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Renewable Energy's Impact Upon Hydrocarbon Dominance


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Renewable Energy's Impact Upon Hydrocarbon Dominance

  1. 1. Table Of Contents• Chapter 1 Hydrocarbon Dominance• Chapter 2 G20 Nations & Renewable Energy• Chapter 3 Various Types Of RenewableEnergy• Chapter 4 Companies Greatly ImpactingRenewable Energy• Conclusion• Sources
  2. 2. Chapter 1Hydrocarbon Dominance• Coal• Crude Oil• Natural Gas
  3. 3. Coal
  4. 4. Coal Summary• Coal for more than 150 years has beenan integral part in providing energyworldwide• China currently consumes more coalthan the U.S., Europe, and Japancombined• Currently 1.3 billion people do not haveaccess to electricity, globally, which willcontinue to drive the demand for coal
  5. 5. Coal Summary• In 2012, the U.S. consumed 871 milliontons of thermal coal• Coal, by far, is the most harmful of thethree major hydrocarbons, in terms of airpollution, and adverse impacts uponhuman health
  6. 6. Crude Oil
  7. 7. Crude Oil Summary• Crude oil demand, after 1900, began anamazing ascent, as automobiles became massproduced, and the global population exploded• Since 2009, global oil demand has only beenexpanding at 600,000 barrels per day (bpd),down significantly from 2000 through 2008• Over 200 countries rely on crude oil imports
  8. 8. Crude Oil Summary• In 2012, geopolitical tensions in several oilproducing nations caused their collective oilproduction, to fall by over 1 million barrels aday (bpd). The nations, include: Iran, Nigeria,Sudan, Syria, and Yemen• The crude oil industry has been responsiblefor two of the worst environmental disastersin history: the Exxon Valdez oil spill, BP’sDeepwater Horizon disaster
  9. 9. Natural Gas
  10. 10. Natural Gas Summary• Natural gas is the cleanest of the threemajor hydrocarbons, and is becoming thefuel of choice of many power producers,globally• The U.S is the leading producer of naturalgas, globally, and produced over 24 trillioncubic feet (tcf), in 2012• By 2020, China aims to utilize natural gasfor 10 percent of its total energy needs
  11. 11. Natural Gas Summary• The U.S. & Canada are in enviablepositions, and will become majorexporters of natural gas• Low natural gas prices are one of theleading impediments for thedevelopment of renewable energyprojects, as natural gas is much cheaperto produce, per kilowatt hour
  12. 12. G20 Nations & Renewable Energy
  13. 13. Chapter 2G20 Nations & Renewable Energy• The G20 was created in the aftermath of theAsian financial crisis in 1997-1998• G20 nations are responsible for 84 percent ofhydrocarbon emissions• Since 2009, many of the G20 nations havebeen committed to reducing hydrocarbonsubsidies• Hydrocarbon subsidies totaled $312 billion, in2009
  14. 14. Renewable Energy Investment• Since 2004, global renewable investment hasincreased significantly• In 2004, global renewable energy investmenttotaled $54 billion• Since 2009, technology costs for both windand solar projects have dropped significantly,which have increased the rates of return, forrenewable energy projects
  15. 15. Great Britain• Great Britain’s population exceeds 63 millionpeople, in 2013• The country now generates over 10 percent ofits electricity from renewable energy sources• By 2020, Great Britain aims to generate 15percent of its electricity from renewableenergy sources
  16. 16. Iceland• Although Iceland is not one of the G20nations, the country derives 100 percent of itselectricity needs for renewable energysources• Its two primary energy sources include:geothermal energy and hydroelectric power• Iceland’s population is only 315,000 people
  17. 17. Japan• Japan’s population totals over 127 millionpeople• The Fukushima disaster claimed 19,000 lives• Nuclear power prior to Fukushima, comprised30 percent of Japan’s electricity generation• Currently only 2 of Japan’s nuclear reactorsare operational• Renewable energy only accounts for 1 percentof Japan’s total electricity generation
  18. 18. Chapter 3Various Types Of Renewable Energy• Wind Power• Solar Power• Geothermal Energy• Hydroelectric Power• Tidal Energy• Biomass• Biofuels
  19. 19. Wind Power
  20. 20. Wind Power• Wind power dates as far back as 200 B.C.• Wind power is currently the fastestgrowing component of renewable energyin the U.S.• The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm & CapeWind Project are two of the largest windpower projects to be developed in theU.S.
