76924337 english-grammar-1


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76924337 english-grammar-1

  1. 1. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 by Edward R. Rosset
  2. 2. Written by / Escrito por:Edward R. RossetMember of the Bachelor of Arts Association of Euskadi.Miembro del Colegio de Licenciados de Filosofia y Letrasde EuskadiPublished by / Editado por:Editorial StanleyLayout / Diseno y Maquetacion:Angela Gomez MartinFront page design / Diseno portada:Diseno Irunes© Editorial StanleyApdo. 207-20302IRUN-SPAINTelf. (943) 64 0412 - Fax. (943) 64 38 63richard@stanleyformacion.comwww.gentedellibro.comISBN: 84-7873-282-9Dep. Leg.: Bl- 8804-03First edition / Primera edicion 1992Second edition / Segunda edicion 1995Reprinted / Reimpresion 1998Reprinted / Reimpresion 2000Third edition /Tercera edicion 2003Printers / Imprime:Imprenta Berekintza
  3. 3. INDEX 1 The present of BE 2 30 What a/an - what - how 74 2 The present of HAVE 4 31 Can - could - to be able 76 3 There is - there are 6 32 Be with ages and measurements _ _ 78 4 A/an -the 8 33 Comparative and superlative adjectives: comparison 80 5 The, an, a - Omission of articles 10 34 Good at, look like, what is ... like? _ 82 6 School/the school - Hospital /the hospital 12 35 Present perfect tense: for and since 84 7 Some, any 14 36 Verbs with two objects 86 8 To Have (Past tense) - To Be (Past tense) 16 37 Question words as subjects 88 9 The plural of nouns 18 38 Reported or Indirect Speech 9010 Personal pronouns as subjects and 39 So am I - So do I - Neither/nor am I 92 objects 20 40 Some and something in offers and11 Possessives: possessive s and s _ 24 requests 9412 Adjectives: Attributes - predicatives 26 41 Infinitive of Purpose 9613 Interrogative and negative 42 Conditional Structures 98 sentences in present 28 43 Structures with get 10214 Prepositions of place: on, in, at 30 44 Still, yet, already, since, for, during 10415 Prepositions of time: on, in, at 36 45 Questions tags 10616 Prepositions of time: for, during, 46 Passive voice 108 since, from 38 47 Interrogative pronouns 11017 Prepositions of distance and descriptions 40 48 Relative pronouns 11218 The present continuous 42 Appendix 11519 The simple present tense 4420 "Going to" form 4621 The future simple 5022 The imperative 5223 Adverbs of frequency and degree _ 5424 The past simple tense 5825 Like - would you like? 6226 When - clauses 6427 Demonstratives: this/these, that/those 6628 Both and all 6829 Say and tell 72
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  5. 5. ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 by Edward R. Rosset
  6. 6. UNIT 1 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The present of Be Affirmative Negative Interrogative I am/Im I am not/Im not Am I? You are/youre You are not/youre not/you arent Are you? He is/hes He is not/hes not/he isnt Is he? She is/shes She is not/shes not/she isnt Is she? It is/its It is not/its not/it isnt Is it? We are/were We are not/were not/we arent Are we? You are/youre You are not/youre not/you arent Are you? They are/theyre They are not/theyre not/they arent Are they? Saludos Hello/Hallo Hola Good morning Buenos dfas Good afternoon Buenas tardes Good evening Buenas tardes (a partir de las seis) Good night Buenas noches (se usa para despedirse) Goodbye Adios How are you? ^Como estas? ^Como esta usted? Very well, thank you Muy bien, gracias How do you do? Tanto gusto (solo para presentarse) Recuerde El pronombre "I" siempre se escribe con mayuscula. Los objetos y los animates son, por regla general, neutros. En ingles hay que poner siempre el sujeto en todas ias frases (pero solo un sujeto, no dos). Recuerde You se puede traducir por tu o usted (en singular). You tambien signified vosotros, vosotras y ustedes (en plural).2STANLEY
  7. 7. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. En este ejercicio hay que poner el verbo be en la forma correcta. Example: The house is very nice, It is a nice house. The boys are tall. They are tall boys 1. This dog white. It a white dog. 2. The houses green. They green houses. 3. these books interesting? Yes, they interesting books. 4. Mr Brown tall. He a very tall man. 5. The tables not small. They very big tables. 6. the gardens nice? Yes, they very nice gardens. 7. The door big. It a very big door. 8. the house very big? No, it not very big. 9. What those people doing?10. The dog eating the meat.11. The dog and the cat in the garden.12. " David and Jane in the sitting-room?" "No, they in the kitchen."13. "Boys, where you?" "We in the garden."2. Rellene las frases con el saludo apropiado. Example: How are you? Very well, thank you. 1. "This is Mr Jones." "How you do, Mr Jones?"2. At breakfast: "Good boys." 3. , John. How are you?4. Hello, Peter. I fine, and how are ? 5. It is 3 oclock. Good6. Good , Mr Johnson. It is 7pm.7. I am going home, .8. It is 11 p.m. "Are you going home, Mr Jones?" "Yes, "3. Escriba estas frases con el verbo contraido. Example: You are a man. Youre a man. 1. They are here. here.2. They are not here. here. here.3. She is not a girl. a girl. a girl.4. You are not at home. at home at home. 3 STANLEY
  8. 8. UNIT 2 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The present of Have Affirmative Negative Interrogative I have/Ive I have not/havent/dont have Have l?/Do I have? You have/youve You have not/havent/dont have Have you?/Do you have? He has/hes He has not/hasnt/doesnt have Has he?/Does he have? She has/shes She has not/hasnt/doesnt have Has she?/Does she have? It has/its It has not/hasnt/doesnt have Has it?/Does it have? We have/weve We have not/havent/ dont have Have we?/Do we have? You have/youve You have not/havent/dont have Have you?/Do you have? They have/theyve They have not/havent/dont have Have they?/Do they have? • A veces se dice "I have got" o "Ive got", etc. • Se suele ahadir got al verbo have en presen- Es decir, se anade la palabra "got" sin que por te. Es completamente opcional, aunque muy co- ello se altere el significado. mun. Sin embargo, no se anade en respuestas cortas o en las "coletillas": • El verbo TO HAVE puede ir seguido de un com- "Have you got an ice-cream?" Yes, I plemento para referirse a un gran numero de have." actividades diferentes. El significado depende de la expresion: en algunos cases have se pue- • Sin embargo, cuando el verbo have se puede de reemplazar por eat o drink, en otros por reemplazar por otro verbo: eat, drink, take, etc. take, receive, spend, etc: entonces la forma negativa e interrogativa solo I have tea at five oclock. se puede hacer de una manera: He has coffee for breakfast. "Do you have breakfast in the morning?" She has a shower every day. "No, I dont usually have anything to eat The boys have a swim every day in in the morning." summer. "Does she have a holiday?" "No, she Have a look at this book! doesnt have a holiday." Jim, have a wash! • En estos cases no se puede usar havent got. • Cuando el verbo have significa "tener" la in- • Notese tambien que en la forma afirmativa no terrogacion y negation se pueden hacer de dos se anade "got". formas: I have breakfast / lunch / dinner. Do you have many brothers? / Have You have a bath / a shower / a nap. you got many brothers? - Does he have a car? / Has he got a car?4STANLEY
