• Jellyfish are an invertebrate species of sea dwelling animal• Named due to their gooey gelatin -like bodies• Medusa is another word for jellyfish• Jellyfish are not fish. They belong to the Cnidaria phylum, which includes other simple- bodied marine invertebrates such as sea anemones and corals• it has no head, brain, heart, eyes, or ears• lacking in the sensory systems that correspond to these organs.
• There are over 2,000 species of jellyfish, or jellies• The typical jellyfish body is composed of the bell, the oral arms or feeding arms, and the tentacles. There are some species that do not have tentacles.• The bell of the jellyfish is the smooth umbrella- shaped body that is designed to flap or pump
• Inside the bell are the mouth and stomach cavity• It takes in food and expels waste through the same opening.• The edge of the bell- shaped body called the rhopalial lappet, and is the location where the jellyfish’s tentacles are usually attached.
• it have a simple nervous system called a nerve net, which spreads throughout the epidermis of the animal.• When the tentacles of a jellyfish come in contact with potential prey, the cells of the nerve net respond by shooting out the many stinging cells contained in the tentacles.
The types of Giant Jellyfish• Aurelia Auritax, Moon Jellyfish, Aurelia Jellyfish• Ball Jellyfish, Cannonball Jellyfish• Blue Blubber• Box Jellyfish• Cassiopeia Jellyfish• Chironex Fleckeri• Comb Jellyfish• Irukandji Jellyfish, Iracongi / Irukandji Jellyfish• King Jellyfish• Lagoon Jellyfish• Lions Mane Jellyfish, Mane Jellyfish• Man of War, War Jellyfish, Blue Bottle Jellyfish
• Mangrove Jellyfish• Moonlight Jellyfish• Neon Jellyfish• Nomuras Jellyfish• Pelagia Noctiluca• Physalia Jellyfish• Sand Jellyfish• Sea Nettle Jellyfish• Sea Wasp Jellyfish• Square Jellyfish• Sun Jellyfish• Turritopsis Nutricula (Immortal Jellyfish)• Upside Down Jellyfish• White Spotted Jellyfish
Bad time for jellyfishes….• Two main season in the year for catching commercial jellyfish :(a) January – April(b) August – December• When the sea calm they come to the surface, when the sea is rough they sink deeper.
The net for catch jellyfish…• Drift nets• Bag nets
Processing of jellyfish..• Boat returns to shore with its catch of white jellyfish, which were caught using a hand scoop.
• The tentacles of the jellyfish are removed bofore they are processed.
• After being washed and cleaned, jellyfish are placed in a solution containing coarse salt, potassium alum and sodium bicarbonate(soda) for both dehydration and preservation.
• After 2-3 days, a smaller quantity of the salt mixture is added and the jellyfish kept for another 4-7 days. The jellyfish are then transferred to a solution containing pure fine salt for 5-7 days for further dehydration.
• In the final stage, the jellyfish are placed on wooden boards for draining away excess water and placed in the shade to dry for 3-4 days.
• The final product is ready to be shipped to overseas.
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• Posses two body forms in their life cycle.• The polyp form, which grows attached the rock in the sea.• Free-swimming medusa form, which is called a jellyfish.• The medusa resembles a bell or an umbrella with the convex side upward.• The mouth of jellyfish is in the centre of the concave under surface.
• The tentacles hang down from the margin of the bell.• Simple creature consisting of only two layers of cells.• The outer layer(epidermis) which covers the external body surface.• inner layer (gastro dermis) which lines the gut or intestines.
• Between the epidermis and gastrodermis is a layer of thick elastic jellylike substance called mesoglea ("middle jelly").• Jellyfish have a simple digestivecavity (coelenteron) which acts as a gullet, stomach and intestine with one opening for the mouth and anus.• Four to eight oral arms are located near the mouth and are used to transport food that has been captured by the tentacles.
• Jellyfish occur in a wide variety of sizes, shapes and colors.• Most are semi-transparent or glassy and bell- shaped, measuring less than an inch to over a foot across the bell, although some may reach 7 feet. The tentacles of some jellyfish can reach lengths greater than 100 feet.• The bell of the giant jellyfish, measuring 6-8 inches, is saucer-shaped with reddish brown oral arms and eight clusters of tentacles hanging underneath.
• Jellyfish inhabit every major oceanic area of the world and are capable of withstanding a wide range of temperatures and salinities. Most live in shallow coastal waters, but a few inhabit depths of 12,000 feet.• The appearance of jellyfish coincides with the prawn season, especially in Sarawak.• The larger species are capable of capturing a devouring large crustaceans and fish.
• Jellyfish inject poison into them through tiny needles.• A jellyfish moves by contracting the muscle filled at the base of the umbrella.
Powerfull sting• boasts a toxic sting that can cause paralysis, leading to suffocation and cardiac arrest• covered in stinging cells which can produce blisters, muscular cramp and can affect respiratory and heart function• Can make some one become headache and if the anti body is pour it can cause coma.
Lower sting• They can make someone : – Their skin become reddish – Their skin becomes itchy – Their skin becomes hot and smarting such as burnt – It can cause muscle spasms
Ecology• Jellyfish are included in the phylum Cnidaria and are spread out between most of the Cnidarian classes• They are well-known for their bell shape and their ability to sting.• They inhabit aquatic environments• Jellyfish are carnivorous
• They capture their prey by shooting out nematocyst from their tentacles, which have the ability to sting• The jellyfish have two dominant stages which is poly stage and medusa stage. – During the polyp stage, they remain rooted to the sea floor and do not move at all. – . During the medusa stage, the more recognizable form, jellyfish obtain their bell shape and move by propelling themselves through the water
• two distinct life history stages (body forms) -first is the polypoid stage, -second stage, the tiny polyps asexually produce jellyfish, each of which is also known as a medusa.• A few species of jellyfish do not have the polyp portion of the life cycle, but go from jellyfish to the next generation of jellyfish through direct development of fertilized eggs.