modulation and Mapping                                       Normal CP is assumed   DL Channels                   ...
Slot Structure and Physical Resource Element Downlink – OFDMA                                One downlink slot, Tslot     ...
Physical Layer Definitions  Frame Structure    Frame Structure type 1 (FDD)                                               ...
Downlink Physical MappingConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 63Page 63Uplink Frame Structure Type 1PUSCH Mapping           ...
Uplink Frame Structure Type 1 (FDD)PUCCH Mapping (Formats 1, 1a, 1b )                                                     ...
Agenda    • LTE Context and Timeline    • LTE Major Features    • LTE Transmission Schemes    • LTE vs. HSPA+ and WiMAX   ...
LTE Agilent Solutions in the Design Lifecycle               Signal Studio                          LTE VSA SW             ...
Signal creation softwareN7624B Signal Studio for LTE User-friendly, parameterized and reconfigurable 3GPP LTE signal gener...
LTE Signal Analysis Using Agilent 89601A VectorSignal Analyzer software • Works with multiple signal   acquisition front e...
E6620A Integrated Mobile Test Platform                              Scripted testcases                                    ...
Learn more atwww.agilent.com/find/lte                                            LTE Poster (5989-7646EN)                 ...
LTE Uplink and Downlink Signal Generation                                                Agilent has built a solid reputat...
3GPP LTE protocol PrimerAgenda                                                         LTE       • LTE major features and ...
LTE major features    Feature                       Capability    UE Categories                 10 Mbps - 300 Mbps on DL  ...
LTE 3GPP Specifications (Rel-8)   • After the LTE study phase in Rel-7, the LTE specifications     are defined in the 36-s...
HSS - Home subscriber server     High level SAE                                               IMS - IP multimedia subsyste...
LTE 3GPP – S1 and X23GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008                                      3GPP TR 23.40...
What is Protocol?       An agreed-upon set of rules governing the exchange of      information.       “An agreed-upon set ...
Agenda       • LTE major features and documents       • SAE, S1 and X2 overview       • LTE Protocol Stack overviews      ...
LTE 3GPP Stack overview            UE                     eNB                      PDCP              PDCP                 ...
LTE 3GPP Stack overview – PDCP PDU Structure  • Robust Header    Compression (RoHC)      • For more info see        IETF R...
RLC Segmentation and Concatenation  • Multiple RLC SDU’s are segmented / concatenated into a single RLC    PDU  • MAC know...
LTE 3GPP – RLC, Unacknowledged Mode (UM)  • RLC conducts:         • No retransmission service (No ARQ)      • Segmentation...
LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM) • For AM RLC conducts:                                                             ...
LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM) • Acknowledged Mode PDU SEGMENT                                                    ...
MAC function location and link directionassociation     MAC function                                UE   eNB   Downlink   ...
LTE 3GPP - MAC PDU , DL-SCH, UL-SCH • Similar to UMTS – Header, MAC SDU’s, MAC control elements, Padding • Header and SDU’...
LTE 3GPP - MAC Scheduling • MAC’s main function will be the distribution and management of   common resources in both UL –...
Function of Physical Layer Service     -    Error detection on the transport channel and indication to higher layers     -...
LTE 3GPP Stack overview - RRC  • The main services and functions of the RRC subl-ayer include:         • Broadcast of Syst...
LTE 3GPP Stack overviewHandover measurement scenarios  • Intra E-UTRAN Handovers will be affected by differences between  ...
LTE 3GPP Stack overviewHandover measurement scenarios  • For Handovers, the network can provide some assistance     • E-UT...
Agenda       • LTE major features and documents       • SAE, S1 and X2 overview       • LTE Protocol Stack overviews      ...
Agilent and AniteIndustry Leaders Partnering to DeliverWorld Class LTE Development Solutions• Providing scalable test solu...
Agilent and Anite         in partnership -                       to accelerate LTE test solutions                         ...
LTE Baseband Analysis  Logic Analysis                                       To validate RFIC operation, engineers can     ...
LTE Baseband Analysis                           LTE Digital Real-Time Decode & Debug          signals. Two-channel Infiniiu...
Concept of TD-LTE                                                      TDD-LTE            TD-LTE MIMO test (PHY)  TD-LTE w...
Agenda•Understanding TD-LTE technology•TD-LTE market opportunity•Technical challenges of TD-LTE• RF measurement• Agilent T...
Multimode LTE network:     TD-LTE & LTE-FDD         China Mobile, Verizon Wireless and Vodafone Trials         Confirm LTE...
Operating bands – FDD / TDDTD-LTE & TD-SCDMA
Integration frame structures (TD-SCDMA& TD-LTE)                TDD FS1                                          TDD FS2   ...
Who participate in TD-LTE?China Spectrum Allocation          TDD          FDD (uplink)        Satellite TDD              V...
China Telecom Operators  3G Network (China)   Over 40 Billion USD investment in developing the 3G network   infrastructure...
China TD-SCDMA (TD-LTE) Food Chain                                     Service                                     Provide...
LTE (FDD/TDD) Standard update                         2007                       2008                                 2009...
TD-LTE in 4G roadmap…Page 19 3GPP Reference Standard     Some incorrect information are included in Dec-08 spec, so it wil...
3GPP Release 8 Standard Transition  Customer interest is changing from L1 PHY spec to RF conformance test spec now  UL MU-...
TDD Downlink and Uplink Allocation              •5ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5 and DwPTS for downlink,      ...