  9. 9. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner las frases en la otra forma de interrogacion o negacion. Example: Have you got a dog? Do you have a dog? 1. Does Mr Smith have a large house? 2. Has Jimmy got a cat? 3. We havent got a new car 4. The dog hasnt got a little house in the garden. 5. Have you got a sister in New York? 6. She hasnt got a friend at school. 7. The children dont have time to play.2. Ponga estas frases en forma negativa. Example: They have dinner at 7. They dont have dinner at seven. 1. We have coffee after lunch. 2. They have a house in the country. 3. She often has a glass of wine. 4. We have trouble understanding him. 5. She has a bath in the evening. 6. We have a good time on Saturday nights. 7. She has a good husband. . 8. We have a meal in a restaurant. 9. They have a day off very often.10. I have an intelligent dog. .11. We have a quarrel every day.12. Have a rest! .13. He has a glass of wine with his dinner.14. I have a shower every day.15. My father has a cup of coffee after lunch every day.16. We have many difficulties. .17. Have a look at this book! .18. They have dinner early. .19. We have a walk every evening. 5 STANLEY
  10. 10. UNIT 3 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 There is - there are • En ingles, el presente del verbo impersonal Ejemplos de frases en "haber", es decir, "hay", tiene dos formas: there is, cuando la frase es singular; there are cuan- singular do la frases es plural: "Is there any tea in the teapot?" "Yes, There is a man. there is!" There is a woman. "Is there anybody in the house?" "No, There is a sandwich. there is not" (isnt) "Is there any water in the glass?" "Yes, • There is se puede contraer a Theres siem- there is!" pre que la frase continue: "Is there any time?" "No, there is not!" Theres a tall man in the sitting-room. (isnt) Theres a little dog in the garden. • Usamos there are cuando la frase es plural: • Pero no se puede contraer cuando la frase There are many houses in this street. termina ahf. There are some children playing in the Is there a dog? Yes, there is. park. • Por regla general, usamos esta estructura • En la forma interrogativa se cambia el orden: cuando nos referimos a algo que no conoce- Are there many flowers in this park? mos todavfa: Are there any glasses in the kitchen? • En forma interrogativa se cambia el orden. • En cuanto a la forma negativa, la negacion se Is there? pone en tercer lugar: There are not many people at the • La negacion se pone en tercer lugar. concert today. There is not. There are not many things to do in this place. Ejemplos de frases en plural "Are there many trees in the park?" "Yes, there are." "Are there any lamps on the wall?" "Yes, there are." "Are there many cats in the house?" "No, there are not." (arent) "Are there any glasses on the table?" "No, there are not." (arent)6STANLEY
  11. 11. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. En este ejercicio tiene que poner there is o there are. Example: There is a man in the room. There are two women in the garden. 1. Robert, there much coffee in the coffee-pot? No, there very much. Im going to make some. 2. There a lot of grass in this garden, but there much in Mr Browns garden. 3. "Constable James, there much traffic today along Elm Avenue?" "Yes, there many cars using this road today." 4. In my school there many teachers. There also many classrooms. However, there few students. 5. There something I want to do today. 6. There a group of girls talking in the playground. 7. There many boys playing football. 8. " there many girls in your class?" "There only one girl." 9. there many people at the concert today?10. "Do we have much time?" "No, there any time left, Im afraid."2. En este ejercicio hay que poner theres siempre que se pueda. Example: Theres a lot of water in the jar 1. a lot of whisky in the bottle. 2. any tea in the tea-pot? Yes, 3. Lets go Peter, a lot of noise in this place. I dont like it. 4. " many chairs in the dining-room?" "Yes, ." 5. " time to play another game?" "Yes, plenty of time." 6. " any windows open?"" only one window, and its closed." 7. " any free time left?" "Yes, ."3. Ahora va a poner las frases siguientes en plural. Example: There is a man. There are two men. 1. There"s a tall woman.2. There"s a big house.3. Is there a telephone in this place?4. There is not a good country road.5. There is a hill over there.6. Is there a good magazine? 7. There is not a good restaurant in this town.8. Is there a window in this room?9. There is a big tree in this street. 7 STANLEY
  12. 12. UNIT 4 ENGLISH GRAMMAR A/an - the • Usamos a o an cuando es la primera vez que 3. Usamos a/an cuando nuestro interlocutor no hablamos de un objeto: sabe a que nos referimos: He had an apple in his bag. I am looking for a book, (no nos dice que She had a very nice dog. libro) He bought a car. (no sabemos que • Sin embargo, si los oyentes saben a que nos coche) referimos usamos el articulo determinado: Mary sat on a chair, (no sabemos cual) I left the books on the table, and the We stayed at a nice hotel in Benidorm. apples in the fridge. I had a meal in a restaurant. • Asumimos que los que nos escuchan saben a 4. Usamos el artfculo the con radio, cinema, que libros y manzanas nos referimos: theatre... tambien con sun, earth, moon, • Otros ejemplos: universe, etc: There was a boy holding hands with a I often listen to the radio. girl in the park. The boy had short dark I never go to the theatre. hair, and the girl had long fair hair. A spaceship is going to the moon. I saw a play last night. The play was The earth goes round the sun. about a man who loved a woman but the 5. No solemos usar el artfculo the con las co- woman didnt love the man. midas: There are a carpet and a lamp in this What time is dinner? room. The carpet is new but the lamp is What are you going to have for old. breakfast? 2. Usamos the cuando esta clara la situation Are we going to have lunch? de la persona o cosa a que nos referimos: •Tampoco usamos the con watch, television: The doctor came this morning to see She never watches television. Grandpa, (su medico de cabecera) We always watch the news on TV. The light was on all night, (la luz de esta habitation) The bank opens at nine, (este banco en particular) I took the train at the station, (este tren en particular en la estacion de esta ciudad): •Tambien con: the navy the army - the police the post office, etc.8STANLEY
  13. 13. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. Conteste estas preguntas segun el ejemplo. Example: "Was it a good restaurant?" "Yes, it was the best restaurant in town." 1. "Is it expensive picture?" "Yes, it is most expensive in the gallery." 2. "Was it long trip?" "Yes, it is longest trip I have ever made. 3. "Was it large house?" "Yes, it was largest house in the village." 4. "Is she beautiful girl?" "Yes, she is most beautiful girl in town." 5. "Was it good hotel?" "Yes, it was best hotel in London."2. En este ejercicio hay que poner a/an o the. Si no hacen falta, ponga un guion. Examples: She always goes to the best restaurant in town. He spends the afternoon watching — television. We had a nice meal in a good restaurant. 1. He lives in small village in country. 2. I dont like going to theatre, I prefer going to cinema. 3. After dinner they went for walk. 4. I dont like watching television in mornings. 5. Malta is island in the Mediterranean. capital is Valetta. 6. She wrote her name at top of page, on right. 7. It is nice day. sun is shining in sky. 8. Where did you see film, on television or at cinema? 9. "Have you got radio?" "No, I dont like listening to radio."10. The U.S.A. was first country to send a man to moon.11.1 had big breakfast and Im not hungry now.12. What is longest river in world?13. Why dont you invite your boyfriend to dinner?14. He is a seaman. He spends most of his life at sea.15. When I was a boy I used to live near sea.3. Estas son algunas de las cosas que hizo ayer. Escriba una frase para cada una de ellas. Morning: 8.30 breakfast 9.00-9.30 radio 10.00-12.00 walk/sea afternoon: 1.00 lunch 3.00-4.30 television evening: 7.00 dinner 8.00-10.30 cinema Example: I had breakfast at half past eight. 1. From 9.00 until 9.30 I listened . 2. From 10.00 till 12.00 I was walking by .3. At 1.00 I .4. From 3.00-to 4.30 .5. At 7.00 .6. From 9 STANLEY
