PrefaceThe National Curriculum Framework (NCF) 2005 proposes that the teaching of social sciences should adoptnot just interdisciplinary approach but also facilitate inquiry beyond the textbook. The Teacher’s Manualaccompanying the critically-acclaimed series, Time, Space & People, for classes 6, 7 and 8 aims to assist the teacherto achieve this,and there by also converge with the broad objectives of the series itself.The Teacher’s Manual has been especially written to meet the requirements of the new NCERT syllabus andthe guidelines of the NCF. Innovatively designed, each manual comprises sections on history ,geography, andsocial and political life.Using the ManualThis manual provides a suggested lesson plan and a gist of the teaching points of each lesson. In addition , themanual also contains the following features: (a) Pre-teaching and motivational activities (b) Recapitulation of teaching points of each lesson (c) Key to the textbook exercises (d) Pointers for the Things to do section (e) Sections on vocabulary and definitions of key words (f) Links to websites for supplementary reference material,pictures and information (g) Hints to in-text questions and discussion topics (h) Stories for role-play and dramatization (i) Intergration of art and craft in lesson plans through making of charts, posters and audio-visual aids (j) Group activities to promote cooperative learning (k) Fun with History! and Fun with Geography! provide additional activities to the lessonSome Tips on Planning and Teaching• The teacher must read the chapter in the textbook in conjunction with the manual while planning the lesson.• A brief overview of the previous class will facilitate recall of the main points and establish continuity with current lesson. The teacher must emphasize that social sciences is a process with elements of continuity and change.• Extracts,ﬁrst-hand accounts and descriptions should be read aloud in class using the techniques of dramatization and role-play.• Display maps and atlases should be used extensively while teaching history and geography. This gives students a better perspective of the region and location of the event.• The activities suggested in the Things to do section must be undertaken when the relevant topic is being discussed. This will provide students with an immediate reinforcement of what is being taught, enable them to explore additional dimensions of the theme,and also bring in various modes of stimulus variation.• Students should be encouraged to display their charts, posters and other tactile material prepared during the course of the lesson.• Teachers can also conduct mini-exhibitions periodically. This can be planned at the beginning of the year to coincide with important dates of the calender and on the completion of signiﬁcant periods or key concepts. For example, in history,an exhibition can be conducted on the Mughal Period with charts,displays,models etc. Students should be encouraged to explore aspects of Mughal life such as
textiles,jewellery, music,art,dressing styles,etc,and form a link with contemporary trends. • Group activities and discussions should be conducted through presentations and overviews done by the students themselves. • Students can maintain an activity book/scrapbook with a collection of their cuttings ,activity pages, etc. It can also contain comments under the following headings: ÂWhat I didÊ; ÂWhat I LearntÊ; and ÂHow this helped meÊ.The Central Board of Secondary Eduction has recently introduced the scheme of Continuous and ComprehensiveEvaluation (CCE)as a part of its Examination Reforms Programme. Under this new scheme the learner is to beevaluated in both scholastic and co-scholastic areas, on a continuous basis throughout the year, covering allaspects of students’ development.In order to improve the teaching -learning process and to have a balanced assessment system, the CCE stresseson Formative and Summative assessment.Formative assessment is a tool used by the teacher to monitor a student’s progress continuously in a supportiveenvironment. It involves regular feedback and a chance for the student to reflect on the performance,take adviceand improve upon it. The assessment is based on a seven-point grading system followed by the descriptiveremarks of the teacher about the positive and significant achievements of the student.It thus provides theplatform for the active involvement of the students in their own learning and enables teachers to adjust teachingto take account of the results of the assessment.Summative assessment is given periodically at the end of the course of learning. It measures how much astudent has learnt from the course. It is usually a graded test,and marked according to a set of grades.The series Time,Space &People and the Teacher’s Manual adhere to the CCE scheme as they aim atassessing a learner’s development in areas of learning such as knowledge,understanding/comprehension,applying,analyzing,evaluating and creating through ample exercises,extract questions,case studies,in-text andhigher order thinking skill questions,activities,things to do and project work,thus covering both Formativeand Summative assessment.Tools and Techniques of Assessment under CCE FORMAT DESCRIPTION STAGE Oral Testing Short answer questions,extract questions,case study,in text and higher FORMATIVE3 order thinking skill questions that tend to evaluate the student’s communication and understanding of the concept Assignements/ Exercises,additional exercises,vocabulary,definitions and case studies Worksheets help to assess the learning of the syllabus Activities Individual or group activities which require students to create or take FORMATIVE an action related to a particular concept or issue Written Test Periodical tests which assess the students acquisition of knowledge SUMMATIVE Project Work Students can either individually,in pairs or groups can work on a FORMATIVE project which may also require the application of cocept or skill Portfolio A collection of student’s work over a period of time reflecting the FORMATIVE learner’s growth and progress Checklist Supervising and recording a student’s progress based on certain criteria FORMATIVE such as self-awareness,creative and critical thinking, decisionmaking, interpersonal relationships,effective communication, dealing with stress,etc. Can be a list as well as narrative based on observation
The teachers can use the sections on vocabulary,definitions,additional exercises, extract questions, case studies,in-text and higher order thinking skill questions,activities, things to do, projects and fun with history andgeography as a part of the Formative assessment. These are quite useful in evaluating the students’ thinkingand communication skills, and understanding of the concept and also reflect the learner’s growth and progress.For the Summative assessment, the teachers will find the exercise at the end of every chapter,quite useful asthese will help the teachers in assessing the students’ acquisition of knowledge.Reporting Students’ AchievementThe assessment under CCE is based on a nine point grading system and the nine points and their equivalentperformance scale in raw scores (in percentage) as follows:A1 - 91 – 100A2 - 81 – 90B1 - 71 – 80B2 - 61 – 70C1 - 51 – 60C2 - 41 – 50D- 33 – 40E1 - 21 – 32E2 - 00 – 20Overall, the manual’s approach is guided by a ‘learning-by-doing’ philosophy. Needless to say, the role ofthe teacher as an initiator and facilitator of this process cannot be overstated. It is thus hoped that throughthis endeavour, the teaching of social sciences will be revitalized and generate greater enthusiasm amongstudents.