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  1. 1. 安捷倫科技LTE長期演進技術論壇Volume 2
  2. 2. Agenda • LTE Context and Timeline • LTE Major Features • LTE Transmission Schemes • LTE vs. HSPA+ and WiMAX • Multiple Antenna Techniques • System Architecture Evolution • Standards Documents • Overview of Physical Layer Frame Structure • Solutions OverviewConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 51Page 51LTE Physical Layer Overview(…now on to the Really Cool Stuff!) • LTE air interface consists of two main components – Signals and Channels • Physical Signals • Generated in Layer 1 – Used for System Synchronization, Cell Identification and Radio Channel Estimation • Physical Channels • These Carry Data from higher layers including Control, Scheduling and User Payload • The following is a simplified high-level description of the essential Signals and Channels…Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 52Page 52 26
  3. 3. Physical Signal Definitions DL Signals Full name Purpose P-SS Primary Synchronization Signal Used for cell search and identification by the UE. Carries part of the cell ID S-SS Secondary Synchronization Signal Used for cell search and identification by the UE. Carries the remainder of the cell ID RS Reference Signal (Pilot) Used for DL channel estimation and channel equalization. Exact sequence derived from cell ID, UL Signals Full name Purpose LTE DM-RS (Demodulation) Reference Signal Used for synchronization to the UE and UL channel estimation Only used with active Transport Channel SRS Sounding Reference Signal Used for channel estimation when there is no transport channel (i.e., No active PUSCH or PUCCH) Used for CQI measurement.Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 53Page 53Physical Channel Definitions DL Channels Full name Purpose PBCH Physical Broadcast Channel Carries cell-specific information PMCH Physical Multicast Channel Carries the MCH transport channel PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel Scheduling, ACK/NACK PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel Payload PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Defines number of PDCCH OFDMA Channel symbols per sub-frame (1, 2 or 3) PHICH Physical Hybrid ARQ indicator channel Carries HARQ ACK/NACK UL Channels Full name Purpose PRACH Physical Random Access Channel Call setup PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel Scheduling, ACK/NACK PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel Payload Note: Absence of Dedicated Channels, which is a characteristic of Packet-Only SystemsConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 54Page 54 27
  4. 4. Signal Modulation and Mapping Normal CP is assumed DL Signals Modulation Sequence Physical Mapping Power*1 Primary 62/72 subcarriers centred One of 3 Zadoff-Chu Synchronization around DC at OFDMA [+0.65 dB] *2 sequences Signal (P-SS) symbol #6 of slots #0, #10 Secondary Two 31-bit M-sequences 62/72 subcarriers centred Synchronization (binary) – one of 168 Cell IDs around DC at OFDMA [+0.65 dB] *2 Signal plus other info symbol #5 of slots #0, #10 (S-SS) PS Gold sequence defined by Every 6th subcarrier of Reference Cell ID (P-SS & S-SS) OFDMA symbols #0 & #4 [+2.5 dB] Signal (RS) 1 of 3x168 = 504 seq. of every slot UL Signals Modulation Sequence Physical Mapping Power Demodulation uth root Zadoff-Chu or SC-FDMA symbol #3 of Reference QPSK (<3 RB) [0 dB] every slot Signal (DM-RS) Additional signals (UL) - Sounding Reference Signal (Z-C)*1: 3GPP has not define power level yet. This information shows the current scale factor in the 89600 VSA and N7624B Signal Studio.*2: Synchronization signal: 72 sub-carriers are reserved, but only 62 sub-carrier are used. [–0.65 dB = 10 x log10(62/72)]Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 55Page 55DM-RS Signal Modulation (UE)• The unity circle produced by the DM-RS may look random but is the result of phase modulating each successive subcarrier to create a Constant Amplitude Zero Auto-Correlation (CAZAC) Sequence• There are 30 different sequences defined providing orthogonality between users (similar to Walsh Codes in CDMA)• The sequence follows a Zadoff-Chu progression qm ( m 1) j RS N ZC RS xq m e , 0 m N ZC 1 RS where N ZC is the first prime number less than the required number of subcarriers, and m is the subcarrier number of the qth sequence• For allocations less than 3 Resource Blocks (36 subcarriers) it is not possible to use a Zadoff-Chu sequence so the RS are modulated with a simpler computer-generated QPSK sequence of length 12 or 24Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 56Page 56 28
  5. 5. Channel Modulation and Mapping Normal CP is assumed DL Channels Modulation Scheme Physical Mapping 72 subcarriers centred around DC Physical Broadcast Channel QPSK at OFDMA symbol #0 to #3 of (PBCH) Slot #1. Excludes RS subcarriers. OFDMA symbol #0, #1 & #2 of Physical Downlink Control the Slot #0 of the subframe NOT QPSK Channel (PDCCH) used by PCFICH or PHICH Excludes RS subcarriers Physical Downlink Shared QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Any assigned RB Channel (PDSCH) LTE Physical Control Format 16 Resource Elements QPSK Indicator Channel (PCFICH) Symbol #0 of Slot #0 Symbol #0 of Slot #0 (normal Physical Hybrid-ARQ BPSK on I and Q duration) Indicator Channel (PHICH) w/SF 2 or 4 Walsh Code Symbols #0, 1, and 2 of Slot #0 (extended duration) Physical Multicast Channel QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Variable Resource Mapping (PMCH)Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 57Page 57Channel Modulation and Mapping (cont.) UL Channels Modulation Scheme Physical Mapping FDD = 64 Preambles, 4 Formats Physical Random Access uth root Zadoff-Chu TDD = 552 Preambles, 1 Format Channel (PRACH) Occupies 6 RB’s (1.08MHz) Physical Uplink Control Any assigned RB but NOT BPSK & QPSK Channel (PUCCH) simultaneous with PUSCH Any assigned RB but NOT Physical Uplink Shared simultaneous with PUCCH QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Channel (PUSCH) Can be hoppedConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 58Page 58 29
  6. 6. Slot Structure and Physical Resource Element Downlink – OFDMA One downlink slot, Tslot •A Resource Block (RB) is basic scheduling unit. DL • A RB contains: N symb OFDM symbols • 7 symbols (1 slot) X 12 subcarriers for normal cyclic prefix Resource block or; : DL N symbx N sc RB • 6 symbols (1 slot) X 12 subcarriers for extended cyclic Resource prefix element (k, l) DL RBN RB x Nsc subcarriers •Minimum allocation is 1 ms (2 slots) RB and 180 kHz (12 subcarriers). N sc subcarriers RB N sc Condition DL N RB DL N symb Normal f=15kHz 12 7 cyclic prefix : Extended f=15kHz 12 6 cyclic prefix f=7.5kHz 24 3 l=0 l= N symb – 1 DL Concepts of 3GPP LTE 9 Oct 2007 Page 59 Page 59 Slot Structure and Physical Resource Element Uplink – SC-FDMA One uplink slot, Tslot UL N symb SC-FDMA symbols Resource Block = Resource block 0.5 ms x 180 kHz : N symb x N sc UL RB Resource element UL RB N RB x Nsc subcarriers (k, l) RB N sc subcarriers Condition NRBsc NULsymb Normal : 12 7 cyclic prefix Extended 12 6 cyclic prefix l=0 l=NULsymb – 1 Concepts of 3GPP LTE 9 Oct 2007 Page 60 Page 60 30
