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Colonial cities of India

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How colonial rule of British developed india and its major cities, especially Chennai.

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Colonial cities of India

  1. 1. COLONIAL CITIES -A CITY PLANNING CONCEPT SUBMITTED BY S. VINOTH M.PLAN 1st YEAR
  2. 2. COLONIALISM  Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory.  It is a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous population.  Collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as “The policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker people or areas.”  The legitimacy of colonialism has been a longstanding concern for political and moral philosophers in the Western tradition.
  3. 3. HISTORY OF COLONIALISM  The historical phenomenon of colonisation is one that stretches around the globe and across time, including such disparate peoples as the Hittites, the Incas and the British.  Modern state global colonialism, or imperialism, began in the 15th century with the "Age of Discovery", by Portuguese and Spanish exploration of the Americas, and the coasts of Africa, the Middle East, India, and East Asia.  During the 16th and 17th centuries, England, France and the Dutch Republic established their own overseas empires, in direct competition with each other.  The end of the 18th and early 19th century saw the first era of decolonization, when most of the European colonies in the Americas gained their independence from their respective metropolis.
  4. 4. COLONIALISM EXPANSION OVER THE CENTURIES
  5. 5. TYPES OF COLONIALISM  Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration, often motivated by religious, political, or economic reasons.  Exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on access to resources for export, typically to the metropolis. Slaves were often imported to the Americas, first by the Portuguese Empire, and later by the Spanish, Dutch, French and British.  Plantation colonies would be considered exploitation colonialism; but colonizing powers would utilize either type for different territories depending on various social and economic factors as well as climate and geographic conditions.
  6. 6. CONTD…  Surrogate colonialism involves a settlement project supported by colonial power, in which most of the settlers do not come from the mainstream of the ruling power.  Internal colonialism is a notion of uneven structural power between areas of a nation state. The source of exploitation comes from within the state.
  7. 7. COLONIAL CITIES IN INDIA  Colonial India is the part of the Indian subcontinent which was under the control of European colonial powers, through trade and conquest. The first European power to arrive in India was the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great in 327–326 BC.
  8. 8. DIFFERENT COLONIAL RULES COLONIAL RULE PERIOD Dutch India 1605–1825 Danish India 1620–1869 French India 1769–1954 Portuguese East India Company 1628–1633 East India Company 1612–1757 Company rule in India 1757–1858 British Raj 1858–1947 British rule in Burma 1824–1948 Princely states 1721–1949 Partition of India 1947
  9. 9. CITIES UNDER RULE GOA:  In 1510, the Portuguese defeated the ruling Bijapur sultan Yousuf Adil Shah with the help of a local ally, Timayya. They set up a permanent settlement in Velha Goa (or Old Goa). This was the beginning of Portuguese rule in Goa that would last for four and a half centuries, until 1961. KOCHI:  Known as the Queen of the Arabian Sea, Kochi was an important spice trading centre on the west coast of India from the 14th century. Occupied by the Portuguese Empire in 1503, Kochi was the first of the European colonies in colonial India. It remained the main seat of Portuguese India until 1530, when Goa was chosen instead.
  10. 10. CONTD.. DELHI: • In 1803 British got control of Delhi but continued with Calcutta as the capital as The Mughal emperor was living there (Bahadur Shah Jafar).The modern city as we know it today developed only after 1911 when Delhi became the capital of British India. CALCUTTA: • The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. Kolkata grew rapidly in the 19th century to become the second city of the British Empire.
  11. 11. CONTD.. MADRAS: • Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading centre. • When the Portuguese arrived in 1522, they built a port and named it São Tomé, after the Christian apostle St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached there between the years 1552 and 1570. • The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat just north of the city in 1612. • Both groups strived to grow their colonial populations and although their populations reached into 10,000 persons when the British arrived, they remained substantially outnumbered by the local Indian population.