ContentsPreface 3 15. Rotation and Revolution 107Coontent 6 16. Reading Maps 111 HISTORY 17. The Realms of the Earth 116 1. History—When, Where and How? 7 18. Continents and Oceans 1212. The Age of Stone Tools and 19. Major Relief Features of the World 125 Cave Homes 17 20. India—Physical Features 1293. The Age of the First Farmers 24 21. India’s Climate 1344. The First Cities 30 22. Natural Vegetation and Wildlife 1385. Devotional Lore and Sacred Fires 366. Early Kingdoms and Ganasanghas 43 SOCIAL AND POLITICAL LIFE7. Emergence of New Ideas and 23. Understanding Diversity 142 Religions 50 24. Diversity and Discrimination 1498. The First Empire and Ashoka 58 25. What is Government? 1549. From Villages to Towns 67 26. Basic Features of a Democratic10. Flowering of Religion and Commerce 75 Government 16011. India from the 4th Century to the 27. Panchayati Raj 167 7th Century 82 28. Rural Administration 17312. Stories in Stone, Stories on Paper 88 29. Urban Administration 177 GEOGRAPHY 30. Livelihoods 18113. Planet Earth and the Solar System 93 31. Urban Livelihoods –14. The Globe - Latitudes and A Study In Contrast 186 Longitudes 101
History—When,1 Where and How? LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Familiarize the learner with the major developments to be studied • Develop an understanding of the significance of the geographical terms used during the time frame • Illustrate the sources used to reconstruct historyTextbook: Refer to pages mentioned Monument An important building orTime required: 4 periods sculpture Intermingle to mix togetherVOCABULARY Bounded Confined Conqueror VictoriousBanks land next to a river, lake, or channel Denoted SignifiedRiver Large natural stream of water Reconstruction Create againDecided Made up their mind Preferred favoriteFurther comparative of far Passes (Mountain passes), low places inProbably Most likely mountainsGenerations All the offspringSuited FitNative Produced in a certain place DEFINITIONSOral Spoken Subcontinent – A large landmass, such as India,Orally By word of mouth that is part of a continent but is considered eitherNevertheless in-spite geographically or politically as an independentTradition Custom entityExcavate to dig out Burial sites – burial area ,a place where many gravesExcavations Dug are foundVault Compartment Archaeological finds – material evidence, such asVaulted Covered with an arch graves, buildings, tools, and pottery found byChamber A room in a house archaeologistsCemetery Graveyard. Mesopotamia – (meso: in the middle of) (potamia:Lapis lazuli A blue, violet-blue, or greenish-blue rivers) an ancient region of southwest Asia between semiprecious gemstone the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in modern-day Iraq.Choker A tight-fitting necklace. Probably settled before 5000 B.C., the area was theCrescent The figure of the moon as it appears home of numerous early civilizations, including in its first or last quarter Sumer, Akkad, Babylonia, and Assyria. It declined
8 TEACHER’S MANUAL in importance after Mongol invaders destroyed its • People who study history are known as historians. extensive irrigation system in A.D. 1258. Historians make use of items from the past, suchBharatnatyam – is a classical dance form originating as books, coins, monuments or inscriptions as from Tamil Nadu given in our activities.Archaeology – the scientific study of material remains • Every family has a history made up of events (as fossil relics, artifacts, and monuments) of past from the past, such as the day our parents got human life and activities married; the day we moved into a new house, aPrehistoric – History of humankind in the period family vacation that we remember etc. before recorded history. • Just like families, countries too have a historyBiography – An account of a person’s life written, made up of events from the past. composed, or produced by another: (b) Make students read the introductory section of theManuscript – A book, document, or other composition chapter. (Page 11) written by hand. Assessment – 1Secular literature – literature not specifically relating Purpose – Formative, Group Test; Type – Individual to religion or to a religious body: Assessment; Tool – Group DiscussionTablets – A slab or plaque, such as one of stone or ivory, with a surface that is intended for or bears In-text Questions (Page 11) an inscription. Close your eyes and think of an event that happened a week or ten days ago.TEACHING POINTS (Possible responses: ‘I had a test at school’; ‘We went out for an ice-cream’; ‘I had a fight with my brother/ sister’; ‘I got a new dress’ etc.)Learning about the past What is the earliest thing that you can remember?(a) Ask students to bring photographs of their (Possible responses: ‘My first day at school’; ‘The grandparents. Divide students into pairs and let day I got my favourite toy’, ‘The day my younger them exchange the photographs. Ask students brother/sister was born’ etc.) to record information on different aspects (such When you say Ê50 years agoÊ, what does it mean to you? as dress, culture, location etc) based on their (Possible responses: ‘It is very long time ago, ‘We observations from the photographs. were not born as yet’; ‘A time when our grandparents(b) Ask students what they can conclude from this were at school’ etc.) activity. Can you imagine what your city might have looked like 1,000 years ago? Draw a picture and share it with theHints class.We made some guesses about how our grandparents Teachers can refer to the following websites to guidelived and dressed many years ago. students in this activity:We got our information from a source (the www.kamat.com – an excellent source for timelinesphotograph) and tried to deduce as much as we and material on Ancient, Medieval and Britishcould. We looked at it from various points of view Indiaand our guesses were based on our own experiences www.webindia123.com – contains material on theof life so far. history of Indian states as well as sources of Indian historyUnderstanding what is history Discussion Points at the conclusion of the above activities(a) Ask students the question: ‘What is History?’ • Events of the past become a part of our Summarize the main ideas on the blackboard. memory. • History is a journey into the past and looks atMain Ideas events and people that have had an impact on our• History is a study of the past. lives. This could be as recent as yesterday, a week• History tells us about how people lived, dressed ago, a month ago, a year ago, fifty or hundred and behaved many years ago. years ago or even thousands of years ago!
9 TEACHER’S MANUALWhy do we study history? some important people and how our lives have(a) Have a mind mapping activity with the class on become better as a result – for example, the the reasons for studying history. (A mind map is invention of the electric bulb by Thomas Edison a diagram used to represent various ideas around or how Gandhiji fought for our freedom. a central theme.) Assessment – 4Assessment – 2 Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Test;Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Test; Tool – Tool – ProjectDiagram Fun with History!On the conclusion of this exercise, students can draw Students create their own historical recordthis diagram on a chart for the class display board. (Distribute the printable worksheet to each student.) History makes us Worksheet 1A. think, question and express our views History tells us How do we study history? We are all a part about how people of history; who we lived and behaved (a) Revisit the ‘why History is Important’ Activity are is because of our history Why do we in the past with students. Explain to students that the source study history? used in this activity was a photograph. History makes a We learn about (b) Discuss the different types of sources available connection between our customs and the past and traditions (heritage) for the historians to reconstruct the history of a the present period.(b) Make students read the section ‘Why study history’ SOURCES OF HISTORY (Page 12). Have a fifteen minute debate on the topic: ‘Is History Useful? ARCHAEOLOGICAL LITERARYAssessment – 3 (objects dug fromPurpose – Formative; Type – Individual/Group (written records) the earth)Assessment; Tool – DebateHints Examples: Examples:No, history is not useful because: tombs, monuments, manuscripts,• We live in the present and we plan for the future, inscriptions, coins, religious books, so we need not learn about the past. pillars, vessels, stories, accounts of• We need to learn a lot of unnecessary facts and pots etc. foreign travelers etc. remember many dates. Archaeological Sources• It is not interesting – why do we need to learn (a) Explain how historians use archaeological evidence about dead people? to understand the life of people.Yes, history is useful because: • Artefacts or materials found in the earth reveal• Who we are and how we live is directly linked to our past (for example, we learn and study English how people lived in the past. because we were ruled by the British for nearly • For example, if a lot of expensive items were 200 years) – hence, we learn more about ourselves found such as silver vessels, gold coins, precious by studying history. stones etc., it tells us that the people of that area• It is a journey into the past. We understand were prosperous. changes and developments that have taken place (b) Make students read the section on archaeological in society over time. For this, it is necessary to evidence in the textbook. (Page 13) remember some important dates of the past. (c) Discuss the different types of archaeological• We can learn about the contributions made by sources.
