Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                       Energy aware networkin...
Introduction Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode              Volum...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adap...
Energy aware networking research Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mod...
Energy aware networking research Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mod...
Energy aware networking research Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mod...
Energy aware networking research Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mod...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient                 ...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient                 ...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient                 ...
What we expect Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEt...
On-off algorithm                       Notations Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroduction                ...
On-off algorithm                       Algorithm Energy aware  networking                     If link is active Vincenzo D...
On-off algorithm                       Algorithm Energy aware  networking                     If link is active Vincenzo D...
On-off algorithm                       Algorithm Energy aware  networking                     If link is active Vincenzo D...
On-off algorithm                       Algorithm Energy aware  networking                     If link is active Vincenzo D...
On-off algorithm                       Algorithm Energy aware  networking                     If link is active Vincenzo D...
On-off algorithm                       Algorithm Energy aware  networking                     If link is active Vincenzo D...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Energy efficient ethernet Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy ...
Energy Efficient Ethernet                       Importance of Refresh signal Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioI...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Rate adaptation Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient ...
Rate adaptation                       Problems Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproach...
Rate adaptation Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink level                         1.   if (link ...
Further considerations Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode         ...
Further considerations Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode         ...
Further considerations Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode         ...
Content inspection Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode             ...
Content inspection Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode             ...
Content inspection Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode             ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
NIC Proxying                       The main idea Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproa...
NIC Proxying                       The main idea Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproa...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
External proxying Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                 Offloading ...
External proxying Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                 Offloading ...
External proxying Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                 Offloading ...
External proxying Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                 Offloading ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Energy Aware Routing Problem Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De           ERP-1: Assume there is a tuple of input parame...
An heuristic solution Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     Maio                  Route Generation: Select the routing ...
An heuristic solution                       The algorithm Energy aware  networking                        HRA(G0, T, PR) V...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet         ...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Green TCP/IP Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                 In TCP/IP, when...
Green TCP/IP Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                 In TCP/IP, when...
Green TCP/IP Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches                 In TCP/IP, when...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adap...
Outline Energy aware  networking                        1   Link level approaches Vincenzo De     Maio                    ...
Main issues Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     Maio                           A client should be able to sleep whene...
Main issues Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     Maio                           A client should be able to sleep whene...
Main issues Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     Maio                           A client should be able to sleep whene...
Main issues Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     Maio                           A client should be able to sleep whene...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroduction                       Unknown: a peer that has been given to thi...
Energy aware  networking           Event 1: Detection of TCP disconnect of a peer Vincenzo De           1. on (detection o...
Energy aware  networking           Event 3: Timeout of inactivity timer Vincenzo De     Maio                       1. on (...
Conclusions                       Link level approaches Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink leve...
Conclusions                       Link level approaches Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink leve...
Conclusions                       Link level approaches Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink leve...
Conclusions                       Proxying approaches Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levela...
Conclusions                       Proxying approaches Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levela...
Conclusions                       Proxying approaches Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levela...
Conclusions                       Infrastructure approaches Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink ...
Conclusions                       Software level Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproa...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adap...
Energy aware  networking Vincenzo De     MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adap...
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Energy aware networking

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A survey on energy aware networking

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Energy aware networking