  21. 21. Solar Power
  22. 22. Solar Energy• Germany is the world leader in solar energy• The Blythe solar power project has been takenover by Nextera Energy• The U.S. has made major strides in solarenergy over the last 10 years• The Solar Industry Association is trying todevelop an industry standard for the reportingand disposal of hazardous waste
  23. 23. HydroElectric Power
  24. 24. Hydroelectric Power• Hydroelectric power is the largestcomponent of renewable energy in theU.S.• The Three Gorges Dam was completed in2012, which cost upwards of $40 billion• China, Brazil, and Canada are the largesthydroelectric producers globally
  25. 25. Geothermal Energy
  26. 26. Geothermal Energy• The Ring of Fire encounters the mostgeothermal activity• Seven states in the U.S have geothermalpower plants• Indonesia & Japan have great potential inexpanding geothermal energy• Several East African nations are developinggeothermal energy
  27. 27. Tidal Energy
  28. 28. Tidal Energy• Tidal energy dates back to 787 A.D.• Tidal currents are extremely predictable• North America has several regions whichhave great potential to develop tidalenergy• Ocean Power Renewable Corporation isin the early stages of developing tidalenergy projects
  29. 29. Biomass
  30. 30. Biomass• Biomass is considered to be a renewableenergy source because trees and cropscan always be grown• Wood is the most common form ofbiomass• 20 utilities within North America areutilizing biomass to partially replace coaland natural gas
  31. 31. Biofuels
  32. 32. Biofuels• The food versus fuel debate rages on• Biodiesel consumption in the U.S has risenexponentially sine 2001, when it totaled 10million gallons• ExxonMobil & Chevron have significantlyscaled back their plans to develop nextgeneration biofuels• Waste to fuels plants & waste to energy plantsare being constructed globally
  33. 33. Other Topics• Nuclear Power• Hydrogen• Electric Vehicles• Hybrid Vehicles
  34. 34. Nuclear Energy
  35. 35. Nuclear Power• Nuclear power plants utilize nuclearfission• Many nations are continuing theirnuclear ambitions• 86 percent of the uranium used fornuclear power in the U.S, is imported• The Chernobyl disaster is estimated tohave killed 4,000 people
  36. 36. Hybrid Vehicles
  37. 37. Hybrid Vehicles• Hybrid vehicles feature an internalcombustion engine, along with batteries, andan electric motor• Hybrid vehicles consume several rare earthmetals• Toyota’s Prius has been the most successfulselling hybrid vehicle, globally
  38. 38. Electric Vehicles
  39. 39. Electric Vehicles• Nissan’s Leaf only travels 75 miles before itneeds to be charged• In 2011, nearly 43,000 electric vehicles weresold, globally• The U.S has backtracked from its goal ofaiming for 1 million electric cars, by 2015• Tesla is a major success story
  40. 40. Hydrogen
  41. 41. Hydrogen• Hydrogen can be produced from severalnatural resources, which include: water,biomass, and hydrocarbons• California is planning to construct 68 hydrogenstations estimated to cost $160 million• Ford, Nissan, & Daimler AG all plan to launchaffordable fuel cell cars, within 5 years
  42. 42. Chapter 45 Companies Greatly ImpactingRenewable Energy• GE Energy• Google• NextEra Energy Resources• Siemens• Waste Management
  43. 43. 5 Companies Greatly ImpactingRenewable Energy
  44. 44. Google• In 2012, Google generated revenues of$48 billion and net income of $10.72 billion• Google invested $700 million into renewableenergy projects, in 2011• Google invested $100 million into theShepherds Flat Wind Farm, located inArlington Oregon
  45. 45. Nextera Energy Resources• Nearly 60 percent of the company electricitygenerating capacity comes from renewableenergy sources• Wind power is the company’s largestcomponent• Nextera is the largest wind power producerwithin the U.S.• The company is also one of the largest solarpower providers in the U.S.
  46. 46. Siemens• Siemens is the largest industrialized companywithin Europe• In 2012, Siemens Energy generated revenuesexceeding $30 billion and net incomeexceeding $2.5 billion• Siemens is exiting its solar power business, asEurope’s austerity measures negatively impactSiemen’s solar business
  47. 47. Waste Management• Waste Management generates moreelectricity than the entire U.S. solarindustry• Waste Management produces energyfrom two major sources: waste andlandfill gas• Waste Management is constructingseveral waste to energy plants in GreatBritain, and in China
  48. 48. Conclusion• Global coal demand will reach 9 billion tons, by2020, based on the amount of new coal firedplants which are being constructed• By 2020, the number of vehicles which consumepetroleum based products, is on pace to reach1.5 billion. By 2020, global sales of electricvehicles will struggle to reach 5 million units, sold• Outside air pollution deaths have increased from800,000, in 2008, to over 3 million, in 2012,primarily due to hydrocarbons
  49. 49. Sources
  50. 50. eBook Description• Renewable Energy’s Impact UponHydrocarbon Dominance, is 122 Pages• Developed by Vincent J. Lentini• Will be available through Amazon and Apple’siTunes for $4.99• Will be released on June 19, 2013• This eBook will not address climate change,but will focus on air pollution, and impactsupon human health