10 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 5 • They provide information on the names of kings,Purpose – Formative, Group Test; Type – Individual/ the period of their reign, their activities etc.Group Assessment; Tool – Oral Assessment • The Ashokan pillars in Delhi, Vaishali andi. Burial Sites Sarnath are good examples of how inscriptions throw light on a king’s activities. (Refer to www.• Burial sites help archaeologists to learn a lot about wikipedia.org for additional information on the a civilization because they contain a lot of daily pillars.) life objects.• For example, the ancient Egyptians used to bury (e) Make students read the section on inscriptions. the the dead with the objects used in daily life, (Page 14) such as clothes, vessels, jewellery etc. iv. Other objectsIn text Questions; Queen PuabiÊs Tomb (Page 13) • Include toys, vessels, beads, pots, textiles etc.Describe the pictures. • These objects reveal the lifestyle of the people and(Hints: Shows the head of a woman decorated with throws light on the level of economic and sociala beautiful headdress with ribbons and leaves; she development.also has large earrings.) • (Teachers can use the example of the Indus ValleyWhat does the headdress tell you about this queen and the Civilization to illustrate how historians have usedcrafts persons who made them? the archaeological evidence to reconstruct history(Hints: Tells us that the queen was an important as the script has not been deciphered.)individual; she was rich and powerful. The elaborate (f) Make students read the section on other objects.nature of the headdress indicates that the craftsmen (Page 14-15)were well equipped and highly skilled.) Assessment – 6How would you know that the body belonged to a rich Purpose – Formative; Type – Group/Individualperson? Assessment; Tool – Discussion(Hint: The use of precious metals and discovery oflarge amount of jewellery indicates a rich person.) Activity 1: Play the Archaeologist • When archaeologists undertake excavations, they(d) Make students read the section on Queen Puabi’s have very little background information with tomb. (Page 13) them. Using the objects found, they make variousii. Monuments conclusions.• Monuments refer to buildings, forts, palaces, • The objects found are like clues that help an tombs, places of religious worship etc. archaeologist to piece together the past.• They tell us about the cultural and religious life • In the activity, the layer that was laid down the of people. first was the last to come out - this is an important• They also reveal the level of scientific development rule of archaeology, wherein, the age of materials and artistic skill of the time. found are determined by the layer in which it wasIn text Question (Page 14) found. Hence, older materials are often buried deep into the earth.Can you tell at least one thing about the Taj Mahal justby looking at it? Assessment – 7(Hints: ‘It is made of marble’; ‘It is surrounded by Purpose – Formative; Type – Individual Assessment;beautiful gardens’; ‘The main building is surrounded Tool – Source Based Questionby four pillars’; ‘It is a huge structure’. Activity 2 – Students read an inscription of an(d) Make students read the section on monuments. Ashokan pillar and write down what it reveals of (Page 14) his interestsiii. Inscriptions • Ashoka loved nature and cared for animals. • He took good care of his subjects. He was a• Written records engraved on rocks, pillars, walls good ruler who worked for the welfare of his or coins are called inscriptions. kingdom.
11 TEACHER’S MANUALAssessment – 8 Religious LiteraturePurpose – Formative; Type – Group/Individual • Examples: Vedas, Puranas, Jataka Tales etc.Assessment; Tool – Role • They give us a glimpse of the religious beliefsPlayActivity 3 – Reconstruct ancient times from of the people and how they worshipped theirarchaeological finds gods. • Epics like the Ramayana and the Mahabharata• The city was well planned – evidence of high walls, are also valued for their information on social probably to protect the city from outsiders. practices and traditions.• Remains of beads and jewellery suggest that the • Religious books are often written in the ancient people were prosperous. scripts of Pali, Prakrit and Sanskrit.• High level of artistic skill as painted pots, statues In Text Questions and engraved tablets have been excavated. The Brahmi Script: Can you recognize any letter?• They probably followed some kind of religion (Hints: certain letters resemble ‘t, l, E, h, C, O, I, – remains of what resembles a temple has been inverted Y, D, and inverted T of the English found. alphabet) Pushpaka Viman painted by Pandit Pant Pratinidhi inAssessment – 9 1916. Describe the scene. What is happening?Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; (Hints: people are watching a chariot descendingTool – Project from the sky; they all seem to be in great wonderActivity 4 – Look for some inscriptions in your at this event)school premises. What do they tell you? What kind of dresses are the men wearing?• They have the school emblem and motto – tells (Hints: the soldiers are attired in a dhoti, shirt and us what the school believes in. a headdress; the others who seem to be important• They carry the dates when the buildings were people are in a dhoti and upper garment.) erected – reveals how old the school is. Describe their expressions.• Sometimes, they may have the names of certain (Hints: amazement, wonder, surprise) important people who founded the school or Assessment – 11 made significant contributions. Purpose – Formative; Type – IndividualB Literary or Written Records Assessment; Tool – Story Telling(a) Recall the ‘Fun with History’ activity. Explain how Fun with History! history can be studied with the help of written Teachers can refer to the website www.jatakkatha. records. com for a collection of stories on the Jataka Tales. Each student can read a different story and narrateAssessment – 10 it to the rest of the class.Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; (d) Make students read the section on religiousTool – Oral Assessment literature.Discussion Points Secular Literature • Written records are relatively younger than • Examples: Arthashastra, Shakuntala, archaeological sources as humans learned to write Silappadikaram, Manimekalai only about 5000 years ago. • These texts are not religious in nature. They are • Existence of different types of written records plays, stories, essays and treatises. – religious literature, secular (non-religious) • They tell us how common people lived, the food literature, accounts of travellers etc. they ate, their clothes and the rules of society.(b) Make students read the section on literary records. i. Biographies (Page 15) • Examples: Harshacharita (written by Banabhatta(c) Explain the key features of each type. about King Harshavardhana), Vikramankeva-