  14. 14. UNIT 5 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The, an, a - Omission of articles 1. Solemos omitir el uso de the antes de un sustantivo cuando nos referimos a alguien o algo en general: Children are nice. She is afraid of dogs. Crime doesnt pay. I love collecting stamps. - She likes music. Life is very difficult nowadays. Doctors are very well paid. • Tambien suprimimos el articulo con most: Most people like pop music. Most dogs are faithful to their owners. 2. Generalmente ponemos an en vez de a cuan- •Tambien nos referimos a los instrumentos mu- do la palabra siguiente empieza por vocal: sicales de esta manera: - an elephant I like playing the guitar. - an idea He will play the trumpet tonight. an airfield • Usamos the con algunos adjetivos para refe- • Sin embargo, depende de la pronunciation de rirnos a clases de personas: las palabras que siguen a los artfculos: the rich a uniform the dying a university the blind an hour the English anMP an honest man an heir a unique vase • El articulo indefinido a/an se usa siempre con sustantivos en singular, pero no con plurales: - I have a cat I have some cats /1 have cats • No se debe omitir el articulo delante de profe- siones: My daughter is studying to be a doctor. • Usamos el articulo the con ciencia y tecnolo- gia: I like the telephone. Galileo invented the telescope. The dolphin is a mammal. - The whale is the biggest animal on earth.10STANLEY
  15. 15. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. En este ejercicio tiene que elegir la forma correcta, con o sin the. Examples: I love animals /the animal 1. Women / The women are more sensitive than men. 2. Most / The most people hate violence / the violence. 3. Dont go to that restaurant. Meals / The meals are terrible. 4. All pictures / All the pictures on that wall belong to my father. 5. My sister is very interested in the art/ art. 6. The hunting / Hunting is very cruel sometimes. 7. Do you like the skiing / skiing? 8. They got married last year but the marriage / marriage wasnt successful. 9. Fruit / The fruit is good for you.10. Look at the fruit / fruit on that stand. How nice it looks!11. In this country the coffee / coffee is cheaper than the tea / tea.12. The cheese/ cheese we had after the meal was delicious.2. iComo se llama la gente que vive en los paises que se mencionan a continuacion? Example: Britain The British. I.England 8. Wales 2. Spain 9. Scotland S.Germany 10. Portugal 4. France 11. Japan S.Italy 12. U.S.A. 6. Switzerland 13. China 7. Ireland 14. Russia3. Complete las frases usando the con estos adjetivos. dying - dead - injured - poor - needy - rich - blind - wounded Example: This is a traffic control system for the blind. 1. They say that Dick Turpin robbed to give the money to .2. After the plane crash, were buried and were taken to hospital.3. This old house is going to be used as a shelter for .4. After the battle, the cries of and filled the night air. 11 STANLEY
  16. 16. UNIT 6 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 School/the school - Hospital/the hospital 1. Algunas palabras de uso frecuente suelen su- 3. sea, home, work, town. primir el artfculo cuando se usan para lo que • Se dice: go to sea as sailors. To be at sea. han sido disehadas. They are joining the navy and soon will • Estudiemos esta situation: go to sea. - Mr Carter had an accident yesterday, Theyve been at sea for a week / I was and he was taken to hospital. on my way to work. - At the moment he is still in hospital. These people are hard at work. - Mrs Carter went to the hospital to visit • Se suele omitir el the con town cuando se him, and she is at the hospital now. trata de la ciudad del que habla: • En otras palabras, si ingresas en el hospital We often go to town to do some como paciente: you go to hospital o are taken shopping. We were in town last to hospital. Wednesday. • Si vas de visita: you go to the hospital o you • La palabra home no lleva preposition con ver- are at the hospital visiting somebody. bos de movimiento: Lets go home. They arrived home late. 2. church, court, school, prison, university, college, bed. • Con los verbos be, stay, etc. se usa at: The children are at home. Lets stay at • Suprimimos el artfculo delante de todos estos home. sustantivos cuando les damos un sentido de uso: - I go to church on Sundays. / I am going to bed, Im tired. She takes her children to school every day. He was sent to prison for robbery. Ill take you to court if you dont pay. • De igual forma decimos: The injured are in hospital. My children are at school now. The whole family were in/at church. - He is studying at Bristol University. He is in bed resting. • Usamos todas estas palabras con el artfculo the cuando se visitan o se usan por otras razo- nes: I went to the church to see the new altar. He often goes to the prison to give lectures. Mr Kent went to the school to speak to the maths teacher.12STANLEY
  17. 17. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. Complete estas frases usando las palabras siguientes: hospital, prison, church, school, college, university, bed, home, work, sea. Example: Children, drink your milk and go to bed. 1. Jim has joined the Navy and within two months he will be 2. When my daughter leaves school, she wants to study medicine 3. Our neighbour had an accident and is still 4. Theres a lot of traffic this morning. Everybody seems to be going at the same time. 5. All these children go only in the morning. 6. My wife and I always go on Sundays. 7. All those students are still college. 8. Are you going out? No, Im staying 9. That man robbed a bank, but was caught and sent2. En este ejercicio hay que elegir la forma correcta con o sin the. Tache la que este mal. Example: The children are already in bed In the bed. 1 . Im going to church / to the church. I want to talk to the priest. 2. After work / the work. I always go home / to home.3. My wife likes to read in bed / in the bed before going to sleep.4. My husband never goes to church / to the church. 5. Little Jimmy doesnt like school / the school.6. Old Mc Donald is still ill in hospital / in the hospital. 7. My son left university / the university without taking his final exams.8. The lawyer had to go to prison / to the prison to see his client.9. At the end of the course parents are invited to school / to the school to meet the teachers.3. Responda con respuestas cortas a las siguientes preguntas. Example: If you wanted to see the priest about a wedding, where would you go? To the church. 1. If your friend had an accident, where would you go to see him?2. If your sons teacher wanted to see you, where would you go to speak to him?3. If a thief was arrested and you wanted to speak to him, where would you go? 13 STANLEY
