METHODS OF STERILIZATION
• THE STEAM AUTOCLAVE
• DRY HEAT OVENS
-EXPOSURE TO ETHYLENE OXIDE GAS
• Sterilization with STEAM UNDER PRESSURE
• Time required at 1210 C is 15 mins at 15 lbs of pressure.
• Rapid and effective
• Effective for sterilizing cloth surgical
packs and towel packs
• Items sensitive to heat cannot be sterilized
• It tends to corrode carbon steel burs
Sterilization by CHEMICAL VAPOR UNDER PRESSURE
• operates at 1310 Cand 20 lbs of pressure.
• They have a cycle time of half an hour.
• Carbon steel and other carbon sensitive burs, instruments
and pliers are sterilized without rust or corrosion
• Items sensitive to elevated temperature will be damaged
• Instruments must be very lightly packed.
• Towel and heavy clothing cannot be sterilized.
Conventional dry heat ovens:
• Achieved at temperature above 1600 C.
• Have heated chambers that allow air to circulate by gravity flow.
• 6-12minsis required for sterilization
• Without careful calibration, more chances sterilization failures
• The most accurate way to calibrate a sterilization cycle is by using external
temperature gauge (pyrometer) attached to a thermocouple wire.
Types of Indicators
–Measure time, temperature, pressure
–Change in color when physical parameter is
• Biological (spore tests)
–Use biological spores to assess the sterilization
DISINFECTION OF DENTAL UNIT
AND ENVIRONMENTAL SURFACES
•Cleaned by DISPOSIBLE TOWELING
•EPA-ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTIVE AGENCY
•use an EPA registered hospital disinfectant
•Cleaning Agents Like
PHENOLICS, IODOPHORS, CHLORINE CONTAINING compunds
• CLINICAL CONTACT SURFACES
–High potential for DIRECT CONTAMINATION from
spray or spatter or by contact with gloved hand.
• HOUSEKEEPING SURFACES
–Do not come into contact with patients or devices
–LIMITED RISK of disease transmission
CLEANING CLINICAL CONTACT
• Risk of transmitting infections greater than for
• Surface barriers can be used and changed between patients.
• Clean then disinfect using an EPA-registered low- (HIV/HBV
claim) to intermediate-level (tuberculocidal claim) hospital
• Routinely clean with SOAP AND WATER or an EPA-
REGISTERED DETERGENT/HOSPITAL DISINFECTANT
• Clean MOPS AND CLOTHS and allow to dry thoroughly before
• Prepare FRESH CLEANING AND DISINFECTING
SOLUTIONS daily and per manufacturer recommendations.
BASICS OF LABORATORY IC
• Need COORDINATION between DENTAL OFFICE AND
• Use of proper methods/materials for handling and
decontaminating soiled incoming items
• All contaminated INCOMING ITEMS should be cleaned
and DISINFECTED before being HANDLED BY LAB
PERSONNEL, and before being returned to the patient
• a sign and monitor system be
“Only Biologically Clean
• Rinse under running tap water to
• Disinfect as appropriate
• Rinse thoroughly with tap water to
remove residual disinfectant
• No single disinfectant is ideal or
compatible with all items
• Clean and disinfect before delivery
• After disinfection: rinse and place
in plastic bag with diluted
mouthwash until insertion
• Do not store in disinfectant before
• Label the plastic bag: “This case
shipment has been disinfected with
______ for _____ minutes”