12 TEACHER’S MANUAL Charita (written by Billana about King Understanding how we give dates Vikramaditya) and Prithviraja-Charita (written (a) Explain the former dating system used by by Chand-Bardai about King Prithiviraj) historians.• Biographies throw light on the rule of a king, the • Earlier, historians used the birth of Jesus Christ extent of his kingdom, the laws of the land etc. as the starting point of a new era.In Text Question • BC denoted ‘Before Christ’ – all events thatCourt historians generally wrote all praise for the king. occurred before the birth of ChristWhy do you think they did so? • AD denoted ‘Anno Domini’ or ‘In the Year of our(Hints: They were employed and paid by the king Lord’ meaning all events that have occurred afterand so they had to write in favour of him. Kings the birth of Jesus Christ.could often be cruel and punish a writer if he did • The modern system uses the term BCE or ‘Beforenot write good things about him.) Common Era’ (in place of BC) and CE or ‘Common Era (in place of AD).ii. Accounts of foreign travellers• Examples: Indika by Megasthenes, writings of Assessment – 12 Fahien and Hieun Tsang Purpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment;• These books give us an outsiders’ view of India. Tool – Games• Useful for historians to compare with biographies Fun with History! and can determine to what extent biographies Play the “Timeline Game”. Select 7 students and are true. hand over the flash cards with the dates and detailsIn Text Question of the following events:Do you think we can rely completely on the accounts left 2500 BCE Birth of the Harappan Civilizationby foreigners? Why? 1288 CE Marco Polo comes to India(Hints: Though unbiased and an outsider’s view,they cannot be relied upon completely because 563 BCE Gautama Buddha is bornof the cultural differences and the inaccuracy of 1857 CE India’s First War of Independenceinterpretation and reporting.) 326 BCE Alexander the Great invades India(e) Make students read the section on religious 1942 CE Gandhiji launches the Quit India literature. Movement 1950 CE India becomes a RepublicGeographical location In a given amount of time (say 2-3 minutes),(a) Explain how history and geography are closely students must arrange themselves in a line (linking connected with the help of the following example. themselves by placing their hand on the shoulder Tell students that most people who live in the of the person in front) in the correct chronological desert are often nomads as they go in search of order of events. food and water. Teachers can source additional dates and eventsIn Text Question from the following link:Why did people live near rivers and forests? http://www.kamat.com/kalranga/timeline• Regular water supply for daily needs and /timeline.pdf cooking.• People who lived near forests could hunt wild Recapitulation and Summary animals for food and pick fruits from trees. • The definition of history and its importance• Eventually, all civilizations and settlements came • Why history is an important subject up near rivers. • Sources of history – archaeological and literary(b) Make students read the section on geographical • The inter-connection between history and location (Page 17). Use a physical map of India to geography explain the location of various relief features. • The dating system used in history
13 TEACHER’S MANUAL c. What are the two main sources of history?ANSWER KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES The two main sources of history are archaeologicalSummative Assessment evidences and literary (or written) records.1. Fill in the blanks: d. What are inscriptions? a. jigsaw b. 5,000 Written records that are engraved on pillars, walls c. Kalidasa d. monuments of temples, caves, forts, palaces and on clay or e. Fahien and Hiuen Tsang copper tablets are known as inscriptions.2. Answer in a few words: e. Why are accounts written by foreign travelersa. In which lanugage are Budhist texts written? important? Most Buddhist texts are written in Pali. The accounts of foreign travellers are importantb. What are the two great epics of North India and because they give us an outsider’s view of our South India? country. Sometimes, we cannot rely entirely on Ramayana and Mahabharata are the two great biographies or works written by scribes because epics of North and South India they may not be completely true or accurate.c. What kind of books are Arthachastras and Scribes were writers were employed and paid by Dharmashastras? the king himself, so their writings would praise the king and his work. Their writings also would The Arthashastra and the Dharmashastras are not include the negative aspects of a king’s rule. examples of secular literature. Accounts of foreign travellers would help tod. Who wrote Harshacharita? confirm what biographies said were true. The Harshacharitha was written by Banabhatta.e. Which book did Megasthenes write? ADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS Megasthenes wrote the Indika. Summative Assessment3. Answer the questions on one or two sentences: 1. Why should we study history?a. What is history? What do we learn in history? We should study history for the joy and excitement History is the study of the people who lived in the of discovery. past. History teaches us a variety of things such as how people lived, the food they ate, the clothes 2. How do historians reconstruct the past? they wore etc. We also learn about how people Historians reconstruct the past with the help of behaved with one another. many things, which they put together.b. Give any two reasons why we should study 3. Why is history like a mystery? history. History is like a mystery because we still do not Any two of the following reasons: know the details of many things. We are all an important part of history, as 4. Why is history like time travel? history is not only made by great people or those History is like time travel because; we travel way who lived thousands of years ago but also by each back and discover things. one of us. 5. Where is the Qutab Minar? We learn about our rich heritage and appreciate The Qutab Minar is in Delhi. the hard work that has gone into making it. (www.sights-and-culture.com) History helps us see the connection between the 6. Where is the Basilica of Bom Jesus? past and the present. By studying history, we learn to think, ask The Basilica of Bom Jesus is in Goa. questions and express our views. (the-never-ending- road.blogspot.com )
14 TEACHER’S MANUAL7. Is history only about remembering people? Tools and weapons No, history is much more than that. It helps us Made to see the connections between the past and the Sculptures out of clay or wood or stone present. It also helps us to think, ask questions 14. When did the people of the prehistoric period and express our views. take shelter in caves? How did they spend their8. State the two periods into which history has been time there? divided. Define the two periods. The people of the prehistoric period took shelter in Historians have divided history into two periods: caves when the days became shorter. They spent a. prehistory b. history their time painting the walls inside. Prehistory is that period of human development 15. What is archaeology? when human beings did not know how to read Archaeology is the science of exploring and and write and so there are no written records excavating old ruins and studying them. available. 16. Who are archaeologists? History is that period of human development for Archaeologists are people who try to reconstruct which written records are available. It is the period the past life of the people by studying the evidence after writing was invented. from excavations.9. Define sources. 17. Why are archaeological finds-a very important The places from where we get the material source even for the historic period? required to study history are called sources. Archaeological finds are a very important source10. Name the two sources on which we depend to even for the historic period because archaeologists find out about the past. are able to study material remains from them. The two sources on which we depend to find out (www.hmns.org) about the past are: 18. Describe Queen Puabi’s headdress.a. Written material / literary material The Queen Puabi’s headdress is made of:-b. Archaeological finds (material dug out from gold leaves the past ) gold ribbons11. Name some people who help us to discover the strands of lapiz lazuli mysteries of the past. carnelian beads Historians Archaeologists a tall comb of gold Geologists Physicists chokers12. Why do we have to depend totally on objects pair of crescent shaped earrings and materials to know about the prehistoric 19. Where is Ur? period? Ur was in Mesopotamia. It is modern Tell We have to depend totally on objects and el-Mukayyar, Iraq materials to know about the prehistoric period, 20. What does the word Mesopotamia mean? because, humans did not know how to write in the prehistoric period and thus no written records meso = middle and potamia = river, literally are available. means ‘between two rivers’13. Name some of the objects that people of the 21. Which are the two rivers? prehistoric period used and made. Tigris and Euphrates Used 22. Name the archaeologist who discovered the royal Pots and pans tombs at the Ur site. Jewellery and clothes Leonord Woolley