  18. 18. UNIT 7 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Some, any • Los artfculos partitives some y any se tradu- cen por algo de, algun, un poco, unos, algu- nos, nada de, etc. • En general some se usa para frases afirmati- vas mientras que any se usa para frases inte- rrogativas y negativas. Frases afirmativas Frases negativas There are some girls in the park. They havent got any children. Ive got some books to read. She hasnt got any tea. There is some beer in my glass. There isnt any milk in the glass. Hes got some papers to read. He hasnt got any paper. Ive got something to tell you. You havent got any good ideas. Hes got some interesting ideas. We havent got any beer. My sister has got some coffee. I havent got any books to read. There is something on your plate. My sister hasnt got any friends. There arent any trees in this garden. Prases interrogativas havent got anything to do. Have you got any wine? Has she got any champagne? Is there any tea in the tea-pot? Are there any books on the table? Have we got any coffee? Have you got anything to tell me? Have they got anything to do? Importante * A veces usamos some en preguntas cuando nos referimos a algo rnuy concreto. Do you want some wine? - Can I have some sugar? - Can you give me some water? Can you cook some rice? * Any a veces tiene el sentido de cualquiera. Any dictionary will give you the meaning of this. - Anybody can tetl you that. Despues de if/whether signified alguna, alguien. If there is any doubt let me know. +1 dont know whether anybody will come or not.14STANLEY
  19. 19. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. Complete estas frases con: some/any/something/anything. Example: I have bought some new books. He didnt want to tell me anything. 1. I havent seen of these pictures, but she has seen of them. 2. Please, give me information about this place. 3. You can cash this cheque at bank. 4. Have you got more coffee? No, sorry, I dont have more. 5. Have the Browns got children? Yes, they have four. 6. Have you got money on you? Sorry, I havent got 7. Would you like to eat? No, thanks, I dont want 8. There is hardly tea left. 9. Have you got animals in the farm? Yes, there are10. Have they got aspirins in the bar? No, they havent got1 1 . 1 can give you help if you want.12. There is on the table. What is it?2. Complete estas frases usando: somebody/nobody/anybody/anyone/someone. 1. Can go with you to the party? No, can come with me.2. Peter, came to see you this morning.3. Is interested in buying that piano? No, is interested.4. Has any questions to ask? Ill be pleased to answer them.5. can see that that is wrong!6. You left the car door unlocked. could have taken the car.7. Darling, wants to see you. Hes at the door.3. Complete estas frases con: something/anything. 1. We are not going to do this afternoon.2. Ive got in my eye.3. She didnt say when she came home.4. Ive got to tell you. Its important.5. Is there I can do for you?6. Theres in the river. Can you see it?7. I cant see in the water. Wheres it?8. You can take you want from here. lt"s all yours. 15 STANLEY
  20. 20. UNIT 8 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 The past of Have and Be Past tense of Have (tener) Affirmative Negative Interrogative I had I hadnt/I did not have Had l?/Did I have? You had You hadnt/You did not have Had you?/Did you have? He had He hadnt/He did not have Had he?/Did he have? She had She hadnt/She did not have Had she?/Did she have? It had It hadnt/It did not have Had it?/Did it have? We had We hadnt/We did not have Had we?/Did we have? You had You hadnt/You did not have Had you?/Did you have? They had They hadnt/They did not have Had they?/Did they have? Recuerde El past tense ingles equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido, asf pues: lhad=Yotenia/tuve. We had a house in the country many years ago. I had a dog when I was a child. Did you have to do that yesterday? La forma interrogativa y negativa del have tambien se puede formar con la particula did. "Did you have a storm last night?" "No, we didnt have a storm." TO BE (past tense) SER o ESTAR Affirmative Negative Interrogative I was I was not (wasnt) Was I? You were You were not (werent) Were you? He was He was not (wasnt) Was he? She was She was not (wasnt) Was she? It was It was not (wasnt) Was it? We were We were not (werent) Were we? You were You were not (werent) Were you? They were They were not (werent) Were they? • El past tense equivale al imperfecto y tambien al indefinido, asi pues: I was = yo era / estaba / fui / estuve. I was in London yesterday. Little Jim was very good last week. "Were you at the concert last night?" "No, I wasnt." "Where were you yesterday afternoon?" "I was at the cinema."16STANLEY
  21. 21. ENGLISH GRAMMAREXERCISES1. Rellene los huecos con: have, had, did, didnt. 1. " the students have any time to play?" "No, they have time!" 2. "Did you anything to do last night?" "No, I didnt." 3. "Did they have anything to eat?" "No, they anything to eat!" 4. They didnt much time, did they? 5. What did you in your pocket last night? 6. James have time to do it last Sunday? 7. "Did you any coffee after lunch?" "Yes, I a cup of coffee." 8. "Did the runners anything to drink during the marathon?" "No, they nothing to drink."2. Complete las frases con was o were. 1. "Where the children yesterday?" "They at the cinema." 2. " you at the concert last night?" "Yes, I ." 3. " it very cold last winter?" "No, it not a very cold winter." 4. "Where Mrs. Evans last Wednesday?" "She at home all day." 5. " the tea hot enough?" "Yes, it quite hot, thank you." 6. What the students doing when the teacher arrived? 7. What time you going to do it? 8. How many women working at the factory? 9. The children doing their homework when I arrived.10. We waiting for you all night.11. Why she so angry with me?12. She shopping all morning.13." it raining when you left?" "No, it raining."14. "What you reading?" "I reading a very interesting book."3. Elija la forma correcta. Example: Where was /were Peters mother all day yesterday? 1. Sandra and Jill was/were in bed until ten oclock.2. Why was/were Mrs Smiths daughters out so late?3. When was/were the school master going to give us the diplomas?4. Why was/were the police asking for our papers? 17 STANLEY
  22. 22. UNIT 9 ENGLISH GRAMMAR The plural of nouns 1. Generalmente se forma el plural de los • Las demas palabras que terminan en f o fe sustantivos ahadiendo una s al singular: ahaden una s: day, days cat, cats house, houses safe safes chief chiefs cliff cliffs 2. Los nombres que terminen en o, ch, sh, ss, o x forman el plural ahadiendo es: 5. Algunos sustantivos forman el plural de potato potatoes kiss kisses forma distinta al singular: brush brushes pouch - pouches man men woman women box boxes child children ox oxen foot - feet tooth teeth • Sin embargo, las palabras de origen extranje- goose geese mouse mice ro que terminan en o solamente ahaden una s: kilo kilos 6. Algunos animales no cambian en plural: kimono kimonos sheep deer trout piano pianos cod squid mackarel photo photos salmon carp plaice soprano sopranos duck partridge. solo solos • El plural de fish puede ser fishes, cuando se 3. Los sustantivos que terminan en y siguiendo trata de peces vivos, pero no es muy corriente. a una consonante forman el plural cambiando There are a lot of fish in the sea. la y por ies: 7. Algunas otras palabras tampoco cambian: lady ladies quid aircraft city cities country countries counsel hundredweight • Sin embargo, los sustantivos que terminan en o stone (con significado de peso). y despues de una vocal forman el plural ana- 8. Los nombres colectivos, police, crew, family, diendo una s: team, etc., pueden llevar el verbo en singular o toy toys en plural, segun el sentido que le demos a la boy - boys frase: monkey - monkeys Our police is very efficient. 4. Hay doce sustantivos que terminan en f o fe, Our team is the best. cuyo plural cambia en ves. Estos sustantivos The police are looking for the thief. son: «> Our team are wearing the new shorts. wolf shelf loaf knife wife sheaf life half thief self leaf calf shelf - shelves calf calves wife wives18STANLEY