  7. 7. Physical Layer Definitions Frame Structure Frame Structure type 1 (FDD) FDD: Uplink and downlink are transmitted separately One radio frame = 10 ms One slot = 0.5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 ………. #18 #19 One subframe = 1ms Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 9 •5ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5 and DwPTS for downlink, Frame Structure type 2 (TDD) Subframe 2, 5 and UpPTS for Uplink •10ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5,7-9 and DwPTS for downlink, LTE One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms Subframe 2 and UpPTS for Uplink One half-frame, 153600 x Ts = 5 ms One subframe, 30720 x Ts = 1 ms For 5ms switch-point periodicity #0 #2 #3 #4 #5 #7 #8 #9DwPTS, T(variable) UpPTS, (variable) For 10ms switch-point periodicity One slot, Guard period, T(variable) Tslot =15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms Concepts of 3GPP LTE 9 Oct 2007 Page 61 Page 61 Downlink Frame Structure Type 1 DL N symb OFDM symbols (= 7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP) 160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts) CP 0 CP 1 CP 2 CP 3 CP 4 CP 5 CP 6 1 slot etc. = 15360 Ts The Cyclic Prefix is created by prepending each = 0.5 ms symbol with a copy of the end of the symbol Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) = 32.552ns 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 P-SS - Primary Synch Signal [Sym 6 | Slots 0,10 | 62/72] S-SS - Secondary Synch Signal [Sym 5 | Slots 0,10 | 62/72] 1 Sub-Frame PBCH - Physical Broadcast Channel [Syms 0-3 | Slot 1 | 72/72] = 2 slots PDCCH -Physical DL Control Channel [Syms 0-2 | Every Subframe] = 1 ms PDSCH - Physical DL Shared Channel [Available Slots] Reference Signal – (Pilot) [Sym 0,4 | Every Slot] #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #19 1 frame = 10 sub-frames = 10 ms Note 1: Position of RS varies w/Antenna Port number and CP Length Note 2: PMCH, PCFICH, and PHICH not shown here for clarity Concepts of 3GPP LTE Page 62 9 Oct 2007 Page 62 Page 62 31
  8. 8. Downlink Physical MappingConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 63Page 63Uplink Frame Structure Type 1PUSCH Mapping DL N symb OFDM symbols (= 7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP) 160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts) CP 0 CP 1 CP 2 CP 3 CP 4 CP 5 CP 6 1 slot etc. = 15360 Ts The Cyclic Prefix is created by prepending each = 0.5 ms symbol with a copy of the end of the symbol Ts = 1/(15000 x 2048) = 32.6 ns 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 sub-frame PUSCH - Physical Uplink Shared Channel = 2 slots Reference Signal – (Demodulation) [Sym 3 | Every Slot] = 1 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 #12 #13 #14 #15 #16 #17 #18 #19 1 frame = 10 sub-frames = 10 msConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 64Page 64 32
  9. 9. Uplink Frame Structure Type 1 (FDD)PUCCH Mapping (Formats 1, 1a, 1b ) [Syms 0,1,5,6 | Every Slot] LTE 1 [Syms 2-4 | Every Slot]Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 65Page 65Frame Structure Type 1 (UL)- Physical Mapping OOK, BPSK Rotated QPSK Unlike DL, UL DM-RSIs confined only to User Note 1: When no PUCCH or PUSCH is scheduled in the uplink, the eNB can request transmission of the Sounding Reference Signal (SRS), which allows the eNB to estimate the uplink channel characteristics Note 2: PRACH and SRS not shown for clarityConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 66Page 66 33
  10. 10. Agenda • LTE Context and Timeline • LTE Major Features • LTE Transmission Schemes • LTE vs. HSPA+ and WiMAX • Multiple Antenna Techniques • System Architecture Evolution • Standards Documents • Overview of Physical Layer Frame Structure • Solutions OverviewConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 67Page 67LTE Design Flow Solutions RF Proto RF Chip Dev RFIC Digital Design Interface Design Validation Simulation System Level Testing FPGA ASIC Development BB RF & Protocol BB L1/PHY BB L1/PHY ASIC Design Protocol Development Integration L2/L3 MAC/RLC Pre- Conformance ConformanceConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 68Page 68 34
  11. 11. LTE Agilent Solutions in the Design Lifecycle Signal Studio LTE VSA SW Spectrum Battery Drain Analyzers Logic Analyzers Characterization EDA Signal Generators & Scopes RF Proto RF Chip Dev RFIC Digital Design Interface Design ValidationSimulation FPGA ASIC Development System Level Testing BB RF & Protocol BB L1/PHY BB L1/PHY ASIC Design LTE Protocol Development Integration L2/L3 Pre- Conformance Conformance DC Power Anite Protocol E6620A Test Set Analyzer Systems for RF and Protocol Conformance Development System Concepts of 3GPP LTE 9 Oct 2007 Page 69 Page 69 Advanced Design System 3GPP LTE Wireless Library For system and circuit design & verification • Downlink OFDMA and uplink SC-FDMA sources and receivers • Pre-configured examples with EVM and BER measurements • Connectivity with Agilent test equipment Combine simulation with sources and analyzers for powerful R&D prototype hardware testing.. Download Signal generator RF or Mixed- Signal DUT Logic Analyser Analyze Spectrum Analyserhttp://eesof.tm.agilent.com/products/ads_main.html Concepts of 3GPP LTE 9 Oct 2007 Page 70 Page 70 35
  12. 12. Signal creation softwareN7624B Signal Studio for LTE User-friendly, parameterized and reconfigurable 3GPP LTE signal generation software for Agilent ESG-C or MXG RF Signal Generators. • PHY Layer partially coded signals for component test • Transport Layer fully coded signals for Rx Test • Downlink MIMO pre-coding up to 4x4 (Spatial Multiplexing/Tx Diversity) • Multiple UE setup for UL Download your free demo copy at: • Fixed-tap Fading www.agilent.com/find/signalstudio MXG ESG-CConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 71Page 71Wireless Physical Layer Validation Signal Creation Software N4860A Stimulus Probe Tx RF-IC Signal Generator Rx Spectrum Analyser N4850A Logic Analyzer Acquisition Probe Vector Signal AnalysisConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 72Page 72 36
  13. 13. LTE Signal Analysis Using Agilent 89601A VectorSignal Analyzer software • Works with multiple signal acquisition front ends including logic analyzers, scopes, simulation tools and spectrum analyzers EVM equalizer amplitude and phase response • Waterfall displays • Gate (by time and channel type) LTE • Customizable GUI with up to 6 simultaneous colour coded traces • Analysis in multiple domains - slot, subcarrier, resource block and Download your free symbol 89601A demo copy at: • Full coupled marker functionality www.agilent.com/find/89600Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 73Page 73Agilent and Anite in partnership - accelerating LTE test solutions Combining strengths to bring a full- NEW! range of LTE solutions to market faster • Anite Protocol development system built on Agilent E6620A hardware platform • Agilent E6620A wireless communications test set with a Anite SAT LTE Protocol Tester 3GPP Release 8 LTE protocol with Development Toolset stack built on the Agilent E6620A First to market toolset for UE protocol developmentConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 74Page 74 37
