History of aeroplane 1

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History of aeroplane 1

  1. 1. HISTORY OF AEROPLANE
  2. 2. ORNITHOPTER҉ Thinking of human flight imagination was created on the wings flapped by birds҉This concept was done by flapping up and down by various mechanism by human arm or legs҉LEONARDO DA VINCI possessed the idea of ornithopters҉This concept was failure due to poor knowledge of aerodynamics stability and control
  3. 3. HOT AIR BALLOONS҉The balloon was inflated and hot air from an open fire burning in an ‘large wicker basket ‘ for lifting purpose҉MONTGOLFIER BROTHERS, JOSEPH & ETIENNE designed the first hot air balloon҉It was the first to lift the human beings from ground level҉Based on this concept J.A.C.CHARLES built and fly an hydrogen filled an air balloon
  4. 4. MULTI PLANES• CAYLEY’S TRIPLANE ҉ Model airplane is designed by the concept of Sir GEORGE CAYLEY҉He is the grand parent of the concept of model aircraft҉His tri plane enlighted as “ON AERIAL NAVIGATION” in Nicholson’s journal of national philosophy & his another paper on mechanics magazine enlighted҉These are the important contribution of theoretical and applied thermodynamics
  5. 5. MAJOR CONTRIBUTION OF SIR CAYLEY҉Separate mechanism for propulsion҉The use of flappers for propulsion҉ A version towards propeller and rotary machinery of any kind҉Combined horizontal and vertical tail for stability of air plane҉Tests where conducted to measure aerodynamic force and center of pressure on a lifting surface
  6. 6. FEATURES҉A main wing at an angle for lift and lateral stability҉An adjustment in tail for longitudinal and directional stability҉Pilot operate elevator and rudder҉Cayley is the first to identify the aerodynamic forces and velocity resolve them into lift and thrust forces҉Fixed wing for generating lift
  7. 7. JOHN STRING FELLOW’S TRIPLANE҉In first aeronautical exhibition organized by Royal aeronautical society of Great Britain a beautiful triplane model submitted by stringfellow weighted with of boiler 6kg҉The model ran along with wire stretched with the ground҉This was the first experiment of a steam engine҉H.P=0.75kw
  8. 8. LANGLEY’S AEODROMES҉Samuel porpoint & secratory of Smithsonian institute designed many types of aerodromes҉It can fly up to 3300 feet҉It has stem engine which contains two propeller҉The two propeller rotate in opposite direction one in clock wise and other in anticlockwise҉If two propeller rotate in same direction then torque &damped vibration are produced҉Langley produced first gasoline engine with her assistants Charles mangley of 52.4H.P
  9. 9. WRIGHT BROTHER’S PLANE҉Wright brothers are first invented the ailerons used to increase the flow of flight and also designed a 6 feet wind tunnel҉They invented more than 200 designs҉Wright Brothers tested all the invented flight by the help of 6 feet wind tunnel҉Types of wind tunnel 1.Sub sonic ; m=1 2.super sonic ; m>1 3.hyper sonic ;m>25҉m is called as MAC NUMBER҉They invented 5 feet glider then 14 ,, ,, then 22 ,, ,, then 32 ,, ,, with vertical rudder҉Their first successful model is Flyer -1
  10. 10. FLYER -1҉32 feet glider then called as flyer-1҉The wing size is increased to 40 feet and they placed two rudder behind the aircraft҉At first flyer-1 propeller’s one side is connected to one engine and leaving the other end leaving free it create damped vibration҉It is the first failure
  11. 11. FLYER-2҉This aircraft has a smaller wing camber and a more powerful and efficient engine҉In outward it look like as an flyer-1
  12. 12. FLYER-3҉ The wing area was slightly smaller than flyer-2҉The aerofoil looks like as an flyer-2҉The biplane elevator was made larger and was placed further in front of wing҉The double rudder was placed further behind the wings
  13. 13. WORLD WAR -1 PLANES҉Design = Biplane҉Constructed by wood , fabric , steel plane , fittings҉Ailerons = lateral control҉Propeller is run by piston engine҉Empennage at tail҉single pilot with cockpit in fuselage҉instrument - airspeed , altimeter , engine RPM , magnetic compass Weight = 600 – 1200kg Engine RPM = 100 – 300RPM Top speed = 200 – 250 km/hr Range = 200km Altitude = 7000m Ascent rate =7km in 1 hour
  14. 14. SUMMARYNAME OF SCIENTIST ACHIVEMENTS&AIRCRAFT YEARLEONARDO DA VINCI 1489-1490 INTRODUCED’FLAPPING OF “ORNITHOPTER” WINGS UP AND DOWN’MONTGOLFIER BROTHERS 1783 “LIFTING POWER OF HOT “BALLOON” AIR “SIR GEORGE 1804 WHIRILING ARMCAYLEY”GRAND PARENT OF APPARATUS MEASUREDMODERN AEROPLANE” AERODYNAMIC AND CENTER OF PRESSURE ON LIFTING SURFACEFRANCIS WENHAM 1849-1871 FIRST WIND TUNNEL IN THE WORLD TO CALCULATEWILLIAM SAMUEL HENSON 1843 DESIGNED “FIXED WING MONOPLANE”POWERED BY STEAM ENGINEFELIX DU TEMPLE 1857-1858 INTRODUCED MONOPLANE”SWEPT
  15. 15. NAME OF SCIENTIST ACHIVEMENTS&AIRCRAFT YEARLANGLEY “AERODROME” 1896 INVENT GASOLINE POWER FOR ENGINEWRIGHT BROTHERS 1871 – 1948 WING WARPING TO CONTROL AIRPLANE IN LATERAL MOTION SEP 1900 HORIZONTAL ELEVATOR FOR LONGITUDINAL MOTIONWRIGHT BROTHERS 1901 USED HORIZONTAL ELEVATOR IN FRONT OF WING 1901 – 1902 BUILT “WIND TUNNEL FOR LIFT , DRAG “BIPLANE GLIDER NO 3 1902 RUDDER , LINKED WINGGLIDERWRIGHT FLYER – 1 17 DEC 1903 DOUBLE RUDDER & ELEVATOR , TWO PROPELLER
  16. 16. NAME OF SCIENTIST ACHIVEMENTS&AIRCRAFT YEAROCTAVE GHANUTEA 1896 TRUSS METHOD OF STRUCTURAL RIGGINGWHICH WAS SIMILAR TO WRIGHT BROTHERSGERMAN MESSERSCH MITT 1939 TURBOJET ENGINEDME 262 AIRCRAFT DECELOPED BY VON OHAIN GERMANYBRITISH GLOSTER METEOR 1941 TURBOJET ENGINEFJGHTERS DEVELOPED BY SIR FRANK WHITTLE OF UKUSA F 86 E SABRE SOVIET 1950 TRANSONIC FIGHTERSMIG 15US F 16/D SOVIET M21B 1984 MACH 2+ MACH 2 DELTA WING PLANFORMS
  17. 17. INSTRUMENTSBOURDON TUBE - To measure pressureDIAPHRAGAM - To measure pressureBELLOWS - To measure pressurePITOT STATIC TUBE - To identify air speedALTIMETER - To identify the height of aircraft from groundMACHMETER - To measure the air speed sound

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