  23. 23. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. Rellene con la palabra apropiada en plural: dynamo, tomato, fly, loaf, donkey, handkerchief, mouse, squid, quid, goose, louse, tooth, sheep, deer. 1. My mother bought two of bread for dinner. 2. The hunter could see several in the distance. 3. The shepherds dog was rounding up all the for the night. 4. The hospital had two for emergencies. 5. She cut up three large for the salad. 6. Jimmy, you must clean your three times a day, after meals. 7. The little girl was dirty and her hair was full of . 8. The goose-boy was looking after the by the river. 9. He gave me a couple of for the job.10. Several attacked the frogman squirting their black ink on him.11. Im sure there are in the attic. I can hear them squeaking.12. I have a very bad cold so Ive taken a couple of .13. It was hot and there were a lot of buzzing around.14. Two men approached us riding on two incredibly old .2. Estos sustantivos colectivos pueden llevar el verbo en singular o en plural segun el sentido que les demos. Tache el verbo que crea que esta mal, o subraye el que este bien. Example: The average family (which only consists of four member nowadays) is / are a great deal smaller than in the old days. 1. The police is/are looking for the two fugitives.2. The team is/are at the bottom of the second division.3. Our team has/have played one of their best games this season.4. My family is/are wonderful. They are all helping me.3. Todos estos sustantivos terminan en f o fe. Algunos cambian en plural por ves, otros no: brief, leaf, cliff, loaf, safe, life, grief, knife, wolf. Example: The Pope has published two new briefs. The leaves are falling from the trees. Its autumn. 1. There are many in the mountains this winter.2. The hooligans were brandishing as they approached him.3. Its very easy to be compassionate with other peoples4. The two soldiers dropped their rifles and ran for their5. He needed a safe to keep money and documents in. In the shop they had two models of and he chose the bigger one.6. She bought three of bread for tea.7. The white of Dover are famous all over the world. 19 STANLEY
  24. 24. UNIT 10 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Personal pronouns as subjects a objects and FORMA (sing.) sujeto objeto • 0 complementos indirectos: Jim gave me a book. 1a persona I me John found her a job. a 2 persona you you • Pueden ser complementos circunstanciales: a 3 persona he/she/it him/her/it with her for him without us (plural) sujeto objeto to them a 1 persona we us a 2 persona you you LA POSICION 3a persona they them • El complemento indirecto se pone delante del directo: • It y you tienen la misma forma como sujetos I sent her/Mary the letters. que como complementos: She made him/John a cake. "Did you see the bird?" "Yes, I saw it." "Did it see you?" "Yes, it saw me." • Sin embargo, si el complemento directo es • Los pronombres personales I, he, she, we, un pronombre personal es mas usual colo- they son siempre sujetos de oracion: carlo directamente detras del verbo seguido I went to London. He knows Mary. They de to o for: live in Bristol. I sent them to her. She made it for him. • Excepto I que puede ser complemento del ver- bo to be: • Esta regla no es aplicable a one, some, any, "Who is it?" "It is I." none, etc.: • Aunque es mas corriente usar el com- He brought one for Mary/He brought plemento: Mary one. "Who is it?" "Its me." • Con las expresiones it was me/I hay dos po- "Wheres Jim?" Thats him over there." sibilidades: objeto directo + that (muy informal): • Si el pronombre va seguido de una oracion, It was me that posted the letter. usamos el sujeto he: Who, John? But it was he who told me that! • Me, him, her, us, them, pueden ser comple- mentos directos de un verbo: I saw her. Henry likes them.20STANLEY
  25. 25. ENGLISH GRAMMAREXERCISES1. Rellene los espacios en bianco con los pronombres personales que crea conveniente. Example: Thats Marys baby. It is very small. 1. "Where did you leave the book?"" left on the table in the hall."2. "Did Jane come with you two?" "Yes, came with _."3. "She likes sugar, not you." "Exactly, its that likes sugar, not4. I think youre prettier than these girls. Yes, are prettier than5. Lets go for a walk. Just you and .6. Help (to) carry , the poor girl has fainted.7. Nobody could do it except , and I didnt want to.8. We are much better than at football.9. They knew all about my friend and .10. "Did you come with SUsan?" "Yes, I came with Jeff and ."11. "Did he give you a sweet?" "Yes, he gave Peter and a sweet each.12. An old man asked my friend and what time it was.2. Reemplace las palabras subrayadas por pronombres personales. Example: Go with John and Mary to visit Frank and Mark, (her/them) 1. It was very kind of you to give Peter and me a hand.2. Bill found Peter a job.3. Mary went with Henry to the theatre.4. "Did Janet tell Bob and Jim about the accident?" "Yes, Mary told Bob and Jim."5. It was Peter who lent John and me the money.6. It never occurred to Fred that perhaps Tony was lying.7. It struck both men that everyone was unusually silent.8. Did the boys give you something for Sandra? 21 STANLEY
  26. 26. UNIT 10(cont.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 • Sujeto + who (muy formal). Usos de IT It was I who posted the letter. • It se usa generalmente para cosas, o un ani- • Se puede evitar el uso de cualquiera de estas mal cuyo sexo no conocemos, tambien para dos formas cambiando la estructura: bebes: - I was the one (or the person) who Wheres my book? I left It on the chair. posted the letter. Look at that snake. It frightens me. • Cuando as y than van seguidos de pronom- This is my baby. It is only two days old. bres personales, se pueden usar tanto la forma • Al telefono se dice asi: de sujeto como la de complemento: "Who is that/it?" "It is me, Robert / This He is not as clever as I/me. is Robert." She understands the question better * "Is that Jerry?" "No, Its Frank." than I/me. • It puede introducir frases: • En ingles coloquial se usan mucho mas los It was Jim who came to see you. complementos (me, him, etc.). It is today that shes coming, not tomorrow. • Sin embargo, si despues del pronombre po- nemos un verbo, entonces el pronombre debe ser sujeto, por supuesto: Shes not as good as I am. Im not as bad as he is.22STANLEY
  27. 27. ENGLISH GRAMMAREXERCISES1. Elija entre el pronombre personal en nominative (sujeto) y el acusativo (objeto). Example: Jim, can you ring / me tonight? 1. "Whos that speaking?" "Its I/me, Pauline. How are you, Janet?"2. The books? Oh, I/me sent they/them to he/him by post last week.3. This letter is for she/her and these are for we/us.4. Silly Bill! It was he/him who chose the wallpaper.5. I/Me havent seen he/him for three years.6. Its two months since I/me last saw he/him.7. I made it for she/her. She/Her sent it to he/him.8. "Wheres Tim?" "Thats he/him, over there."9. She/Her gave it to he/him.10. He/Him bought it for us/we.11. They/Them sent the letter to him /he.12. "Who is speaking" "Oh, this is Robert. lt"s me/I, Robert!"2. Estas frases se pueden poner con dos complementos cambiados como en el ejemplo. Example: She is not as pretty as I am. She is not as pretty as me.1. I am not as bad as he is.2. She is not as clever as I am.3. I am not as fast as they are.4. We arent as tall as they are.5. He is not as good as she is.6. She eats as much as I do.7. Peter is not as stupid as we are.8. We are not as clever as they are.9. Pauline is not as pretty as I am. 23 STANLEY