  14. 14. E6620A Integrated Mobile Test Platform Scripted testcases Scalable single box base station emulator • 2G/3G/3.9G (LTE) capable Protocol Processor • LTE L1-L2 signaling stack + scripting API • 20MHz BW PDCP A • Data rates up to 100 Mbps DL / 50 Mbps UL • 2x2 MIMO RLC • Support for two independent cells MAC P • Built-in Fading • RF Parametric Measurements DSP Engine I digital I/O L1 PHY RF I/OSISO RF I/O UP/DOWN CONV.MIMO RF I/O* 20MHz B/W RF(2x2 DL) *Optional 2nd Source/Receiver for 2x2 MIMO Introduction: Mid-2008Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 75Page 75Agilents position in LTE • Providing the broadest range of solutions for LTE design and test - from simulation to RF and digital design to protocol development to network deployment. • Representation on 3GPP standards committees • Providing "connected solutions" – systems that combine simulation with real-world signal generation and analysis to permit early module test • Is the only company that provides all the cross-domain test capability for new-generation radio products which feature direct "digital to RF" architectures (eg. CPRI and OBSAI base stations and DigRF and MIPI D-PHY handsets) • First-to-market Protocol test solution in partnership with Anite • Providing a common scalable platform across protocol and RF solutions for development, functional, and conformance testConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 76Page 76 38
  15. 15. Learn more atwww.agilent.com/find/lte LTE Poster (5989-7646EN) LTE Brochure (5989-7817EN) Webcasts on LTE • LTE Concepts • LTE Uplink • LTE Design and Simulation Application Note comingConcepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 77Page 77 Questions? Thank you for your attention!Concepts of 3GPP LTE9 Oct 2007Page 78Page 78 39
  16. 16. LTE Uplink and Downlink Signal Generation Agilent has built a solid reputation in the Agilent ESG signal generator. Additionally mobile communications industry with the Signal Studio software can be used with combination of our signal generators and the Agilent PXB MIMO receiver tester for Signal Studio signal creation software. applications that require MIMO fading, The versatile and comprehensive software creation of interfering stimulus, digital is available for the development and I/Q inputs and outputs, real-time signal manufacturing of existing and evoling creation or closed loop testing of advanced 2G, 3G, 3.5G and 4G communication LTE capabilities like HARQ. Highlights of systems. You can quickly and easily create LTE Signal Studio Software include: performance-optimized LTE reference signals for component-level parametric • Create FDD and TDD frame structures test, baseband subsystem verification, (type 1/type 2) receiver performance verification and • Physical layer coded signals for advanced functional evaluation. component test • Transport channel coded signals for Speed Signal Simulation with Signal receiver test Studio LTE Applications • Create all LTE bandwidths: 1.4 MHz to 20 MHz Signal Studio applications for 3GPP LTE enable the configuration of standard- • Create all modulation types: BPSK, based FDD and TDD LTE test signals to QPSK, 16QAM, and 64QAM verify the performance of components, • Up to 4x4 MIMO configurations (spatial receivers, and baseband ASICs. Use this multiplexing / TX diversity) software with the Agilent MXG signal • Real-time fading with the Agilent PXB generator for the industry’s for up to 4x2 or 2x4 MIMO best adjacent channel leakage ratio (ACLR) • Predefined setups for fi xed reference performance making it ideal channels and E-UTRA test models for the characterization • Mixed-carrier configuration with and evaluation of BTS W-CDMA components such as multi- • Co-existence testing using the carrier power amplifiers. Agilent PXB with 4 independent For applications that baseband generators require lower phase noise, • Create multi-carrier signals for uplink the best level accuracy, and downlink or digital I/Q inputs and outputs then use Signal • Real-time HARQ feedback for perfor- Studio software with the mance requirements testing Industry-leading performance with the Agilent PXB MIMO receiver tester and the Agilent MXG and ESG vector signal generators. Flexible resource mapping with scalable system bandwidth is available with Agilent’s Signal Studio Software.www.agilent.com/find/lte
  17. 17. 3GPP LTE protocol PrimerAgenda LTE • LTE major features and documents • SAE, S1 and X2 overview • LTE Protocol Stack overviews • Data flow through the UE LTE stack • PHY function Overview • RRC- focus on Handover • Summaries/Solutions3GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008 1
  18. 18. LTE major features Feature Capability UE Categories 10 Mbps - 300 Mbps on DL (Provisionally five) 5 Mbps to 75 Mbps in UL Access modes FDD with frame structure 1 TDD with frame structure 2 Baseline UE capability 20 MHz UL/DL, 2 Rx, one Tx antenna Downlink transmission OFDMA using QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM Uplink transmission SC-FDMA using QPSK,16QAM, 64QAM DL Spatial diversity Open loop TX diversity Single-User MIMO up to 4x4 supportable UL Spatial diversity Optional open loop TX diversity, 2x2 MU- MIMO, Optional 2x2 SU-MIMO3GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008LTE major features Feature Capability Transmission Time 1 ms Interval H-ARQ Retransmission 8ms (At LTE peak data rates this is a very hard Time spec to meet at baseband) Frequency hopping Intra-TTI UL once per .5ms slot - DL once per 66 s symbol Inter-TTI Across retransmissions Bearer services Packet only – no circuit switched voice or data services are supported voice must use VoIP Multicasting Enhanced MBMS with Single Frequency Network and cell-specific content3GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008 2
  19. 19. LTE 3GPP Specifications (Rel-8) • After the LTE study phase in Rel-7, the LTE specifications are defined in the 36-series documents of Rel-8 • There are six major groups of documents • 36.8XX & 36.9XX Technical reports (background information) • 36.1XX Radio specifications (and eNB conformance testing) • 36.2XX Layer 1 baseband • 36.3XX Layer 2/3 air interface signalling • 36.4XX Network signalling • 36.5XX UE Conformance Testing • The latest versions of these documents can be found at www.3gpp.org/ftp/Specs/html-info/36-series.htm3GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008Agenda LTE • LTE major features and documents • SAE, S1 and X2 overview • LTE Protocol Stack overviews • Data flow through the UE LTE stack • PHY function Overview • RRC- focus on Handover • Summaries/Solutions3GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008 3
  20. 20. HSS - Home subscriber server High level SAE IMS - IP multimedia subsystem Inter AS anchor - Inter access system anchor MME - Mobility management entity Architecture Op. IP Serv. - Operator IP service PCRF - Policy and charging rule control function UPE - User plane entity3GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008Simplified LTE network elements and interfaces MME = Mobile Management entity SAE = System Architecture Evolution 3GPP TS 36.300 Figure 4: Overall Architecture3GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008 4