  1. 1. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Energy aware networkingSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxying Vincenzo De Maio1approachesNIC proxying 1External proxying Distributed and Parallel Systems Universitaet InnsbruckInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routing 13/06/2012 / Masterseminar 2Energy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  2. 2. Introduction Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Volume of CO2 emissions produced by ICT sector is anEnergy EfficientEthernet approximate of 2%Rate AdaptationProxying Actual power usage in the U.S. network infrastructure isapproachesNIC proxying between 5 and 24 TWh/yearExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  3. 3. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routing Figure: Energy consumption of network devicesEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  4. 4. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  5. 5. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  6. 6. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  7. 7. Energy aware networking research Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Link Level approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Proxying approachesProxying Infrastructure levelapproachesNIC proxying Energy aware applicationsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  8. 8. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  9. 9. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  10. 10. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  11. 11. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  12. 12. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  13. 13. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  14. 14. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient How to take the sleep decision?EthernetRate Adaptation For how long?Proxyingapproaches Which routers are the most amenable to sleeping?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  15. 15. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient How to take the sleep decision?EthernetRate Adaptation For how long?Proxyingapproaches Which routers are the most amenable to sleeping?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  16. 16. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient How to take the sleep decision?EthernetRate Adaptation For how long?Proxyingapproaches Which routers are the most amenable to sleeping?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  17. 17. What we expect Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproaches Figure: A sleep-mode approachEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  18. 18. On-off algorithm Notations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroduction B : the output buffer size at the upstream interface.Link levelapproaches w : the number of the most recent inter-arrival times.Sleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet λ : the mean inter-arrival timeRate Adaptation τ = α B is the buffer occupancy threshold, α < 1 (authorsProxyingapproaches use α = 0.1 in their experiments)NIC proxyingExternal proxying m is the number of packets in the bufferInfrastructurelevel δ is the time required for the transition between on/off andapproachesEnergy aware routing resynchronizationEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  19. 19. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  20. 20. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  21. 21. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  22. 22. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  23. 23. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  24. 24. On-off algorithm Algorithm Energy aware networking If link is active Vincenzo De Maio if m > τ , then do not sleep if m ≤ τ then, ensure with a high probability that the totalIntroduction number of packets n + m < α B. Thus, if X1 , X2 , ...Xn areLink levelapproaches random variables for consecutive inter-packet times thenSleeping mode X = ΣXi has a Gamma distribution1 . We find maximum tEnergy EfficientEthernet such that, P [X > t ] ≥ 0.9Rate Adaptation if t > δ then the link is put in sleep mode for timeProxyingapproaches min{t − δ , tmax } where tmax is the maximum amount of timeNIC proxyingExternal proxying that the link can be put to sleep. The sleep time is transmittedInfrastructure to the downstream interface in an 802.3 frame.levelapproaches If downstream interface is in sleep state and the sleepingEnergy aware routing timer is expiringEnergy awareapplications if m = 0 and t > δ , then the upstream interface sends anotherGreen TCP/IP 802.3 frame packet to the downstream interface to sleep for time min{t − δ , tmax }.Green bittorrentConclusions 1 Assuming that inter-arrival time are IID random variables
  25. 25. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  26. 26. Energy efficient ethernet Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxying Figure: Energy Efficient EthernetInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  27. 27. Energy Efficient Ethernet Importance of Refresh signal Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode 1 Ensure that both partners know that the link is present andEnergy EfficientEthernet allows for immediate notification following a disconnection.Rate AdaptationProxying 2 Can be used to test the channel and create an opportunity forapproachesNIC proxying the receiver to adapt to changes in the channel characteristicsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  28. 28. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  29. 29. Rate adaptation Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Use the existing ethernet data ratesEthernetRate Adaptation Find a tradeoff between packet delay and time spent in lowestProxyingapproaches rates.NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  30. 30. Rate adaptation Problems Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches How to choose the right moment to adjust the link rateSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet down/up in order to minimize the packet drops?Rate Adaptation Which is the correct rate that gives us the energy-savingProxyingapproaches opportunity without degrading the link performance?NIC proxyingExternal proxying How do we negotiate the rate?InfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  31. 31. Rate adaptation Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink level 1. if (link data rate is high)approachesSleeping mode 2. if (queue length is less than low queue thrEnergy EfficientEthernet 3. if (link utilization is less than link utilRate Adaptation 4. set the link data rate to lowProxyingapproaches 5. elseNIC proxyingExternal proxying 6. if(link data rate is low)Infrastructure 7. if(queue length is greater than high queuelevelapproaches 8. set the link data rate to highEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  32. 32. Further considerations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode We need to synchronize the link terminationsEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation For rate adaptation, we need faster handshakeProxying Many works seems to prefer the sleeping mode solutionapproachesNIC proxying because of his lower complexityExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  33. 33. Further considerations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode We need to synchronize the link terminationsEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation For rate adaptation, we need faster handshakeProxying Many works seems to prefer the sleeping mode solutionapproachesNIC proxying because of his lower complexityExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  34. 