  28. 28. UNIT 11 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Possessives: possessive ( s and () ) • Cuando un ser viviente (persona o animal) • Si son extranjeros o clasicos, solo se anade el posee algo, se usa lo que se llama el genitive apostrofo: sajon o caso posesivo: Cervantes works are interesting. La manzana de Pedro (the apple of This is Pythagoras Theorem. Peter) se convierte en: Peters apple. A) Primero se traduce el poseedor: Peter, • Con nombres compuestos o largos el apos- B) despues la preposicion de bajo el trofo se pone al final: aspecto des, My brother-in-laws guitar. C) por ultimo la cosa posefda sin artfculo: The Prince of Waless country house. apple. • Tambien se puede poner s despues de inicia- The house of Mary. se convierte en - Marys house. les: - The legs of the dog. The MPs secretary. se convierte en - The dogs legs. The VIPs bodyguard. - The kitchen of my mother. se convierte en - My mothers kitchen. • Con expresiones de tiempo tambien es admi- sible el uso del genitive sajon: This is Marys house and that one is Janes, (la de Jane) todays paper The dogs legs are black, and the cats a months holiday are white, (las del gato) tomorrows weather twenty minutes break o two hours I Recuerde delay o in two months time * Si el poseedor es plural y termina en s, • Es muy corriente usar el genitivo sajon con se aftade solamente el apostrofo: tiendas (la palabra shop se sobreentiende): The apples of the girls. My wife is at the hairdressers. se convierte en * The girls apples. Is there a butchers near here? The house of the boys. se convierte en The boys house. • Tambien hospitales, iglesias, catedrales y fir- The legs of the cats. mas comerciales se escriben cons: se convierte en • The cats legs. Barclays (bank) The hobby of those families. St. Johns (College) se convierte en - Those families hobby. St. Pauls (Cathedral) • Cuando hablamos con algun conocido a ve- • Sin embargo, en caso de nombres propios o ces omitimos la palabra house: apellidos que terminen es s hay dos opciones: We are going to Peters. I live in St. Jamess Square; Shes staying at the Browns. St James Square. The Joness dog is very noisy; - The Jones dog. That is the Evanss house, on the corner; the Evans house.24STANLEY
  29. 29. ENGLISH GRAMMAREXERCISES1. En este ejercicio hay que unir dos sustantivos. A veces hay que usar el apostrofo, con o sin s, otras veces la preposition of. Examples: The window / the room / The window of the room The mother / Peter / Peters mother 1. The house / Tom 2. The eyes / the dog 3. The door/ the room 4. The name / this town 5. The name / my husband 6. The toys / the children 7. The newspaper / today 8. The daughter / Bernard 9. The country house / my uncle and aunt10. The birthday / my father2. Lea la frase y escriba otra usando el genitivo sajon. Example: The room of the children is upstairs. The childrens room is upstairs. 1. The house of Mr and Mrs Carter is new. 2. The tail of our cat is black and white. 3. The husband of my friend is very tall 4.1 received the letter of Uncle George last night 5. The mother of my cousin is my aunt. 6. The head of that bird is black. 7. The friends of my sister are very pretty. 8.1 didnt see the wife of your brother last night.3. Ahora vamos a usar el genitivo sajon con expresiones de tiempo, medida, distancia, peso; con tiendas, etc. Example: The weather / yesterday / was very good Yesterdays weather was very good. 1. The coference / last year / was terrible 2. The house is / two hours / walk / from here 3. How heavy is it? About two pounds / weight 4. This river is / 20 miles / long 5. They went to the Hospital of St. Peter. 6. We went to visit the Cathedral of St. Paul. 7. We went to the shop of Woolworth to do some shopping. 25 STANLEY
  30. 30. UNIT 12 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Adjectives: Attributes - predicatives • Los adjetivos que se colocan delante de los • El verbo come se suele usar con expresiones sustantivos se llaman atributos: que tienen un final feliz: a beautiful song All my dreams have come true. - a tired expression Everything will come out all right in the a typical meal end. • Con ciertos verbos, tales como: be, seem, • Los adjetivos principal, sheer, chief, main appear, look, sound, taste, feel, smell, a son atributos que se ponen delante de los menudo ponemos un adjetivo detras. Estos ver- bos se llaman verbos copulatives, y los adjeti- sustantivos a los que califican: vos en esta posicion se llaman predicatives: The main road of the town is closed to she is nice the traffic. - you look beautiful • Sin embargo, afraid, upset, alive, alone, he feels strong asleep van siempre siguiendo al verbo, por lo • Los verbos look, taste, feel, and smell pue- que son predicados: den ir seguidos de un adjetivo predicative o de She is still alive. un adverbio: She looks angry, (adj.) • El significado de late y early depende de su She is looking at you angrily, (adv.) posicion. You must be careful, (adj.) We caught an early train. The doctor felt my leg carefully, (adv.) The train arrived/was early. She looked calm, (adj.) She looked calmly at the two men. • Cuando poor significa "sin dinero" puede ser (adv.) atributo o predicado: - He is a poor man. • Algunos verbos como sit, lie, stand, pueden This man is poor. ir seguidos de adjetivos predicativos. • Cuando poor significa "desgraciado" debe ser • Algunos verbos se usan para mostrar como el sujeto de la frase cambia: atributo: People go pale, red, white with anger; The poor child had an accident. blue with cold; green with envy. • Turn se puede usar tambien con todas estas expresiones: She turned purple with rage. • Go tambien se usa con adjetivos en muchos casos cuando las personas o las cosas cam- bian a peor: & People go crazy, mad, deaf, bald, blind. (Sin embargo go no se suele usar con ill, tired y old). - Meat goes bad, milk goes off, horses go lame, bread goes stale, machines go wrong, iron goes rusty. The leaves of the book go yellow with age.26STANLEY
  31. 31. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMAR1. En las frases que vienen a continuacion tiene que ahadir, bien un adjetivo predicative, o un adverbio. Example: The food tasted horrible, (horrible/horribly) 1. He tasted the soup . (suspicious/suspiciously)2. This exercise looks to me. (terrible/terribly)3. She looked . She didnt seem to be . (calm/calmly) (nervous/nervously)4. She looked at the angry mob. (calm/calmly)5. He turned on the man behind him. (angry/angrily)6. That music sounds I cant stand it! (terrible/terribly) 7. Mary grew as time passed, (impatient/impatiently)8. Something smells in the kitchen, (good/well) 9. He made her . (happy/happily)10. She sings . (beautiful/beautifully)2. En este ejercicio tiene unas parejas de frases, en una frase usamos el adjetivo como atributo, en la otra como predicado. Una de las dos frases no tiene sentido. Tachela. Example: He is the chief engineer. This engineer is the chief. 1. This is the main street. / This street is the main.2. This is an alive man. / This man is alive.3. This client is our principal. / This is our principal client.4. This is an afraid girl. /This girl is afraid.5. That is my upset mother. / My mother is upset.6. That is an alone man. / That man is alone.7. She is an ashamed girl. / She is ashamed of it.8. These are alike girls. / These girls are alike.3. tAdjetivos o adyerbios? Algunas palabras pueden ser las dos cosas. Incluso algunos adverbios se pueden escribir de dos formas diferentes. This is a slow train (adj.) Go slow! (adv.) She was driving slowly, (adv.) Example: Please, be careful and drive slowlyl (slow) 1. A road goes from one place to another, (straight)2. Please, cut all the explanations. Well be there . (short)3. She is a singer. She sings very . (well/good)4. This train is a train. It goes very . (fast)5. Go to the station and take the train that goes to London, (direct/directly)6. I havent been to the theatre very much . (late/lately)7. I hate arriving . (late/lately)8. You can eat in my restaurant if you want, (free/freely)9. He can jump very . (high/highly) 27 STANLEY