  21. 21. LTE 3GPP – S1 and X23GPP LTE Protocol PrimerSandy Fraser 5th March 2008 3GPP TR 23.401 / 25.813 LTE • PLMN – Public Land Mobile Network • EPS – Evolved Packet System • MME – Mobility Management Entity • eNB – E-UTRAN Node B • TAI - Tracking Area ID • E-UTRAN – Evolved Universal Radio Access Network • C-RNTI – Cell Radio Network Temporary Identifier • RA-RNTI – Random Access RNTI • UE – User Equipment • IMEI – International Mobile Equipment Identity • IMSI – International Mobile Subscriber Identity • S-TMSI – SAE Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 5
  22. 22. What is Protocol? An agreed-upon set of rules governing the exchange of information. “An agreed-upon set of rules”: what, how, and when information is communicated must conform to some mutually acceptable set of conventions referred to as ‘the protocol’ “Information” : Two types • “Control” -used to setup, maintain, and end the communication link • “Data” -the actual content that is intended to be exchanged packaged into “messages” The protocol defines and governs the exchange of messages3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rTerminology3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 6
  23. 23. Agenda • LTE major features and documents • SAE, S1 and X2 overview • LTE Protocol Stack overviews • Data flow through the UE LTE stack • PHY function Overview • RRC- focus on Handover • Summaries/Solutions3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r LTE 3GPP Stack overview 3GPP 3.60, Fig 4.3.2 LTE Control plane protocol stack UE eNB MME NAS NAS RRC RRC Handovers, mobility PDCP PDCP Ciphering, RoHC RLC RLC Segmentation, Concatenation, ARQ MAC MAC HARQ, mapping to/from PHY PHY PHY Modulation, coding3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 7
  24. 24. LTE 3GPP Stack overview UE eNB PDCP PDCP RLC RLC MAC MAC 3GPP 3.60, Fig 4.3.1 User plane protocol stack PHY PHY3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP Stack overview – PDCP• The main services and functions of PDCP for the user plane include: • Header compression and decompression: ROHC • Transfer of user data: transmission of user data means that PDCP receives PDCP SDU from the NAS and forwards it to the RLC layer and vice versa • Ciphering;• The main services and functions of PDCP for the control plane include: • Ciphering and Integrity Protection • Transfer of control plane data: transmission of control plane data means that PDCP receives PDCP SDUs from RRC and forwards it to the RLC layer and vice versa. PDCP layer, functional view3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 8
  25. 25. LTE 3GPP Stack overview – PDCP PDU Structure • Robust Header Compression (RoHC) • For more info see IETF RFC 4995. IP Data • Reduced overhead, Header more efficient • Once RoHC has been Data RoHC applied applied the whole packet (data AND header) are ciphered as TS35.201 Header and Ciphered • Header and Message data ciphered Authentication codes are added PDCP C%^b£$^8Df%^xz(£”$nf$%MAC-I Header IETF (The Internet Engineering Task Force) http://www.ietf.org/3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP Stack overview - RLC LTE • Concatenation, segmentation, re-segmentation of SDU’s to match transmission (Transport Block –TB) parameters set by MAC or radio condiction • Three service Mode: Transparent mode (TM) Unacknowledged Mode (UM) Acknowledge Mode (AM) • In sequence delivery of upper layer PDUs • Error Correction through ARQ (CRC check provided by the physical layer, that is, no CRC needed at RLC level) • Re-ordering of PDU’s received out of order • Duplicate detection and RLC SDU discard. In general, the data entity from/to a higher protocol layer is known as a Service Data Unit (SDU) and the corresponding entity to/from a lower protocol layer entity is denoted Protocol Data Unit (PDU).3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 9
  26. 26. RLC Segmentation and Concatenation • Multiple RLC SDU’s are segmented / concatenated into a single RLC PDU • MAC knows what physical resources are available and RLC provides RLC PDU’s to the size that MAC requests. • RLC PDU size varies dynamically. • RLC SDU’s can be control information, voice, data etc3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP – RLC, Transparent Mode (TM) • Transparent mode PDU’s are passed on by RLC as received • No Headers • No Concatenation • No segmentation • Associated with the following logical channels • BCCH 36.322 Figure 4.2.1.1.1-1: Model of two transparent mode peer entities • UL CCCH • DL CCCH • PCCH TMD PDU (No Header)3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 10
  27. 27. LTE 3GPP – RLC, Unacknowledged Mode (UM) • RLC conducts: • No retransmission service (No ARQ) • Segmentation and /or concatenation of PDU’s depending on Transport Block information provided by MAC • Adds necessary headers • Re-orders out of sequence PDU’s • Detects lost PDU’s • Discard duplicate PDU’s • Associated with the following logical channels • UL &DL DCCH • UL &DL DTCH • MCCH & MTCH 36.322 Figure 4.2.1.2.1-1: Model of two unacknowledged mode peer entities3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP – RLC, Unacknowledged Mode (UM) LTE • RLC is instructed by RRC to use either 5 or 10 bit Sequence Number • The construction of the UM RLC PDU differs for each of these 36.322 Figure 6.2.1.3-1: UMD PDU with 5 bit SN (No LI) Data Data FI Framing Info SN Sequence Nunber (5 or 10 bit) E Extension bit R1 Reserved LI Length Indicator 36.322 Figure 6.2.1.3-2: UMD PDU with 10 bit SN (No LI)3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 11
  28. 28. LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM) • For AM RLC conducts: AM-SAP • Retransmission and in-sequence delivery. • Segmentation and /or concatenation Transmission of PDU’s depending on Transport buffer RLC control SDU reassembly Block information provided by MAC • Adds necessary headers Segmentation & Retransmission Remove RLC header • Re-orders out of sequence PDU’s Concatenation buffer • Detects lost PDU’s Reception buffer & HARQ reordering • Discard duplicate PDU’s • Number of re-segmentation is not Add RLC header Routing limited • Associated with the following logical DCCH/DTCH DCCH/DTCH channels • UL &DL DCCH 36.322 Figure 4.2.1.3.1-1: Model of an acknowledged mode enttiy • UL &DL DTCH3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM) • Acknowledged Mode PDU frame structure • Shown here is a PDU with no additional E & LI fields showns • If there are an add number of LI fields, there is additional 4 bits padding. 36.322 Figure 6.2.1.4-1: AMD PDU (No LI) • If there is an even number of LI fields then no additional padding is necessary. D/C Data / Control Indicated either Data or Control PDU RF Re-segmentation Flag Indicates either a PDU or a PDU segment P Polling Bit Status report required / not required FI Framing Info Segmentation info SN Sequence Number (5 or 10 bit) Sequence number of the RLC PDU E Extension bit Data or more E and LI to follow LI Length indicator Data field length in bytes3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 12