15 TEACHER’S MANUAL23. How many burials were found at Ur? 32. What do monuments tell us? 1800 Monuments tell us about the religious, social24. How were they classified? and cultural life of the times in which they were built. Common and Royal. 33. What are inscriptions?25. How many royal burials are there? Written records engraved on pillars,walls of 16 temples,caves,forts,palaces and on clay or copper26. Why were the burials classified as royal? tablets, are called inscriptions. They were classified as royal based on their 34. What do inscriptions tell us? distinctive form,their wealth and the fact that they Inscriptions tell us many things contained the burials of servants and other high ranking persons alongwith the main person. i. names of kings ii. the size of their empire27. Who was Tutankhamun? iii. the wars they fought The most famous Egyptian pharaoh was iv. the peace messages they gave Tutankhamun. He died in his late teens and v. they tell us about names of people who built remained at rest in Egypt’s Valley of the Kings. temples28. Why was the tomb of Queen Puabi an vi. the men who died fighting in the first World extraordinary find? Describe it. War (as in India Gate,in New Delhi) vii. storiesa. The tomb of Queen Puabi was an extraordinary viii. musical notes find because 35. Write a note on the Karthikeya temple found at i. it was intact ii. it had escaped looting through centuries Mamallapuram.b. i. it featured a vaulted chamber, set at the i. the remains of an ancient brick temple, possibly bottom of a ‘deep death pit’ 2000 years old have been discovered on the ii. the queen was found lying in a wooden box beach near the Tiger Cave in Mamallapuram, iii. she was identified by a cylindrical seal bearing 50 km from Chennai. her name that was found on her body ii. the temple dedicated to Muruga also known iv. the seal carved in cuneiform and written in as Karthikeya, is almost 2000 years old. Sumerian,the world’s first written language. 36. What objects can be found during excavations?29. How was the upper body of Queen Puabi Coins, cooking vessels, pottery, jewellery, toys, covered? grains can be found during excavations. Queen Puabi’s upper body was covered with 37. Why are coins particularly useful? strings of beads made of precious metals and semi Coins are particularly useful, because precious stones stretching from her shoulders to her belt, while rings decorated all her fingers. i. by looking at them we can tell the year in which they were made30. What are monuments? ii. the religion of the ruler Any building that is of historical significance is iii. the interests of the ruler, for example called a monument. Samudragupta’s coins tell us that he was fond31. Name some monuments. of hunting (www.answers.com) i. Red Fort in Delhi (www.planetware.com) 38. What did people write on, in the beginning? ii. Shore Temple in Chennai In the beginning people wrote on (www.indiapicks.com) iii. Taj Mahal in Agra (www.nomadicmatt. i. stone walls ii. palm leaves com) iii. barks of certain trees
16 TEACHER’S MANUAL39. What are manuscripts? 50. Name some foreigners who wrote about ancient Manuscripts are very useful sources of India. information about the past. They are written Megasthenes Fa hein Hiuen Tsang on pieces of paper. They are found in many 51. Write a note on Megasthenes. different languages and in different scripts. Some Megasthenes lived in India for some time as the are preserved in libraries and museums. Greek Ambassador at the court of Chandargupta40. Write a note on the Vedas. Maurya.He wrote Indika. The Vedas are very old religious texts in Sanskrit. 52. Write a note on Fa hein and Hiuen Tsang. They contain prayers, stories and rituals. They both came to India to study Buddhism and41. In which languages are the religious books of wrote about their experiences here. the Jains and the Buddhists written? 54. What do you know about Periplus of the Jains: Prakrit Buddhists: Pali Erythrean Sea?42. Name the two Indian epics. The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea is an account by Ramayana, Mahabharata a Greek traveller, who describes the various parts43. What do we learn from the Ramayana and the of India as he journeyed from the Mediterranean Mahabharata? sea to the Western coast of India. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata tell us 55. Why are accounts written by foreign travellers important? i. about the position of women in society at the time when they were written The uccounts written by foreign travellers are ii. about right and wrong actions important because they give us another view ...an iii. about one’s duties and responsibilities. outside view of our country.44. What are the Jataka tales? 56. Why is it exciting to study about the lives of the people from the pre historic times to the 8th The Jataka tales are interesting, folk stories about century CE? the Buddha. It is exciting to study about the lives of the people45. Name some secular works of ancient Indian from the pre historic times to the 8th century CE literature. because we see the continuous intermingling i. Dharmashastras contain rules which govern society of people and the exchange of ideas. Thisii. Arthashastra contains guidelines on how to run exchange contributed to the foundation of the government national cultures.46. What do you know about Kalidasa? 57. Why is India called a subcontinent? Kalidasa lived in the Gupta period. He wrote India is called a subcontinent because it is almost many plays in Sanskrit. His most famous play is as large as a continent. “Abhigyan Shakuntalam”...the story of Dushyant 58. ‘India is bounded by sea on three sides.’ Name and Shakuntala. the seas.47. Which language was used in South India in the i. Arabian Sea to the West ancient times? ii. Indian Ocean to the South Tamil iii. Bay of Bengal to the East48. Name some Tamil epics. 59. do the Himalayas protect us? Silappadikaram and Manimekalai The Himalayas prevent the cold wind of Siberia49. Write a note on the Harshacharita. from entering India. Harshacharita is the biography of the famous ruler 60. Name the two kinds of rivers found in India. Harshavardhan and is written by Banabhatta. i.snow fed ii. monsoon fed
The Age of Stone Tools2 and Cave Homes LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Appreciate the skills and knowledge of hunter gatherers • Identify stone artefacts as archaeological evidence, making deductions from themTextbook : Refer to pages Bonfire Large open-air fire as celebrationTime required: 5 periods Engraving An art of carving a design on a hard surfaceVOCABULARYNomadic Having a life of a nomad, Wandering DEFINITIONPalaeolithic Relating to early phase of stone age Sentinelese – Tribal people who live in the island of Sentinel, south of the Andaman islandsManuscript Handwritten document History – Record of the pastEvolved Progressed and advanced Historian – A person who studies and tells aboutMigrate Move about the past from old manuscripts, books and other recordsPerennial Continuing Ice Age – The period of lower Palaeolithic age duringBeast A large and dangerous animal which many parts of the earth were covered withScrape Scratch ice and the climate was severely coldTechnique Method Geologist – Scientist who studies the earth including the origin and the history of the rocks and soil ofFlake Chip which the earth is madeCore Central part Microliths – Small, sharp, pointed stone tools of theShaft Narrow long part forming the handle of Mesolithic Age a tool Stone Age Factory – A site where prehistoric humans manufactured toolsBark The rough outer covering of tree trunk or branches TEACHING POINTSExpedition Journey taken by a group of people for a particular purpose Introduction (a) To create a feel of how life may have been inAltar A table on which religious offerings are prehistoric times, you can build a cave in the made