  32. 32. UNIT 13 ENGLISH GRAMMAR Interrogative and negative sentences in the present Affirmative Negative Interrogative I play golf I do not play golf Do I play golf? You play golf You do not play golf Do you play golf? He/she/it plays golf He/she/it does not play golf Does he/she/it play golf? We play golf We do not play golf Do we play golf? You play golf You do not play golf Do you play golf? They play golf They do not play golf Do they play golf? I Recuerde que para interrogar y negar, es decir, para formar frases interrogativas y negativas en presente de indicative con la mayoria de los verbos (exceptuando to be y los defectives can, could, may, might, must, ought to, should) se usan las particulas do y does, que tambien se llaman auxiliary verbs. • Estas particulas no se traducen. Solo se usan Respuestas cortas para indicar que la frase esta, o bien en forma • Es muy corriente en ingles usar respuestas interrogativa o bien en forma negativa. cortas usando las particulas do y does: • En forma negativa el do not se suele con- Do you go to the cinema very often? traer en dont, y el does not en doesnt. Yes, I do. No, I dont. Does Peter go swimming every day? • Does, o doesnt, solo se utiliza para la terce- Yes, he does. No, he doesnt. ra persona singular. Do the children go to school by bus? • Cuando se usa la particula does, el verbo se Yes, they do. No, they dont. pone en infinitive, es decir, sin s. • No se debe confundir el verbo to do (hacer) con la particula do. Ejemplos: Do you come here every day? No, I dont come every day. Does he drink wine? No, he doesnt drink wine. What do you do on Sundays? I dont do anything. Does your brother work very hard? No, my brother doesnt work very much. Yes, he works quite a lot. Do your children read many books? No, they dont read books. Yes, they read a lot of books.28STANLEY
  33. 33. ENGLISH GRAMMAREXERCISES1. Rellene los huecos con las particulas do, does, dont o doesnt. Example: Do you go to the beach every day? Yes, I do. 1. What you friend do in the mornings?2. They come here very often.3. Freds friend do his homework every day.4. Mr Smiths wife do the shopping in this supermarket?5. These people go to many concerts, do they?6. your friends mother cook well?7. When you do your homework?8. these people go to the beach every day in summer?9. That old woman, Mrs Brent, hear very well, does she?10. My teacher, old Mr Rock, speak to us.2. Responda estas preguntas usando respuestas cortas. Example: Do you go to school every day? Yes, I do. No, I dont. 1. Does your brothers friend like swimming?2. Do you go to see the doctor when you have a cold?3. Does Peters uncle come to see him often?4. Do the children drink water with their meals?5. Do they cut the grass very often?6. Does Mr Smith like playing golf?7. Do you listen to the news on the radio?8. Does Mrs Evans go shopping every morning?3. Aqui tienes unas respuestas. Tu tienes que hacer las preguntas. Example: No, I dont go every day. Do you go every day? 1. Yes, Mr Smith goes to work by bus. 2. No, they dont do their homework. 3. Yes, my friends like dancing. 4. No, I dont speak French. 5. Yes, my friends like running. 6. No, my father doesnt smoke. 7. Yes, my friends mother cooks very well. 8. No, we dont play tennis very often. 9. The headmaster? Yes, he teaches very well. 29 STANLEY
  34. 34. UNIT 14 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Prepositions of place: on, in, at At On (lines) • Cuando consideramos un sitio como un punto • Usamos on para decir que algo esta tocando (sin tamano real), usamos at: o cercano a una Ifnea, o algo parecido a una I live in Linster. (es importante para mf) linea. (no, frontera, carretera): The trains dont stop at Linster. (es solo We have a house on the river. un punto en el viaje) Tijuana is on the frontier between At the two-mile mark, he was leading Mexico and the U.S.A. the other runners. Bath is on the road to Bristol. We stopped for an hour at Orly airport. On (surfaces) • A menudo usamos at con el nombre de un • Usamos on cuando algo esta tocando una lugar cuando estamos interesados en la activi- superficie: dad que se desarrolla alii, no en la forma exac- The book is on the table. ta o dimensiones del lugar. Nos encontramos They spend the morning in a boat on the con alguien at the station, no estamos intere- lake. sados en el hecho de que sea fuera o dentro, Put the picture on the other wall. sino que consideramos a la estacion como un Theres something on the sole of my sitio de encuentro. A menudo usamos at cuan- shoe. do hablamos de cafes, restaurantes, o sitios Theres a stain on the ceiling. donde se estudia o trabaja: Ill be at the club at 8. Well eat at MacDonalds, in High Street. He had a beer at that little pub round the corner. I was at the theatre last night. I was at school from 1960 to 1971, and at university from 1971 to 1974; after that I worked at Barnards Enterprises. • Tambien usamos at con nombres de activida- des de grupo: at a meeting/at the theatre/at a concert/ at a lecture/at a match/at the cinema • Fijese en la diferencia entre in Oxford (en la ciudad) y at Oxford (en la universi- dad); y entre in the corner (rincon) y at/ on the corner (esquina).30STANLEY
  35. 35. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMARI. Complete estas frases usando in, on, or at con una de las frases dadas a continuation: the second floor London the east coast the Pyrenees the window the back of the envelope my way to work the right the back of the class the traffic lights the shelf the back of the cinema Example: The main office of the company is in London. 1. On the continent people drive 2. She was looking at the passers-by. 3. Jimmy was sitting 4. Write your name and address 5. Its a little fishing village 6. I stopped there 7. We have a little house 8. She lives above us, 9. The car was stopped10. The book wasII. The young couple was watching the film sitting2. Complete estas frases con in, on, at. Examples: The policeman was standing on the corner of the street. 1. There was no name the door, so we knocked. 2. The man had a scar his left cheek. 3. They lived a small island off the coast of Florida. 4. Dont use the front entrance. Theres another entrance the back. 5. My office is the ground floor. The second door the right. 6. Shakespeare was born Stratford Avon. 7. They got married Boston twenty years ago. 8. The sports results are the back page of the newspaper. 9. I have a friend who lives a small village the coast.10. There were many cars parked this street.11. Ill meet her the corner of the street.12. I was stuck in a traffic jam my way here.13. There was an accident the crossroads last night.14. There is a herd of sheep that field.15. I cant see you this photograph.16. There is a path the end of this street.17. I dont like spending the day sitting a desk. 31 STANLEY