  12. 12. CONTD.. BOMBAY: • In 1687, the English East India Company transferred its headquarters from Surat to Bombay. The city eventually became the headquarters of the Bomba Presidency. Following the transfer, Bombay was placed at the head of all the Company's establishments in India. • The encouragement of the trade of Bombay with Jeshwanth combined with the Company's military successes in the Deccan paved the way for the educational and economic progress which characterized the city during the nineteenth century leading to the city development during 1817-1885. • By 1845, all the seven islands had been connected to form a single island called Old Bombay having an area of 435 km2(167.95 sq mi) by the Hornby Vellard project due to the water famine in 1824.
  13. 13. CASE STUDY: CHENNAI: • Chennai formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fourth largest city. • It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400- year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan city in the world. • Chennai boasts of a long history from the English East India Company, through the British Raj to its evolution in the late 20th century as a services and manufacturing hub for India. • The modern city of "Chennai" arose from the British settlement of Fort St. George and its subsequent expansion through merging numerous native villages and European settlements around Fort St. George into the city of Madras.
  14. 14. CONTD..  Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading centre.  Francis Day and his superior Andrew Cogan can be considered as the founders of Madras (now Chennai).  Their small fortified settlement quickly attracted other East Indian traders and as the Dutch position collapsed under hostile Indian power they also slowly joined the settlement. This area became the Fort St. George settlement.  It is otherwise referred to as THE WHITE TOWN.  To differentiate these non-European and non-Christian area from "White Town", the new settlement was termed "Black Town.” Collectively, the original Fort St. George settlement, "White Town", and "Black Town" were called Madras.
  15. 15. CONTD..  In the later part of the 17th century, Madras steadily progressed during the period of the East India Company and under many Governors. Although most of the original Portuguese, Dutch, and British population had been genocided during the Golkonda period, under the Mughal protection, large numbers of British and Anglo-American settlers arrived to replenish these losses.  As a result during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras.  The expansion of Chennai lead to the acquisition of other areas nearby. This confiscation of the areas developed which resulted the present day core area of Chennai we see today.
  16. 16. CONFISCATED VILLAGES.. VILLAGE YEAR Madraspatnam 1639 Narimedu (area to the west of Madraspatnam) 1645 Triplicane 1672 Tiruvottiyur 1708 Kottivakkam 1708 Nungambakkam 1708 Egmore 1720 Purasawalkam 1720 Tondiarpet 1720 Chintadripet 1735 Vepery 1742 Mylapore 1749 Chennapatnam 1801
  17. 17. CONTD..  In the latter half of the 18th century, Madras became an important British naval base and the administrative centre of the growing British dominions in southern India.  The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency, also called Madras Province.  Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetpet to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals.  The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the 18th century.
  18. 18. CONTD..  Spencer's started as a small business in 1864 and went on to become the biggest department stores in Asia at the time.  Development of Railway station, High Court, Educational Institution and other major administrative and commercial buildings had taken Chennai to its new heights.  In the 1900’s Chennai acquired the status of a city due to its increased population growth and advancements in terms of infrastructure and aminities.  The city’s major economic activity was entirely based on the sea and other small scale industries inside the city.  On the whole, the colonial rule provoked the growth of Chennai to a multi potential city which attracted people from all over TamilNadu for the past 40-50 years.
  19. 19. CHENNAI IN 1955..
  20. 20. CHENNAI IN 1990..
  21. 21. CONCLUSION  The concept of colonialism started way back in 1492 when Columbus went in search of India, but accidently discovered America.  The colonial rule impacted the whole world, creating a new settlement to the creation of a new religion to the creation of a new country.  Colonial India had contributed to the modern India we see today with the establishment of Modern city lifestyle and also in the growth of Mega cities like Mumbai, Chennai etc.,  The Imperialism of the British over the entire world has resulted the tremendous improvement in trade and commerce which we have at present.  There wouldn’t have been a Megacity like Mumbai or Chennai if colonial rule had not existed.

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