18 TEACHER’S MANUAL corner of the classroom. Upturn some desks and conveniences like getting food and vegetables from cover it with crumpled brown paper. You can use the supermarket; or eating junk food; having gadgets a torch to generate some dim, but flickering light. like the telephone, computer etc.) You can have this for the entire period of time that You can extend this discussion by asking students this chapter is being taught for. At the end of the lesson, you can also exhibit all the materials that to name three things in their modern life that they students have made. cannot do without and why they think so.(b) Ask a few students to sit inside the ‘cave’ and Life in Prehistoric Times pretend that it is their home. Can they imagine living in such a home today? (Most students should (a) Introduce the concept of prehistory by explaining answer in the negative!) the difference between the prehistoric and historic period.(c) Explain to students that in fact, there are small pockets of people, who live nomadic tribal • Prehistory refers to the period when human lifestyles in India. The link http://andamandt. beings did not know how to read or write. nic in/people.htm has more information and • The historic period refers to the period where photographs that you can use, if time permits. there are written records of man’s activities(d) Read the introduction of the lesson to the rest of the (b) The website www.becominghuman.org has class (Page 19) and discuss the questions posed. an excellent interactive documentary on theAssessment – 1 hominids,their origins and culture. This can bePurpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment/ shown to students before a discussion on theIndividual Assessment; Tool – Oral Testing hominids and their life.In Text Questions (Page 19) Who were the Hominids? How would you react if you came across such • Hominids were similar to human beings. Scientists people? think that humans evolved from hominids.(Possible Responses: It would be strange; we would • Hominids learned to adapt to their environmentfind them very different from us in their clothes, way and early human beings used the discoveries ofof living, food habits etc.) the hominids.• Why do you think these people do not welcome Life of the Early Humans strangers? • Early humans had to roam from place to place in(Possible Responses: Just like we do not understand search of food.their lifestyle, probably, they do not relate to ours • They hunted animals for food and gathered fruits,and would like to protect themselves; they do not nuts etc. from the forests. Hence, they were knownwant others to interfere in their life) as hunter-gatherers.• Do you think they are missing out on life? • Early humans led a nomadic life as they had toThe most obvious answer to this will be ‘yes’, as search far and wide for their food and water.students will point out that there are no cinemas, In Text Activity (Page 20)malls, restaurants etc. But you can guide students to Can you make out what the people in this picturedevelop an alternative line of thinking, by pointing are doing?out that tribal groups are very close-knit, almost like Hintsa family, and have their own forms of recreation,games, and way of living. Just because others are • They are trying to light a fire.‘different’ does not make them inferior. • The picture also depicts the nomadic lifestyle of the early humans Would you be able to live like them? Why?Most students would reply in the negative. (Possible Discuss (Page 20)reasons can include: it would be difficult to adjust Besides books and records, are there other sources fromto their kind of life; we are too used to certain which we can learn about the lifestyle of our ancestors ?
19 TEACHER’S MANUALDiscussion Points Spear Point Group• Fossils and bones • A spear point could be made using cardboard,• Pottery wood or even soft flat chalk. Stick the spear point• Stone artefacts and tools like spears, axes, flakes, to the shaft to make the spear. flints etc Display the spears in the exhibition.• Cave Paintings In Text Question (Page 22)(c) Explain the extensive use of stones by humans in What is the difference between the tool and a weapon? the Prehistoric era. Use pictures from the website Hints www.wikipedia.org as a teaching aid. A tool is an instrument or a device that is used as an implement in our tasks. Example, an axe is a toolUse of Stones that is used to cut trees.Main Ideas A weapon is used to harm another creature or to• Use of stone tools to make spears, knives and defend oneself from harm. arrows to hunt animals Is there any tool that can be used as a weapon?• Stones used to scrape off the skins of animals and Yes, knives, axes etc. can be used as a tool and a cut meat weapon.• Stones used to cut trees for firewood The Various Phases of Stone Age(d) Explain the two distinct techniques of making (a) Before commencing this section, make a timeline stone tools. to show the phases of the Stone Age.Stone on Stone Technique• The use of one stone as the hammer on another piece of stone (core piece) that was shaped into the required size.Pressure Flaking Technique (b) Prepare a slide show on the life of hunter-gatherers• The core stone was placed on the ground and the during the stone ages. The link hammer stone placed on a bone which was on the core www.ulstermuseum.org.uk/.../stone-age/ is a stone. The hammer stone then shaped the core stone very good source of pictures and information. into the desired size. If you do not have access to computer facilities(e) Demonstrate how spears were made with the help at school to show this slide show, use overhead of the following activity. transparencies. (c) Explain the meaning of the word Palaeolithic –Making of a spear Palaeo meaning ‘old’ and lithic meaning ‘stone’.Assessment – 2 (d) The main features of the Lower, Middle and UpperPurpose – Formative; Type – Group Assessment; Palaeolithic Age can be highlighted with the helpTool – Project of a table. Use the pictures of the textbook to show the different tools and the map of India to locateFun with History! the placesDivide the class into two groups – one group tomake the shaft of the spear and the other to make Features Lower Palaeolithic Middle Palaeolithic Upper Palaeolithicthe spear point. (If your class size is big, you could Tools Choppers, Hand axes Scrapers, Borers Blades, Burinsdivide the class into more groups; however, ensure Location Valley of River Soan (Punjab) Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh) Chota Banks of Narmada (Madhya Nagpur Plateau (Jharkhand)that the groups are paired to make the shaft and Pradesh)spear points.)Shaft Group The discovery of fire• Use a long stick, a thin long pipe to make the shaft (e) The discovery of fire can be demonstrated with of the spear. the help of a role-play activity. Read the relevant
20 TEACHER’S MANUAL section on the discovery of fire and dramatize (b) Discuss the main features of Bhimbetka art using the story of the Iranian legend found in the the images from the links above. Shahnama. Main FeaturesThe Legend of Prometheus • The paintings feature various animals such asAccording to Greek mythology, Prometheus stole deer, tigers, panthers, leopards, rhinos etc. • In some pictures, the animals are chasing menfire from Zeus, the king of the Gods and gave it to and vice versamortals (humans). As a punishment, Zeus ordered • Men are depicted as matchstick figures carryingthat Prometheus be chained to a rock, where his liver spears, arrows and slings(which would be renewed daily) would be eaten dailyby an eagle. (c) Visit the following links for examples of prehistoric cave art in Europe.The Mesolithic Age • http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/(f) Explain the main features of the Middle Stone lascaux/en/ Age or the Mesolithic Age. Use the pictures from • http://www.culture.gouv.fr/culture/arcnat/ the textbook to show the difference between chauvet/en/index.html Palaeolithic and Mesolithic tools. Case Studies – Ratnagiri and Hungsi Valley Mesolithic Age - Climate become warm and dry. (a) Locate Ratnagiri and Hungsi on a map of India. Heavy and crude tools of the Palaeolithic period (Refer to the map on Page 24 of the textbook) were replaced by small pointed