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Narrative research and case study

Narrative research and Case study are among the 5 approaches to Qualitative research. The key characteristics with an example is icluded in the slides.

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Narrative research and case study

  2. 2. 1994 summer qualitative seminar in Vail, Colorado • Discussion about qualitative data analysis. • Creswell - introducing one of his recent qualitative studies-a case study of a campus response to a student gun incident. (Asmussen & Creswell, 1995). • “Standing before the group, I chronicled the events of the case, the themes, and the lessons we learned about a university reaction to a near tragic event.” JOHN W CRESWELL
  3. 3. AUDIENCE RESPONSES • Then, unplanned, Harry Wolcott of the University of Oregon, He explained how he would approach the study as a cultural anthropologist. And he "turned" the case study into ethnography, framing the study in an entirely new way. • Les Goodchild, then of Denver University, spoke, and he turned the gunman case into a historical study. • This made Creswell think that….. “that one designed a study differently depending on the method of qualitative research”
  4. 4. REMEMBER…… • Each approach to qualitative research is not mutually exclusive. They can be used in combinations. • For example, a case study approach can also incorporate grounded theory.
  5. 5. Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches • GROUNDED THEORY • ETHNOGRAPHY • PHENOMENOLOGY • NARRATIVE RESEARCH • CASE STUDY Creswell, J.W. (2007). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
  7. 7. NARRATIVE RESEARCH •A mode of inquiry in qualitative research, with a specific focus on the stories told by individuals. •It explores what the story means and the lessons to be learned.
  8. 8. DEFINITION "narrative is understood as a spoken or written text giving an account of an event/action or series of events/actions, chronologically connected" (Czarniawska, 2004)
  9. 9. HISTORY Narrative inquiry was first used by Connelly and Clandinin as a methodology to describe the personal stories of teachers.
  10. 10. The focus is on….. • Studying a single person • Gathering data through the collection of stories • Reporting individual experiences • Discussing the meaning of those experiences for the individual.
  11. 11. Who writes or records the story? Biography vs. Autobiography
  12. 12. What are the key characteristics of narrative designs? Individual experiences Collecting individual stories Chronology of the experiences Restorying Coding for themes Context or setting Collaborating with participants
  13. 13. Steps in conducting narrative research Identify a phenomenon 1 Purposefully select an individual from whom you can learn about the phenomenon 2 Collect the story from that individual 3 Restory or retell the individual’s story 4 Collaborate with the participant storyteller 5 Write a story about the participant’s experiences 6 Validate the accuracy of the report 7
  14. 14. Collect the story from that individual > • Have the individual tell about his or her experiences through personal conversations or interviews. • Have the individual record his or her story in a journal or diary. • Observe the individual and record field notes. • Collect letters sent by the individual. • Assemble stories about the individual from family members. • Obtain photographs, and other personal/family/social artifacts. Several ways to collect stories (field texts) from individuals:
  15. 15. Restory or retell the individual’s story > Chronological sequence Logical connections among ideas ? Analyzing it for key elements Rewriting the story
  16. 16. Restory or retell the individual’s story > • Narrative researchers differ about the elements to select in the raw data before chronologically sequencing them. • Two approaches regarding these elements are problem solution and three-dimensional space approaches.
  17. 17. PROBLEM SOLUTİON APPROACH > > Characters Setting Problem Actions Resolution Individual’s archetype, personality, behaviors, style, and patterns Context, environment, conditions, place, time, locale, year and era Question to be answered or phenomena to be described or explained Movements through the story illustrating character’s thinking, feelings, intentions, actions, and reactions about failed and successful attempts Answers the question and explains what caused the turning point or the character to change
  18. 18. THREE-DIMENSIONAL SPACE APPROACH > > Interaction Continuity Situation Personal Social Past Present Future Place Look inward to internal conditions, feelings, hopes, aesthetic reactions, moral dispositions Look outward to existential conditions in the environment with other people and their intentions, purposes, assumptions, and points of view Look backward to remembered stories and experiences from earlier times Look at current stories and experiences relating to actions of an event. Look forward to implied and possible experiences and plot lines Look at context, time and place situated in a physical landscape or in a setting bounded by characters’ intentions, purposes and different points of view.
  19. 19. > > Coding for themes The researcher can segment stories into themes or categories.
  20. 20. Collaborate with the participant–storyteller > This collaboration might involve • Negotiating on how to enter to the research site • Working closely with the participant to get field texts • Writing and telling the individual’s story in the researcher’s words. Collaboration between the researcher and the participant decreases the potential gap between the narrative told and the narrative reported.