  36. 36. UNIT 14(Cont.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 In Means of transport • Se usa cuando los alrededores son tridimen- • Usamos on con transportes publicos, caba- sionales: llos, motos y bicicletas: The table is in the room/in the shop/in I saw her on the plane/on the train/on the kitchen. the bus. The boys are in the garden/in the park/ in the building. • Usamos in con coches, taxis, avionetas, etc.: The money is in your bag/in your purse/ I saw him in a new Mercedes. in your drawer. Shes swimming in the water/in the sea/ in the river. Shes in a field/in the car park, (pero on the beach) • Con grandes superficies (pafses, regiones, islas grandes) decimos in: She lives in Yorkshire/ in the Sahara/in the British Isles, (pero on a desert island) Parts of the body • Generalmente decimos on cuando se trata de la superficie del cuerpo: He had blood on his forehead/his cheeks. • Usamos in en las cavidades: He hit me in the eye/mouth/ribs/ stomach. • Hablando de heridas decimos in: He was wounded in the shoulder/in his head.32STANLEY
  37. 37. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. Complete estas frases. Utilice in, at, on con una de las palabras de esta lista. sea hospital theatre bed the station the cinema church prison the airport school a farm work Example: My plane lands at 3.00. Please, meet me at the airport. 1. Our train was delayed. We had to wait for half an hour. 2. It was a long voyage. They were for two months.3. She hasnt gone to university yet. Shes still4. Has Jim got up yet? No, he is still5. There is a nice play tonight.6. They always go to the Sunday Service, they are still7. I was brought up in the country,8. He was jailed for ten years. Hes still9. Ill be until 6 in my office.10. He had a bad accident last month and hes still11. Where were you last night? I was watching a film.2. Complete estas frases con in y at. Example: There were a lot of young people at the concert. 1. We had a party Franks house last night.2. Dont come to see me tomorrow. I wont be home. Ill be Johns.3. Mary and Jean are students Harvard University.4. I havent seen Jane for a long time. I last saw her Mikes wedding.5. Theres a concert the Albert Festival Hall tonight.6. Freddys parents live Manchester.7. He speaks good Spanish. He studied Madrid for a year.8. It was a slow train. It stopped every little station.9. You werent the party, were you?10. My secretary wasnt work today. She was home ill bed. 33 STANLEY
  38. 38. UNIT 14 (Cont.) ENGLISH GRAMMAR At church, in hospital, etc. Addresses • Hay algunas expresiones que no usan artfcu- • At se usa con el numero de la calle: lo, algunas con in, otras con at: She lives at number 27, in bed pero... She lives in Boston Road. in hospital • Si usamos el numero y el nombre de la calle in court in church/at church decimos at: in prison She lives at 27 London Avenue. in American English • Con los pisos siempre decimos on: in school I live on the third floor/on the ground in college floor. in university at school at university at work at college Recuerde Decimos arrive in con paises y ciudades: When did you arrive in England/in London? • Decimos arrived at con iugares comunes: He arrived late at school. at work at the hotel at the park • No usamos preposicidn con verbos de movimiento y home: He arrived home.34STANLEY
  39. 39. ENGLISH GRAMMAREXERCISES 11. Complete estas frases con una preposicion cuando sea necesario. Example: At what time did you arrive at the airport? 1. My husband always arrives home very early.2. I had a strange feeling when I first arrived this country. 3. When the two boys arrived the cinema they joined the queue.4. They arrived London early in the morning. 5. What time do you usually arrive the office in the morning? 6. What time do the boys arrive home from school? 7. What time are we expected to arrive the hotel?8. This train arrives platform 8. 9. When did she arrive New York?10. He arrived work early for once.11. They arrived late the meeting.12. The plane arrived the airport 2 hours late.13. We arrive Majorca 7 hours late.14. Darling, Ill be arriving home late today.2. Use estas palabras con una preposicion (cuando sea necesario) para completar las frases: prison, church, hospital, school, bed, work, university Example: The convict is in prison. 1. The children are already asleep. 2. My son is studying medicine . 3. Mr Brown had an accident. He is .4. Its late. Take the children in your car. 5. We are getting married and we have to go to speak to the vicar. 6. My mother is coming to speak to the headmaster.7. Lets go . I want to go to the Sunday Service. 8. The lawyer went to speak to the convict. 9. Mr Smith is in his office. He is .10. My father has gone to his office. He is on his way . 35 STANLEY
  40. 40. UNIT 15 ENGLISH GRAMMAR 1 Prepositions of time: on, in, at At In • Usamos at con: Usamos in para: • Expresiones de tiempo: Partes del dfa: in the morning at six at the weekend in the afternoon at present at the age of in the evening at Christmas at lunch time Meses: in April at about/around in October Ahos: in 1992, in 1912, in 1885 • Tambien empleamos at con las siguientes expresiones: Estaciones: in (the) spring at the beginning at the end in (the) winter) at first at last Siglos: in the 17th century in the 19th century On Perfodos de tiempo: • Usamos on con: in that era, in the Middle Ages Dfas de la semana: on Monday on Sundays Partes del dfa: on Monday morning In on Saturday nights • Usamos in en expresiones como: Festividades: on Christmas Day Ill be there in ten minutes. on New Years Day The book will be ready in ten days time. Aniversarios: on his birthday I can run a mile in five minutes. on her wedding day Ocasiones especiales: • No usamos ninguna preposition delante de on that day last y next: on that evening - I went to Spain last year. Dfa + fecha: on Tuesday, June 2nd - Ill see you next Sunday. Fechas: on June 16th, on 21st April • On + gerundio (on arriving, on hearing, etc.) se traduce por al llegar, al oir, etc. On time, in time On hearing that, she was suddenly • Usamos on time cuando nos referimos a la afraid. puntualidad, a menudo con horarios de trenes: In this country trains always arrive on time. • Decimos in time o in time for cuando se lle- ga con un margen razonable de tiempo: All passengers arrived in time for the train.36STANLEY
  41. 41. EXERCISES ENGLISH GRAMMAR1. En este ejercicio tienes que completar las frases. Usa at, on, o in con cada una de las frases siguientes. 1492 - the 20s - the moment - the same time - 12th April 1912 - night - Sundays - about ten minutes - the 19th century - the age of 18 Example: Many things were invented in the 19th century. 1. She got married 2. Ill be there 3. I cant sleep 4. We usually go for a walk 5. The Titanic sank 6. America was discovered 7. The "Charleston" was a very popular dance 8. Its impossible for me to go 9. If everybody speaks nobody will understand.2. Pon la preposicion correcta: at, on, in. Example: The match begins at 4.30. 1. My father is 59. Hell probably retire a few years" time. 2. I always take my wife out our wedding anniversary. 3. Both horses arrived the same time. 4. It was a short story and I wrote it a couple of hours. 5. I work hard during the week, and relax weekends. 6. Little Jimmy started school 5, a couple of years ago. 7. Wait for me, Ill be there ten minutes. 8. They are going to get married 10th June. 9. He always comes home Christmas, and sometimes summer.10. Would you like to come to the cinema Saturday night?11.1 like going for a walk night, under the moonlight.12. We always have a party New Years day.13. Sunday mornings I usually cut the grass in the garden.14. Petrol is going up January.15. Theres very little work in the area the moment.16. The old man died 1990, the age of 91.17. Ill probably be busy the morning. Can you come the afternoon?18. Ill come to see you Monday morning, 11 oclock.19. Come on! The train is leaving two minutes.20. This course begins 8th March and ends 30th June.21. She went to bed midnight and got up 5.30 the next morning.22. Shakespeare was born Stratford 1564. 37 STANLEY