tools called microliths. (b) Explain the reasons why the two sites are extremely significant to historians.In Text Question (Page 23) RatnagiriCarefully observe the differences in the size and shape ofthese (microlith) tools. What do you think the tools were Discovery of a cave shelter with 54 Stone Age toolsused for ? Another cave in the area has cattle bones withHints chopping marks on them. • The tools seem to be much sharper and smaller Hungsi • They were probably fitted into small spears or Discovery of a factory site in Isampur with 150,000 used as knives for hunting Stone Age tools dated 500,000 to 200,000 years ago. Summary and RecapitulationAssessment – 3 • Life in the prehistoric timesPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; • Use of stone toolsTool – Project • Phases of the Stone Age – Old, Middle and NewFun with History! Stone AgeVisit this link: • Art during the Stone Agehttp://rockart.ncl.ac.uk/interactive/ Summative Assessment 1learningjourneys/interactive_learningjourneys_game.htm KEY TO THE TEXTBOOK EXERCISES (PAGE 23)Students can create their own rock panel by chiseling 1. Answer the following quiz:away on the rock surface! a. I discovered a palaeolithic tool at Pallavaram inArt of the Prehistoric Humans Tamil Nadu in 1863. Who am I?(a) V i s i t t h e f o l l o w i n g l i n k s f o r i m a g e s o f Robert Bruce Foote Bhimbetka art. b. I am a Stone Age human using small, sharp,• http://asi.nic.in/asi_monu_whs_rockart_ pointed stone tools called microliths. To which bhimbetka_images.asp phase of the Stone Age do I belong?• www.bradshawfoundation.com Mesolithic Age
21 TEACHER’S MANUALc. I am one of the most spectacular Stone Age a. Why did the prehistoric humans move from paintings sites in India. Where am I? place to place? Bhimbetka Prehistoric humans wandered from place to place2. Answer the following questions in two to three for the following reasons: sentences each: 1. They had not learnt how to grow fruits anda. What is prehistory? vegetables. Hence, they had to roam from place to place to hunt animals. Prehistory refers to that period of history when no written records of man’s life existed. Prehistory 2. Since plants and animals were available in limited dates back to about 500,000 years ago beginning supply, they had to move to places where they with the hominids from whom human beings are could gather fruits, nuts etc. thought to have evolved. We rely on stone tools, 3. Prehistoric humans also had to move from place to fossils and cave paintings for information on the place in search of water. Sometimes, the lakes and prehistoric period. rivers were seasonal and would dry up. Hence,b. Why is the life of a palaeolithic human they had to go to other places. considered difficult and unsafe? 4. They also had to move to different places in The life of the Palaeolithic human was regarded search of good quality stones as they were entirely difficult and unsafe for the following reasons: dependent on stone tools in their day to day life. 1. They had to wander from place to place in search b. How was fire useful to the early humans? of food and water – hence they needed to protect Fire was very useful to prehistoric humans. themselves from the danger of wild animals. It helped to keep them warm during the cold winter nights and frighten away wild animals. It 2. They had to adapt to the changing seasons and provided them with light in the harsh darkness environment – this meant that they needed to of outdoor life. Moreover, they also learnt to use make changes in their diet and lifestyle. fire to cook the flesh of animals. Fire became so 3. They had to rely on their own intelligence to cope important that many legends and stories grew with the life of being hunter- gatherers. around the use of fire.c. Why did the prehistoric humans move to places c. Why were caves good shelters? where good quality stone was available? Caves provided natural shelters from wind, heat, Stones were used extensively by prehistoric rain and wild animals. Caves were also useful humans to make knives, spears, axes etc. These because they were located in thick forests where weapons were essential for them to hunt animals wild animals and plants were available. This and protect them from harm. Since they were gave prehistoric humans an opportunity to find entirely dependent on stones for their living, they food easily. In many areas, there were streams moved to places where good quality stone was flowing from cliff tops. Finally, the rocks of the available. cave shelters could be used to make stone tools.d. What is the difference between a factory site and d. Describe the food that early humans ate. a habitation site? Early humans did not know how to grow fruits, A factory site is a site where stone tools in various grains and vegetables. Therefore, they depended stages of production were manufactured. On on the wild animals that they hunted. These the other hand, a habitation site was one where included deer, bison, rhinos, fish, panthers etc. prehistoric humans may have lived for a particular In addition, they also gathered wild roots, fruits, period of time. However, a site could have berries, honey etc. from forests. Though historians believe that they used to eat raw flesh, it is likely functioned as a factory site and a habitation site. that with the discovery of fire, the early humans3. Answer the following questions in five to six gradually learnt to cook the flesh of the animals sentences each. they hunted.
22 TEACHER’S MANUALe. Why do you think early humans painted? What Front Page did their paintings show and why? If we look at the early cave paintings, they depict a variety of scenes, such as men chasing animals, animals chasing men, children playing, people dancing etc. There are also paintings of people • On the inner pages (3), write about the famous gathering fruits, honey, preparing food etc. Hence, pre historic sites like Bhimketka, Ratnagiri, it is likely that early humans wanted to depict their Hungsi etc. lifestyle and express their emotions through them. It is also possible that this was a form of leisure Page 1 Page 2 Page 3 from their tiring work of hunting. Some historians also feel that early humans were afraid of animals, and by depicting them being hunted, it showed their success over animals. • Don’t forget to include prices for the various tourPOINTERS FOR THE THINGS TO DO SECTION packages along with the name and contact details(PAGE 27) of the tour guide. Do this on the outer pages of the brochure.Purpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment;Tool – Diary Page 4 Page 61. Diary Entry• Had to travel far and wide to hunt for food• Climbed sharp rocks and crossed streams• Made yourself warm on the way by lighting a fire Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment;• Spotted the boar and used your spear and blade Tool – Debate• Was thrilled as you could go home with this 4. Organize a Debate: surprise Prehistoric humans led a carefree and fun-filledPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual Assessment; life. Yes, becauseTool – Map Work • They had no responsibilities like we have2. Map Work in the present day like getting a job, saving• Refer to the map on Page 24 of the text book to for the future etc. complete this activity • They were not limited to one place and couldPurpose – Formative; Type– Individual/Group roam around at will.Assessment; Tool – Tourist Brochure • They could do as they pleased as there was no law to limit their actions. 3. Tourist Brochure on Prehistoric sites• Take an A4 size paper and fold it into three parts No, because like this: • They lived a very uncertain and dangerous life and in harsh conditions. • They always had to defend themselves from wild Fold 1 Fold 2 animals and the fury of nature. • They did not have the facilities and conveniences that we have today that helps make our life easier.• Draw a picture similar to cave art on the front 5. Role of Women page along with a slogan to attract the attention • Women probably looked after children and of the reader. hunted small animals.