34. Further considerations Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode We need to synchronize the link terminationsEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation For rate adaptation, we need faster handshakeProxying Many works seems to prefer the sleeping mode solutionapproachesNIC proxying because of his lower complexityExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  35. 35. Content inspection Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode A pattern matching techniqueEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Matches packet payloads against a set of pre-definedProxying signaturesapproachesNIC proxying Useful also in network security contextExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  36. 36. Content inspection Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode A pattern matching techniqueEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Matches packet payloads against a set of pre-definedProxying signaturesapproachesNIC proxying Useful also in network security contextExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  37. 37. Content inspection Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode A pattern matching techniqueEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Matches packet payloads against a set of pre-definedProxying signaturesapproachesNIC proxying Useful also in network security contextExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  38. 38. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  39. 39. NIC Proxying The main idea Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode NIC may drop the chatter and handle the traffic requiringEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation minimal computationProxying Main system will be woken up only when non-trivial packetsapproachesNIC proxying comeExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  40. 40. NIC Proxying The main idea Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode NIC may drop the chatter and handle the traffic requiringEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation minimal computationProxying Main system will be woken up only when non-trivial packetsapproachesNIC proxying comeExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  41. 41. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  42. 42. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  43. 43. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  44. 44. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  45. 45. External proxying Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches Offloading traffic filtering and processing to an externalSleeping modeEnergy Efficient machine instead that on the NICEthernetRate Adaptation Can act for a number of end-devicesProxyingapproaches Can also maintain TCP connectivity for idle hostsNIC proxyingExternal proxying Problem: unicast communicationInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  46. 46. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  47. 47. Energy Aware Routing Problem Energy aware networking Vincenzo De ERP-1: Assume there is a tuple of input parameters, (G, T , K ) Maio WhereIntroduction G denotes the topology of data center network,Link levelapproachesSleeping mode T denotes the traffic matrixEnergy EfficientEthernet K denotes the predefined threshold of network throughput.Rate AdaptationProxyingapproaches 1 L(R1) = minL(R ), R ∈ R +NIC proxyingExternal proxying 2 M (R1) ≥ KInfrastructure R + is the space of all possible routings for TlevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy aware L(R1) denotes the number of switches involved in R1applicationsGreen TCP/IP M (R1) is the network throughput of T under R1.Green bittorrentConclusions
  48. 48. An heuristic solution Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio Route Generation: Select the routing for each flow in trafficIntroduction matrix so that the network throughput is as high as possible.Link level They select the path with the fewest overlapping flows overapproachesSleeping mode the bottleneck link in the path.Energy EfficientEthernet Throughput Computation: The module of throughputRate AdaptationProxying computation is to calculate the network throughput in a givenapproaches topology.NIC proxyingExternal proxying Switch Elimination: A greedy algorithm for the eliminationInfrastructurelevel process. First, they compute the traffic carried by each activeapproachesEnergy aware routing switch in topology G, which is the total throughput of flowsEnergy aware traversing the switch. Then, they select the active switchesapplicationsGreen TCP/IP carrying the lightest traffic.Green bittorrentConclusions
  49. 49. An heuristic solution The algorithm Energy aware networking HRA(G0, T, PR) Vincenzo De Maio beginIntroduction 1 set G := G0;Link level 2 //Route GenerationapproachesSleeping mode 3 set R := RG(G, T);Energy EfficientEthernet 4 //Throughput ComputationRate Adaptation 5 set Tht1:= TC(G, T, R);Proxyingapproaches 6 do beginNIC proxyingExternal proxying 7 //eliminate the switches carrying the lightesInfrastructure 8 set G := SE(G, T, R);levelapproaches 9 set R := RG(G, T);Energy aware routing 10 set Tht2:= TC(G, T, R);Energy awareapplications 11 set P := Tht2 / Tht1;Green TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 12 end while(P>=PR )Conclusions 13 return (R, G); End
  50. 50. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet Problem: Robustness of the network. . .Rate Adaptation What happens in case of hardware failures?ProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  51. 51. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  52. 52. Green TCP/IP Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches In TCP/IP, when a connection is dropped, every resourceSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet dedicated to the connection is cleaned up.Rate Adaptation A client cannot go to sleep without dropping its connectionProxyingapproaches Idea: add a new option to TCP communicating to the serverNIC proxyingExternal proxying our intention to sleepInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  53. 53. Green TCP/IP Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches In TCP/IP, when a connection is dropped, every resourceSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet dedicated to the connection is cleaned up.Rate Adaptation A client cannot go to sleep without dropping its connectionProxyingapproaches Idea: add a new option to TCP communicating to the serverNIC proxyingExternal proxying our intention to sleepInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  54. 54. Green TCP/IP Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproaches In TCP/IP, when a connection is dropped, every resourceSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernet dedicated to the connection is cleaned up.Rate Adaptation A client cannot go to sleep without dropping its connectionProxyingapproaches Idea: add a new option to TCP communicating to the serverNIC proxyingExternal proxying our intention to sleepInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  55. 55. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routing Figure: A green TCP/IPEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  56. 56. Outline Energy aware networking 1 Link level approaches Vincenzo De Maio Sleeping modeIntroduction Energy Efficient EthernetLink level Rate AdaptationapproachesSleeping mode 2 Proxying approachesEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation NIC proxyingProxying External proxyingapproachesNIC proxying 3 Infrastructure level approachesExternal proxyingInfrastructure Energy aware routinglevelapproaches 4 Energy aware applicationsEnergy aware routingEnergy aware Green TCP/IPapplications Green bittorrentGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 5 ConclusionsConclusions