  29. 29. LTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM) • Acknowledged Mode PDU SEGMENT 36.322 Figure 6.2.1.5-1: AMD PDU segment (No LI) D/C Data / Control Indicated either Data or Control PDU RF Re-segmentation Flag Indicates either a PDU or a PDU segment P Polling Bit Status report required / not required FI Framing Info Segmentation info SN Sequence Number (5 or 10 bit) Sequence number of the RLC PDU SO Segment Offset Start/end of PDU portion detected as lost LSF Last Segment Flag This is the last segment of the PDU3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP – RLC, Acknowledged Mode (AM) LTE • Acknowledged Mode STATUS PDU 36.322 Figure 6.2.1.6-1: STATUS PDU D/C Data / Control Indicated either Data or Control PDU CPT Control PDU Type Status PDU or TBD ACK_SN Acknowledged SN Lowest SN not received or lost NACK_SN Neg. Acknowledged SN SN of PDU detected as lost E1 Extension bit 1 Indicates whether NACK_SN & E2 follows E2 Extension bit 2 Indicates whether SO start/end follow SOStart Sequence Offset Start 1st byte of portion of lost PDU SOend Sequence Offset End Last byte of portion of lost PDU3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 13
  30. 30. MAC function location and link directionassociation MAC function UE eNB Downlink Uplink Mapping between logical channels and x x x transport channels x x x Multiplexing x x x x Demultiplexing x x x x Error correction through HARQ x x x x x x Transport Format Selection x x x Priority handling between UEs x x x Priority handling between logical x x x channels of one UE Logical Channel prioritisation x x Scheduling information reporting x x3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP – MAC PDU structure • A MAC PDU consists of a MAC header, zero or more MAC Service Data Units (MAC SDU), zero, or more MAC control elements, and optionally padding3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 14
  31. 31. LTE 3GPP - MAC PDU , DL-SCH, UL-SCH • Similar to UMTS – Header, MAC SDU’s, MAC control elements, Padding • Header and SDU’s can be variable in size • MAC PDU Header consists of one or more sub-headers, relating to multiple MAC SDU’s, MAC control elements or padding • Normally the sub-header contains 6 header fields, R/R/E/LCID/F/L • The LAST sub-header and FIXED sized MAC control elements only have 4 header fields – R/R/E/LCID 36.321 Figure 6.1.2-1: R/R/E/LCID/F/L MAC sub-header LCID Logical Channel ID L Length R Reserved E Extension F Format Figure 6.1.2-2: R/R/E/LCID MAC sub-header3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rMAC PDU with several headers/elements LTE •If there are multiple SDU’s in the MAC PDU, then there will be multiple sub-headers •Each header could be data or control information.3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 15
  32. 32. LTE 3GPP - MAC Scheduling • MAC’s main function will be the distribution and management of common resources in both UL –SCH and DL-SCH to multiple UE’s • eNB MAC must take account of: • Overall traffic volume • UE QoS needs for each connection type. • Radio conditions through measurement by UE. • If a UE requests resources via a Scheduling request, the eNB will provide a scheduling grant identified by C-RNTI (unique identifier provided by RRC) Scheduling grant will also include • Physical Resource Blocks • Modulation Coding Scheme • A UE could have several streams of control or user data, identified by Logical Control ID (LCID)3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP - MAC ARQ and HARQ N-Process Stop and Wait HARQ (LTE support maximum 8 HARQ processes) •Downlink •Asynchronous Adaptive HARQ •PUSCH or PUCCH used for ACK/NACKS for DL (re-)transmissions •PDCCH signals the HARQ process number and if re-transmission or transmission •Uplink •Synchronous HARQ •Maximum number of re-transmissions configured per UE •PHICH used to transmit ACK/NACKs for non-adaptive UL (re-)transmissions. Adaptive re-transmissions are scheduled through PDCCH •MAC HARQ can also interact with RLC to provide information to speed up RLC ARQ re-segmentation and re-transmission. •HARQ re-transmissions could be delayed if they collide with GAP measurements required for certain types of Handovers. The GAP Measurements take priority3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 16
  33. 33. Function of Physical Layer Service - Error detection on the transport channel and indication to higher layers - FEC encoding/decoding of the transport channel - Hybrid ARQ soft-combining - Rate matching of the coded transport channel to physical channels - Mapping of the coded transport channel onto physical channels - Power weighting of physical channels - Modulation and demodulation of physical channels - Frequency and time synchronisation - Radio characteristics measurements and indication to higher layers - Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna processing - Transmit Diversity (TX diversity) - Beamforming - RF processing.3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP Stack overview - Physical LTE To/From Higher Layers 36.212 Multiplexing and channel coding 36.211 36.213 36.214 Physical Channels and Physical layer procedures Physical layer – Modulation Measurements Relation between Physical Layer specifications3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 17
  34. 34. LTE 3GPP Stack overview - RRC • The main services and functions of the RRC subl-ayer include: • Broadcast of System Information • Paging (creation and management); • Establishment, maintenance and release of an RRC connection between the UE and E-UTRAN including: – Allocation of temporary identifiers (C-RNTI) between UE and E-UTRAN; – Configuration of signalling radio bearer(s) for RRC connection: • Security functions including key management; • Mobility functions including: – UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting for inter-cell and inter-RAT mobility; – Inter-cell handover; – UE cell selection and reselection and control of cell selection and reselection; • Notification for MBMS services; • QoS management functions; – UE measurement reporting and control of the reporting; – NAS direct message transfer to/from NAS from/to UE.3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP RRCCell (re)selection and handover procedures • E-UTRAN Handovers will be possible from: • E-UTRAN<>E-UTRAN • E-UTRAN<>UTRAN • E-UTRAN<>GERAN • E-UTRAN<>Non 3GPP RAN’s • Handovers will follow general GERAN/UTRAN procedures: • MS measures neighbour cells • MS reports RxLev, RxQual to BSE/NodeB • When one of the neighbours looks more favourable, HO or Cell (re)-selection occurs • However there are some changes in E-UTRAN3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 18
  35. 35. LTE 3GPP Stack overviewHandover measurement scenarios • Intra E-UTRAN Handovers will be affected by differences between the host and targeted neighbour cells: • Centre Frequency Offset (or lack of) • Bandwidth of target cell is greater or less than host cell • Gap or no gap decision for cell measurements to assist HO is detailed in 36-300 10.1.3 • RRC controls measurement gaps and patterns • Scheduled gaps • Individual gaps NGA NGA NGA GA GA GA NGA, No Gap Assistance, GA, Gap Assistance3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP Stack overview LTEHandover measurement scenarios • General concern (36-300, 10.2.3.4) over measurement times for a multi-RAT device • Full E-UTRAN 20MHz bandwidth • GSM Multi-band access • UTRAN Multi-band access • Non-3GPP (WiMax, CDMA2000 etc) Interworking • Load Limiting will be controlled by: • E-UTRAN can configure the RATs to be measured by UE • Limiting measurement criteria (TS 25.133) • Awareness of E-UTRAN of UE capabilities • Blind handover support (without measurement reports),3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 19
