• When an organization has made a decision to enter an overseas market, there are a variety of options open to it.• These options vary with cost, risk & the degree of control which can be exercised over them.• One of the most important strategic decisions in international business is the mode of entering the foreign market.
A market entry strategy is the planned method of delivering goods or services to a target market and distributing them there. When importing or exporting services, it refers to establishing and managing contracts in a foreign country.’’
An organization willing to “go international”faces 3 major issues.• Marketing – which countries, which segments, how to manage, how to enter, with what information.• Sourcing – whether to obtain products, make or buy.• Investment & Control – Joint Venture, global partner, acquisition.
• Exporting is the most traditional and well established form of operating in foreign markets.• Exporting can be defined as the marketing of goods produced in one country into another.• Whilst no direct manufacturing is required in an overseas country, significant investments in marketing are required.• The tendency may be not to obtain as much detailed marketing information as compared to manufacturing in marketing country.
• Those firms who are aggressive have clearly defined plans and strategy, including product, price, promotion, distribution and research elements.• In countries like Tanzania and Zambia, which have embarked on structural adjustment programs, organizations are being encouraged to export, motivated by foreign exchange earnings potential, saturated domestic markets, growth and expansion objectives, and the need to repay debts incurred by the borrowings to finance the programs.• The type of export response is dependent on how the pressures are perceived by the decision maker.
The advantages of exporting are :• Manufacturing is home based thus, it is less risky than overseas based• Gives an opportunity to "learn" overseas markets before investing in bricks and mortar• Reduces the potential risks of operating overseas.
The disadvantage is mainly that one can be at the "mercy" of overseas agents and so the lack of control has to be weighed against the advantages.
• Players : Franchisor & Franchisee.• In terms of distribution, the franchisor is a supplier who allows an operator, or a franchisee, to use the suppliers trademark and distribute the suppliers goods.• In return, the operator pays the supplier a fee.• Thirty three countries, including the United States, and Australia, have laws that regulate franchising.• Franchising is the practice of using another firms successful business model.
• For the franchisor, the franchise is an alternative to building „Chain Stores‟ to distribute goods that avoids the investments and liability of a chain.• The franchisors success depends on the success of the franchisees.• The franchisee is said to have a greater incentive than a direct employee because he or she has a direct stake in the business.
• Freedom of Employment• Proven products & Services• Proven Trade Mark• Reduced Risk of Failure
Licensing is defined as "the method of foreign operation whereby a firm in one country agrees to permit a company in another country to use the manufacturing, processing, trademark, know-how or some other skill provided by the licensor".
• Licensing involves little expense and involvement.• The only cost is signing the agreement and policing its implementation.• It is quite similar to the "franchise" operation.• Coca Cola is an excellent example of licensing.• In Zimbabwe, United Bottlers have the license to make Coke.
• Good way to start in foreign operations and open the door to low risk manufacturing relationships• Linkage of parent and receiving partner interests means both get most out of marketing effort• Capital not tied up in foreign operation and• Options to buy into partner exist or provision to take royalties in stock
• Limited form of participation - to length of agreement, specific product, process or trademark.• Potential returns from marketing and manufacturing may be lost.• Partner develops know-how and so license is short.• Licensees become competitors - overcome by having cross technology transfer deals and• Requires considerable fact finding, planning, investigation and interpretation.
• Joint ventures can be defined as "an enterprise in which twoor more investors share ownershipand control over property rights andoperation."• It is a very common strategy of entering the foreign market.
• Any form of association which implies collaboration for more than a transitory period is a joint venture.• A joint venture may be brought about by a foreign investor showing an interest in local company,• A local firm acquiring an interest in an existing foreign firm or• By both the foreign and local entrepreneurs jointly forming a new enterprise.
• Sharing of RISK.• Joint financial strength.• May be only means of entry in some countries.• Partners do not have full control of management.• May be impossible to recover capital if need be.• Partners may have different views on expected benefits.
• Largest indirect method of exporting is countertrade.• Competitive intensity means more and more investment in marketing.• In this situation the organization may expand operations by operating in markets where competition is less intense but currency based exchange is not possible.
• Also, countries may wish to trade in spite of the degree of competition, but currency again is a problem.• Countertrade can also be used to stimulate home industries or where raw materials are in short supply.• It can, also, give a basis for reciprocal trade.• Estimates vary, but countertrade accounts for about 20-30% of world trade, involving some 90 nations and between US $100- 150 billion in value.
• ADVANTAGES:Its main attraction is that it can give a firm a way to financeexport when other means are not available.• DISADVANTAGES: o Variety is low so marketing is limited o Difficult to set prices and service quality o Inconsistency of delivery and specification, o Difficult to revert to currency trading - so quality may decline further and therefore product is harder to market.
• Turnkey contracts are common in international business in the supply, erection & commissioning of plants, as in the case oil refineries, steel mills, cement & fertilizer plants etc.. Construction projects & franchising agreements.
• A turnkey operation is an agreement by the seller to supply a buyer with a facility fully equipped & ready to be operated by the buyer, who will be trained by the seller.• The term is used in fast food franchising when a franchiser agrees to select a store site, build he store, equip it, train the franchisee & employee.• Many turnkey contracts involve government/public sector as buyer.• A turnkey contractor may subcontract different phases/parts of the project.
• A company doing international marketing contracts with firms in foreign countries to manufacture or assemble the products while retaining the responsibility of marketing the product.• This is a common practice in international business.• Many multinationals employ this in India example: Park Davis Hindustan Lever, Ponds.
• It frees the company from risks of investing in foreign countries.• It does not have to commit resource for setting up production facilities.• There can be a loss on manufacturing.• Less control over manufacturing process.• Risk of developing potential competitors.
• This is sometimes used as an entry strategy.• When there is no commercial transaction between 2 nations because of political reasons,• or when direct transactions between 2 nations are difficult &• if one nation wants to enter other nation,• then the nation will have to operate from the third country base.
• It may be helpful to take advantage of the friendly trade relations between the third party & the foreign market concerned.• Sometimes commercial reasons encourage third country location.• Example: Rank Xerox found it convenient to enter USSR through its Indian joint venture Modi Xerox.
• This strategy is also known as an expansion strategy.• M&As have been imp & powerful driver of globalization.• Between 1980 – 2000 the value of cross border grew at an average annual rate of 40%.• A large no. of foreign firms have entered India through acquisition.• Example: Automobiles, Pharmacy, banking, telecom etc.
• Increasing the market power.• Acquisition of Technology.• Optimum utilization of Resources.• Minimization of Risks.• Tax Benefits
• Some of the units acquired would have problems such as old plant, obsolete technology, surplus, or demoralized labor.• The firm may not have the experience & expertise to manage the unit taken over if it is an entirely new field.