23 TEACHER’S MANUAL• They may have also looked for fruits, nuts and anymore but scientists think that human beings berries to eat. evolved or developed from them.6. Prepare a Skit Q4. Which Age was called the Stone Age? Why?• The short story given on Page 23 of the Ans. We know that early humans used the stones textbook can be used as the basis for the enactment available for defending themselves against of the skit. wild beasts and also to kill them, they attached handles of wood to stones and made spears andADDITIONAL QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS arrows and used them to hunt animals for food.Name the following: The stones were also used to scrape the skins of1. The characteristic tools of the Lower Palaeolithic animals, cut meat and bones, for chopping trees Age were – blades and burins. and to clear forests. Since the early humans were2. The Humans learned to light a fire in the - entirely dependent on stones for their living, the Palaeolithic Age. Prehistoric Age was called the Stone Age.3. The Mesolithic Age was followed by Neolithic Q5. Name and explain the techniques used to Age. produce stone tools.4. India’s oldest stone tools were found in – Hunsgi Ans. The stone tools were produced by two and Baichbal valleys. techniques -5. The first evidence of a cave shelter of human 1. Stone on stone technique – In this technique one ancestors in India was found at– Ratnagiri in hand of the tool-maker firmly held the pebble or Maharashtra. core from the tool which was to be crafted, and6. The three sub-periods of Stone Age are - the other hand held a stone which was used as Palaeolithic Period, Mesolithic Period and hammer. This hammer stone was used to strike Neolithic Period. off flakes from the core stone till the requiredQ1. Where is sentinel? Write in brief about the shape and size was obtained. people living there. 2. Pressure flaking technique – In this techniqueAns. Sentinel is an island, south of the Andaman the core stone was placed on a firm surface or Island. The people living here are tribes who live ground. The hammer stone was placed on a bone the most ancient, nomadic lifestyles known to resting on the core stone, to remove flakes from man. Many still produce fire by rubbing stones, the core stone. These flakes were shaped into they fish and hunt with bow and arrow and live tools. in leaf and straw community huts and don’t like people to come near them. Match the columns:Q2. Why are there no books or any recorded history Middle Stone Age Mesolithic Period of the prehistoric people? Ice Age Lower Paleolithic AgeAns. As we know that prehistory refers to the Firdausi Shahnama earliest period in the history of humans, when Ochre pigment Red hematite they did not know how to read or write. Hence, White pigment Lime there are no books or manuscripts, recorded Hunsgi Valley Isampur quarry about that time.Q3. Were hominids humans? What do scientists think about them?Ans. Hominids were not human beings, but they were very similar to human beings. They do not exist
The Age of the First3 Farmers LEARNING OBJECTIVES EXPECTED LEARNING OUTCOME • Appreciate the diversity of early domestication • Identify the material culture generated by people in relatively stable settlements • Understand strategies for analyzing theseTextbook: Refer to pages Trenches – Long deep holes dug in the ground areTime required: 5 periods trenches. Agate – A hard stone with coloured bands on it is Agate.VOCABULARY Hearth – Floor at the bottom of a fireplace is hearth.Obscure difficult to understandPit hole in the ground TEACHING POINTSSapling SeedlingCertified qualified IntroductionInscription writing (a) Read the introductory section of the chapter andFlourished increased, prospered discuss the questions that follow.Abandoned deserted Assessment – 1Trench channel dug in the ground Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment;Grind crush Tool – Group DiscussionMortar heavy tool with rounded end used In Text Questions (Page 28) for grinding If you were to find such stones, how would you react?Pestle grinderIntervening overruling, dominating (Possible Responses)Plastered applied coat of plaster • I would also be surprised and puzzled as toAntlers pair of branched horns of an adult its use. male dear • I would show it to various people to find out more about it.Hearth fire place • I would try to find out more about the script inscribed on the stone.DEFINITIONS What is Neolithic Age? Who made these celts?Celts – Prehistoric stone or bronze tools were called Recall that prehistory is divided into various phases Celts. – known as the Old Stone Age (Palaeolithic), Middle
25 TEACHER’S MANUALStone Age (Mesolithic) and the New Stone Age • The potter’s wheel also helped early humans(Neolithic). The Neolithic Age began in about 10,000 make their own potsBCE and ended around 3000 BCE. In some places • Later, the spinner’s wheel was used to makeit continued until 1000 BCE. The Neolithic Age is threadknown for the beginning of farming, where humanslearnt to cultivate their own food. Domestication of AnimalsCelts are prehistoric bronze and stone tools. Celts • The first animal to be tamed was the ancestor ofwere probably made by humans of the Neolithic era. the dogYou can find pictures of celts using the link http:// • Sheep and goats were also domesticateden.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celt_(tool) • Domestication helped Neolithic humans to have a steady supply of meat and milkWhat did they use them for?Celts were designed in such a way that they could Assessment – 2be fitted on to a wooden shaft and used to fell trees Purpose – Formative; Type– Group Assessment;and shape wood. They were probably used to clear Tool – Projectpatches of land. Fun with History!Life in the Neolithic Age Look up some pictures of Neolithic pottery using(a) Visit the website http://www.sitesandphotos. the following links: com/catalog/parent-88427.html for photographs www.historyforkids.org of Neolithic settlements. This would be a good www.oubliette.org.uk/Sixc.html (This has sketches starting point to make students to understand of Neolithic pottery designs) the dramatic difference in the lives of people www.commons.wikipedia.org (You will need to of this era. type in the key words “Neolithic Pottery” in the search section of the website)Beginning of farming Divide the class into groups. Give each group a small(b) Explain to students why the Neolithic Age is also clay pot and using the designs, let each group design known as the Neolithic Revolution. their own Neolithic pottery. Remember the colours• Transition from hunting-gathering to self to be used are brown, black, yellow and red. sufficiency in food production• This led to the rise of settlements and eventually Case Study – The Abhuj Maria Tribe towns and cities (a) Ask students to locate Bastar in Chhatisgarh in• Discovery of wheat grains at Mehrgarh, Gufkral, their atlas. Burzahom and Chirand (Locate these places on (b) Discuss the main features of the Abhuj Maria the map on Page 24 of the textbook) tribe.(c) Discuss the new changes in the life of the people: Main Features pottery, invention of the wheel and domestication • Live in complete isolation in an area of 1500 square of animals. feetPottery • Lead very simple lives in diet and dress• Used to store food grains, milk and water • Men and women wear only a simple piece of cloth• Some of the remains of pottery found show that around their waist and grow bananas, coarse they are beautifully painted and crafted grains and rice • They practice shifting cultivation and dependInvention of the Wheel heavily on hunting and gathering.• A remarkable discovery as it enabled people to • The tribe believes in the collective ownership of move from one place to another land.