  21. 21. Write a story about the participant’s experiences5 > • Restory has a central place in the narrative report. • Specific themes that derived from the story should be emphasized. • It is not necessary to write a specific literature section. The literature about the problem might be added to the final sections of the study.
  22. 22. Write a story about the participant’s experiences > • The setting in which the individual experiences the central phenomenon should be described in detail. • A section about the importance of narrative research and the procedures involved in it can be written. • The researcher can use the first-person pronoun to refer to yourself.
  23. 23. What are some ethical issues in gathering stories? • Distorting data • Inability to tell the story because it is horrific • Forgetting story
  24. 24. AN EXAMPLE….
  25. 25. Overview of the study • The story of Vonnie Lee, a 29-year-old mentally ill man whom the author met at Opportunity House • Vonnie Lee talks openly about his life but his descriptions of his life centered on a bus route. • The author took a bus trip with Vonnie Lee to his work place. “The bus held special meaning for Lee and on the bus he supplied the researcher with details about the people, places, and events of the journey.”
  26. 26. Researcher conclusions • The bus gave meaning to Vonnie Lee’s life through escape and empowerment • This meaning explained why he told his life stories in the form of bus routes • Vonnie Lee’s stable self-image, the bus trip, helped him survive the problems in his life • The researcher reflected on the use of metaphor as a framework for analyzing stories of participants in life history projects at the end of the study
  28. 28. CASE STUDY “Case study research involves the study of an issue explored through one or more cases within a bounded system (i.e., a setting, a context)”
  29. 29. BOUNDED SYSTEM Edge of the case Heart of the study The "case" selected for study has boundaries, often bounded by time and place. It also has interrelated parts that form a whole. Hence, the proper case to be studied is both "bounded" and a "system
  30. 30. CASE STUDY IS INTERDISCIPLINARY • The case study approach is familiar to social scientists because of its popularity in psychology (Freud), medicine (case analysis of a problem), law (case law), and political science (case reports). • Case study research has a long, distinguished history across many disciplines.
  31. 31. TYPES OF CASE STUDIES • Single instrumental case study - The researcher focuses on a single issue then selects a single case to illustrate the issue. • Collective or multiple instrumental case study – The researcher focuses on one issue but selects multiple cases to illustrate the issue that can be purposefully sampled from one site or several sites
  32. 32. One more…. • Intrinsic case study – This approach focuses on the case itself because the case presents an unusual or unique situation (e.g., evaluating a program or one particular student who is having difficulty studying)
  33. 33. CONFUSION- Is it a inquiry or methodology?? • Stake - states that case study research is not a methodology but a choice of what is to be studied (i.e. a case within a bounded system) • Others present it as a strategy of inquiry, a methodology, or a comprehensive research strategy (Denzin & Lincoln, 2005; Merriam, 1998; Yin, 2003)
  34. 34. Case Study Research Procedures • Determine if a case study is appropriate for the research problem • Identify the case or cases to be studied • What kind of case study is most appropriate • What case or cases will be studied • Select cases that show different perspectives through maximal variation sampling
  35. 35. DATA COLLECTION • Engage in multiple forms of data collection including interviews, observations, documents, audiovisual materials, participant- observations to develop an in-depth understanding of the case(s)
  36. 36. THEMES AND ANALYSIS • Develop a detailed description of the case(s) and common themes in the cases • When using multiple cases describe each case and themes first (within-case analysis) • Compare cases to look for common themes (cross-case analysis) • Look for common assertions and meanings within the case • Report the lessons learned from the case regarding the issue of the case (instrumental) or learning about an unusual situation (intrinsic case)
  37. 37. Case Study Challenges • Identifying cases to study • Identifying whether a single case or multiple cases are needed • Selecting an appropriate purposeful sampling strategy • Having access to multiple sources of data • Deciding how the boundaries of a case might be constrained by time, events, or processes
  38. 38. CASE Ishaan Nandkishore Awasthi, the story's leading character, is an eight-year-old boy who dislikes school and fails every test or exam. He finds all subjects difficult, and is belittled by his teachers and classmates.
  39. 39. INVESTIGATOR CONDUCTING A CASE STUDY • Prof Nikumb speaks to Ishant’s Parents, brother, friends and other professors. • He discovers that he is finding it difficult to read and write. • Thus he comes to a conclusion that he might be suffering from Dyslexia.
  40. 40. CONCLUSION
  41. 41. REFERENCES • Creswell, J.W. (2007) Qualitative inquiry and research design : choosing among five approaches. Thousand Oaks : Sage Publications, 2007. • Ollerenshaw, J. A., & Creswell, J. W. (2002). Narrative research: a comparison of two restorying data analysis approaches. Qualitative Inquiry, 8(3), 329-347. • Webster, L., & Mertowa, P. (2007).Using narrative inquiry as a research method: an introduction to using critical event narrative analysis research on learning and teaching. Oxon: Routledge. • Stake, R.E. (1995) The art of case study research, Thousand Oaks, Calif.; London: Sage. • Yin, R.K. (2009) Case study research : design and methods, Thousand Oaks, Calif. Sage Publications.
  42. 42. “Principles are powerful but cases are memorable”.