  36. 36. LTE 3GPP Stack overviewHandover measurement scenarios • For Handovers, the network can provide some assistance • E-UTRAN – no cell specific assistance or frequency only • UTRAN – frequency list and scrambling codes • GERAN – frequency list. The UE can also “leave” the E-UTRA cell to read the target GERAN BCH to assess suitability prior to reselection. • UTRAN to E-UTRAN Measurements - UE performs E-UTRAN measurements in compressed mode • GERAN to E-UTRAN Measurements performed during idle frame, 36- 300, 10.2.3.2 raises some concern over time constraints • General worry 36-300, 10.2.3.4 over measurement times for a multi- RAT device • Support for non 3GPP Radio technologies is also being discussed3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rLTE 3GPP Stack overview - NAS •The main services and functions of the NAS layer include: •EPS Bearer Management •Authentication •ECM-IDLE mobility handling •Security UE eNB MME NAS NAS RRC RRC PDCP PDCP RLC RLC 3GPP 3.60, Fig 4.3.2 MAC MAC Control plane protocol stack PHY PHY3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 20
  37. 37. Agenda • LTE major features and documents • SAE, S1 and X2 overview • LTE Protocol Stack overviews • Data flow through the UE LTE stack • PHY function Overview • RRC- focus on Handover • Summaries/Solutions3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th rSummary/Solutions LTE• Simplified all IP network, with fewer elements and more autonomy for the eNB • No RNC, NO Soft HO• Some specifications are almost complete, some are still FFS • UL power control (PHY process defined 36.213, upper layer procedures FFS) • RRC firming up, but still needs much work• UMTS comparison: • Much more in MAC to reduce higher level processing • Higher layers similar to UMTS • Reduced complexity and channel count • Much simplified categorisation • Some areas more complex because of Diversity, eg CQI, Power control• Designed to interwork with existing UMTS and CDMA2000 networks3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 21
  38. 38. Agilent and AniteIndustry Leaders Partnering to DeliverWorld Class LTE Development Solutions• Providing scalable test solutions to address the complete R&D life cycle for LTE mobile development. • Anite and Agilent are partnering to deliver industry leading UE LTE R&D test solutions. • Anite will provide industry leading development, conformance and interoperability protocol test solutions for LTE • Agilent will be providing an industry leading RF platform, OBT based solutions and RF conformance solutions for LTE. • These solutions will use a common RF hardware platform and a common protocol stack providing a truly scalable solution to address all phases of UE development – enabling customers to bring LTE UEs to market faster and more efficiently.3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r Agilent LTE UE Test Across the E6620A R&D lifecycleEarly Protocol ConformanceDevelopment test RF and Protocol RF Design Bench top Interoperability and Verification Interactive validation Functional testA Portfolio of scalable solutionswith ONE common hardware platform and protocol stack•Improve efficiency & consistency with all developers using the same platform•Ensure the best utilization of valuable test assets3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r 22
  39. 39. Agilent and Anite in partnership - to accelerate LTE test solutions NEW! Combining strengths to bring a full-range of LTE solutions to market faster • Anite Protocol development & conformance systems built on Agilent E6620A hardware platform • Agilent bench top one box Anite SAT LTE Protocol test set and RF conformance Tester test leveraging common with Development Toolset Anite/Agilent protocol stack built on the Agilent E6620AFirst to Market toolset for LTE UE protocol developer3 PP LTE P r t co lP ri er G oo mSandy F as r 5 Mac h 2008 r e th r LTE 23
  40. 40. LTE Baseband Analysis Logic Analysis To validate RFIC operation, engineers can also leverage the combination of signal In next-generation architectures the generation software and the RDX tester physical link between the RF front-end and connected to the system-under-test baseband processing evolves from an ana- through a DigRF v3 or v4 digital connection log to parallel, or high-speed, serial digital to test the transmit signal path. bus. New interface standards require test equipment to provide appropriate serial For R&D engineers designing or integrating digital inputs and outputs. MIPI (Mobile Industry Processor Alliance) D-PHY devices within a mobile handset, The combination of an Agilent RDX tester the same logic analysis solution can be or logic analyzer and Agilent’s Vector used as a MIPI D-PHY protocol test solu- Signal Analysis (VSA) software provides tion, with support for display (DSI) and the only digital VSA (DVSA) package for camera (CSI-2) interfaces. The solution digital baseband, IF and RF signal analysis. includes a configurable stimulus platform This combination enables digital signal which offers bit-to-video level test capa- processing (DSP) designers to effectively bilities for embedded displays, real-time design and debug interfaces that were analysis and protocol viewing capabili- once analog and are now digital. The ties. Engineers can gain valuable insight VSA software performs signal analysis into the exchanges between MIPI D-PHY functions such as I/Q analysis, EVM, enabled devices. Fourier spectrum, etc., using the digital signal captured by the logic analyzer as the input.Characterize behavior of devices, from baseband to antenna, with access throughout the block diagram.
  41. 41. LTE Baseband Analysis LTE Digital Real-Time Decode & Debug signals. Two-channel Infiniium scopes can also make the coherent two-channel Combine Agilent’s vector signal analysis MIMO measurements needed for IEEE software with Agilent’s Infiniium 90000A 802.11n and WiMAX™. The digitized series oscilloscope to analyze wide- signals are transferred via GPIB, USB, or bandwidth signals. The 90000A oscilloscope LAN to the PC running the 89600 VSA provides up to 13 GHz of analysis bandwidth software where the frequency, time, and is well suited to digitizing down- and modulation analysis tools of the converted satellite, LMDS, and MMDS 89600 VSA can be used to evaluate and signals, as well as WiMedia-based troubleshoot the signal. UWB or other extremely broadband Agilent Infiniium 90000A series high performance real-time oscilloscopes deliver superior signal integrity, deep application analysis, and excellent insight. They offer the industry’s lowest noise floor, deepest memory (1 Gpts), only three- level sequence triggering, and widest selection of applications. Troubleshoot digital glitches with the Agilent DSO90000A high performance, real-time oscilloscope. DigRF Digital Interface digital or RF domain for digital protocol test as well as RF (digital IQ) physical layer If you are using the DigRF (v3 or v4) base- stimulus and analysis. The integration band IC to RFIC interface, the Agilent RDX of the RDX platform with the Agilent RF platform provides a comprehensive test portfolio provides cross-domain solutions solution that brings insight into both the that will help you rapidly deploy your DigRF digital and RF domains. The RDX platform designs, aiding both baseband and RF IC allows engineers to work in either the development, debug and characterization. Access DigRF v3 and v4 interfaces, as well as Digital IQ data, with the RDX test platform.www.agilent.com/find/lte