  57. 57. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  58. 58. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  59. 59. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  60. 60. Main issues Energy aware networking Vincenzo De Maio A client should be able to sleep whenever it is doneIntroduction downloading and has no current upload requests pendingLink levelapproaches from its peers independent of how many TCP connections itSleeping modeEnergy Efficient may have to other peers.EthernetRate Adaptation When a peer sleeps, it must not affect its state in the peerProxyingapproaches lists of other peersNIC proxyingExternal proxying An awake peer must always have a sufficient number of otherInfrastructure peers that are awake to download fromlevelapproachesEnergy aware routing A peer must be able to wake-up sleeping peers in a controlledEnergy aware fashion.applicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  61. 61. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroduction Unknown: a peer that has been given to this peer by theLink levelapproaches tracker, and it is unknown if the peer is sleeping or awake.Sleeping modeEnergy Efficient Connected: a peer that this peer has an active TCPEthernetRate Adaptation connection with. File pieces can be uploaded andProxying downloaded on the connection.approachesNIC proxyingExternal proxying Sleeping: a peer that has disconnected its TCP connectionInfrastructure with this peer. The TCP connection must be re-establishedlevelapproaches before file pieces can be uploaded or downloaded.Energy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  62. 62. Energy aware networking Event 1: Detection of TCP disconnect of a peer Vincenzo De 1. on (detection of TCP disconnect of peer p) Maio 2. p.state = sleepingIntroduction Event 2: Time out of connection timerLink level 1. on (timeout of connection timer)approachesSleeping mode 2. check with tracker for new peers as neededEnergy EfficientEthernet 3. for (all new peers in peer list)Rate Adaptation 4. p.state = unknownProxying 5. while (count of connected peers < max_connecapproachesNIC proxying 6. p = randomly selected peer in my peer listExternal proxying 7. if (have tested all peers) exit this loopInfrastructurelevel 8. if (wake-up condition == true)approaches 9. send wake-up message to peer pEnergy aware routing 10. try to connect to peer pEnergy awareapplications 11. if (TCP connection established)Green TCP/IPGreen bittorrent 12. p.state = connectedConclusions 13. else 14. remove peer p from my peer list
  63. 63. Energy aware networking Event 3: Timeout of inactivity timer Vincenzo De Maio 1. on (timeout of inactivity timer)Introduction 2. send not interested message to connected peLink levelapproaches 3. send choke message to connected peersSleeping modeEnergy Efficient 4. close all of my TCP connectionsEthernetRate Adaptation 5. my.state = sleepingProxyingapproaches 6. enter sleep stateNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructure Event 4: Detection of my wake-up triggered by plevelapproachesEnergy aware routing 1. on (detection of my wake-up triggered by peeEnergy awareapplications 2. if (TCP connection is established from peerGreen TCP/IP 3. my.state = connectedGreen bittorrentConclusions 4. send my file contents bitfield to peer p 5. run choking algorithm
  64. 64. Conclusions Link level approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient IEEE standardization committee has already proposed a draftEthernetRate Adaptation They will be included in Energy Efficient EthernetProxyingapproaches Could be interesting to evaluate the benefits on a larger scaleNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  65. 65. Conclusions Link level approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient IEEE standardization committee has already proposed a draftEthernetRate Adaptation They will be included in Energy Efficient EthernetProxyingapproaches Could be interesting to evaluate the benefits on a larger scaleNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  66. 66. Conclusions Link level approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient IEEE standardization committee has already proposed a draftEthernetRate Adaptation They will be included in Energy Efficient EthernetProxyingapproaches Could be interesting to evaluate the benefits on a larger scaleNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  67. 67. Conclusions Proxying approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Several prototypes are currently in developmentEthernetRate Adaptation Standardization efforts are also ongoingProxyingapproaches We need a deep analysis about effects on QoSNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  68. 68. Conclusions Proxying approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Several prototypes are currently in developmentEthernetRate Adaptation Standardization efforts are also ongoingProxyingapproaches We need a deep analysis about effects on QoSNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  69. 69. Conclusions Proxying approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy Efficient Several prototypes are currently in developmentEthernetRate Adaptation Standardization efforts are also ongoingProxyingapproaches We need a deep analysis about effects on QoSNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  70. 70. Conclusions Infrastructure approaches Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode Reducing number of active devices is not the best solutionEnergy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Multiple robustness and connectivity issuesProxying We need further investigations in modeling and find a goodapproachesNIC proxying tradeoffExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  71. 71. Conclusions Software level Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping mode TCP/IP will be beneficial for every software relying on it.Energy EfficientEthernetRate Adaptation Higher level approaches like green bittorrent seems alsoProxying promisingapproachesNIC proxying Main lack in this area is about existing toolsExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  72. 72. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxyingapproaches Questions?NIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions
  73. 73. Energy aware networking Vincenzo De MaioIntroductionLink levelapproachesSleeping modeEnergy EfficientEthernetRate AdaptationProxying Thanks for your attention!approachesNIC proxyingExternal proxyingInfrastructurelevelapproachesEnergy aware routingEnergy awareapplicationsGreen TCP/IPGreen bittorrentConclusions

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