  42. 42. Concept of TD-LTE TDD-LTE TD-LTE MIMO test (PHY) TD-LTE wireless library & connected solution TD-LTE signaling test By Dr. Michael Leung TD-LTE RF conformance testPage 1Agenda•Understanding TD-LTE technology•TD-LTE market opportunity•Technical challenges of TD-LTE• RF measurement• Agilent TD-LTE solution TDD-LTE Agilent, PicoChip & ASTRI Hong Kong TD-LTE UE & Femtocell Demo (MWC 2009)
  43. 43. Agenda•Understanding TD-LTE technology•TD-LTE market opportunity•Technical challenges of TD-LTE• RF measurement• Agilent TD-LTE solution What is TD-LTE?• LTE TDD (Long Term Evolution Time Division Duplex) or also known as TD-LTE is part of the 3GPP specifications for the next generation cellular technology.• In China, TD-LTE will be an evolution from TD-SCDMA and will provide for asymmetric needs of mobile data usage and allow use of unpaired spectrum.• China Mobile will use the TDD version of LTE that will be compatible with TD- SCDMA and the rest of the worlds LTE. LTE, or Long Term Evolution, is a fourth generation (4G) mobile broadband standard and is aimed to be the successor to the 3G technologies GSM.Page 4
  44. 44. Multimode LTE network: TD-LTE & LTE-FDD China Mobile, Verizon Wireless and Vodafone Trials Confirm LTE as a Next Generation Candidate Wednesday, 18 February 2009 http://www.umts-forum.org/content/view/2708/109/ China Mobile, Verizon Wireless and Vodafone have conducted joint laboratory trials of the Time Division Duplex (TDD) version of LTE (TD-LTE), showing that the technology is capable of operating effectively in unpaired as well as paired spectrum. The LTE testing alliance, which has also conducted field tests of LTE Frequency Division Duplex (LTE FDD), aims to develop a converged LTE FDD and TD-LTE system to enable an effective solution for both FDD (paired) and TDD (unpaired) spectrum.Page 5 HSS - Home subscriber server IMS - IP multimedia subsystem High level Architecture Inter AS anchor - Inter access system anchor MME - Mobility management entity Op. IP Serv. - Operator IP service PCRF - Policy and charging rule control function UPE - User plane entity TDD-LTE
  45. 45. Operating bands – FDD / TDDTD-LTE & TD-SCDMA
  46. 46. Integration frame structures (TD-SCDMA& TD-LTE) TDD FS1 TDD FS2 10ms Frame 5ms half Frame #0 #1 #18 #19 0.5 ms 0.675 ms The single TDD FS 5ms half Frame 0.5 ms Integration of TD-LTE frame structureAgenda•Understanding TD-LTE technology•TD-LTE market opportunity•Technical challenges of TD-LTE• RF measurement• Agilent TD-LTE solution TDD-LTE
  47. 47. Who participate in TD-LTE?China Spectrum Allocation TDD FDD (uplink) Satellite TDD Void FDD (downlink) 30 15 40 MHz 60 MHz 85 MHz 60 MHz MHz MHz1880 1920 1980 2010 2025 2110 2170 Duplex Spacing 190 MHz TDD 100 MHz 2300 2400 Air interface Mode Frequency Band RF Bandwidth Availability TD-SCDMA TDD 40 + 15 + 100 MHz 1.6 MHz 155MHz W-CDMA FDD 60 MHz 5 MHz 60MHzPage 12Page 12
  48. 48. China Telecom Operators 3G Network (China) Over 40 Billion USD investment in developing the 3G network infrastructure, mobile devices, and services • China Mobile – RMB 58.8 billion yuan ($8.6 billion) investment to build 60,000 base stations infrastructure in 238 cities during 2009 – To build TD-LTE trial network in 2010 • China Unicom – RMB 30 billion yuan ($4.4 billion) for construction of the WCDMA network in 1H 2009, and the overall expenditure on network building would exceed 60 billion yuan in 282 cities during 2009 – WCDMA trial networks: Shanghai, Shenzhen, Foshan, Liuzhou, Zhenzhou, Baoding, Wuxi, Wuhan TDD-LTE – Estimated that start network construction in February and formally open the network on May 2009 • China Telecom – RMB 50 billion yuan ($7.4 billion) investment into CDMA2000 – Complete 340 cities CDMA upgrade program in 1H 09Page 14
  49. 49. China TD-SCDMA (TD-LTE) Food Chain Service ProvidersAgenda•Understanding TD-LTE technology•TD-LTE market opportunity•Technical challenges of TD-LTE• RF measurement• Agilent TD-LTE solution
  50. 50. LTE (FDD/TDD) Standard update 2007 2008 2009 Dec Mar Jun Sep Dec Mar Jun Phy ch, Modulation FRAN1 Coding F Procedure F Measurement F UE Idle mode A F UE capability A F A: Approved MAC A FRAN2 RLC A F PDCP A/F F: Frozen RRC A F F Protocol &Tabular ASN.1 Layer 1 A F Sig. transport A FRAN3 Data transport A F Protocol A F F Protocol &Tabular ASN.1 UE Tx/Rx A/FRAN4 eNB Tx/Rx A/F RRM A F eNB Test A/F Common env. ARAN5 Signaling A RF ALTE (FDD/TDD) standard update TDD-LTE
  51. 51. TD-LTE in 4G roadmap…Page 19 3GPP Reference Standard Some incorrect information are included in Dec-08 spec, so it will be updated in Mar-09 spec (as BUG FIX)
  52. 52. 3GPP Release 8 Standard Transition Customer interest is changing from L1 PHY spec to RF conformance test spec now UL MU-MIMO isn’t defined yet in release 8 standardPhysical Layer definitions – TS36.211 Ts = 1 / (15000x2048)=32.552nsecFrame Structure Ts: Time clock unit for definitions Frame Structure type 1 (FDD) FDD: Uplink and downlink are transmitted separately One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms One slot, Tslot = 15360 x Ts = 0.5 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 ………. #18 #19 One subframe Subframe 0 Subframe 1 Subframe 9 Frame Structure type 2 (TDD) Subframe 0 and DwPTS for downlink, Subframe 1 and UpPTS for Uplink One radio frame, Tf = 307200 x Ts = 10 ms One half-frame, 153600 x Ts = 5 ms One subframe, 20736 x Tx = 0.675 ms TDD-LTE Guard interval #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 DwPTS, UpPTS Guard period,
  53. 53. TDD Downlink and Uplink Allocation •5ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5 and DwPTS for downlink, Subframe 2, 7 and UpPTS for uplink •10ms switch-point periodicity: Subframe 0, 5,7-9 and DwPTS for downlink, Subframe 2 and UpPTS for Uplink Configuration Switch- Subframe number point periodicity 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 5 ms D S U U U D S U U U 1 5 ms D S U U D D S U U D 2 5 ms D S U D D D S U D D 3 10 ms D S U U U D D D D D 4 10 ms D S U U D D D D D D 5 10 ms D S U D D D D D D D 6 5 ms D S U U U D S U U DPage 23Downlink FDD Resource Mapping NsymbDL OFDM symbols (=7 OFDM symbols @ Normal CP) 1slot = 15360 Ts 160 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 144 2048 (x Ts) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Cyclic Prefix 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 1 6 0 2 3 4 5 6 P-SCH S-SCH PBCH PCFICH/PHICH/PDCCH Reference Signal – (Pilot) Subframe 0 Subframe 1 No Transmission 1 frame Agilent ConfidentialPage 24 T&MAgilent 13 Aug 2007Forum

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