research methodology- Chief MInister Girls Cycle Scheme


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research methodology- Chief MInister Girls Cycle Scheme

  1. 1. CHAPTER-III METHODOLOGY3.1 INTRODUCTION Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also defineresearch as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Infact, research is an art of scientific investigation. Research methodology is a way tosystematically solve the research problem. It may be understood as a science of studying howresearch is done scientifically. Researchers also need to understand the assumptionsunderlying various techniques and they need to know the criteria by which they can decidethat certain techniques and procedures will be applicable to their research problem and otherswill not. All this means that it is necessary for the researcher to design his methodology forhis problem as the same may differ from problem to problem. Research methodologiesanswers questions related with Why a research study has been undertaken, how the researchproblem has been defined, in what way and why the hypothesis has been formulated, whatdata have been collected and what particular method has been adopted, why particulartechnique of analysing data has been used and a host of similar other questions are usuallyanswered when we talk of research methodology concerning a research problem or study.Thus, when we talk of research methodology we not only talk of the research methods butalso consider the logic behind the methods we use in the context of our research study andexplain the reason for using a particular method or technique. 69
  2. 2. 3.2 METHOD USED FOR THE STUDY The researcher has adopted survey method in this research work to study the effect ofChief Minister’s Cycle Scheme on the academic achievement and motivation of high schoolgirls. The data was collected from Muzaffarpur district of Bihar. There are advantages inusing survey method as it not only helps in quantitative data collection over a largegeographical area in a limited time period but it gives research an objective point of view.3.3 LOCATION OF THE PRESENT STUDY The location of the present study is at Muzaffarpur district ( Appendix No. ? ).Muzaffapur lies in the north of Bihar. The district is bounded by the East Champaran,Sitamarhi, Vaishali, Saran, Darbhanga and Samastipur districts . It has won internationalencomiums for its delicious Shahi species. The geographical location of Muzaffarpuris 26°7′N 85°24′E. As of the 2011 India census, Muzaffarpur had a population of 3,746,714.Males constituted 54% (1951466) of the population and females 46% (1795248). Thirteenpercent of the population was under 6 years of age.In the field of education Muzaffarpur has a literacy rate of 60%, close to the national averageof 74%. Male literacy was 62%, and female literacy was 57%. 70
  3. 3. Figure no: 3.1 MAP OF MUZAFFARPUR (Source – Population of the Study The sample of the present study was 10th standard girls of government schools ofMuzaffarpur district ( Appendix no.-2) who were benefitted under MBCY.3.5 Sample for the Study The researcher collected data from 200 high school girls studying in governmentschools of Muzaffarpur district. For collection of the data the researcher used convenientsampling method. The data was collected from four schools- Prabhat Tara High School,Chapman Girls’ High School, B.B. Collegiate School, and Sarai Sayed Ali Girls HighSchool. 71
  4. 4. 3.6 DISCRIPTION OF THE SAMPLE Table no : 3.1 School-Wise Distribution of the Sample NAME OF THE SCHOOL No. of PERCENTAGE STUDENTS 1 Prabhat Tara High School 65 32.5 2 Chapman Girls’ High School 45 22.5 3 B.B. Collegiate School 50 25 4 Sarai Sayed Ali Girls High 40 20 School TOTAL 200 100It is inferred from the table: 3.1 that the sample is homogenously distributed. Chapman Girls’High School, B.B. Collegiate School, Sarai Sayed Ali Girls High School are governmentschool , whereas Prabhat Tara High School is a missionary aided school. Hence more than65% of data is collected from government school. This is shown in the figure given below. Figure no : 3.2 School-wise Distribution of the Sample Prabhat Tara High School 20% 32% Chapman Girls’ High School 25% B.B. Collegiate School 23% Sarai Sayed Ali Girls High School 72
  5. 5. Table no : 3.2 Habitation-Wise Distribution of the Sample HABITATION No. OF STUDENTS PERCENTAGE Rural 60 30 Urban 140 70 Total 200 100It is inferred from the table: 3.2 that 30% of the population is taken from the rural area and70% from the urban area. This is shown in the figure given below. Figure no :3.3 Habitation-wise Distribution of the Sample 30% Rural 70% Urban 73
  6. 6. Table no : 3.3 Father’s Qualification-wise Distribution of the Sample QUALIFICATION No. OF STUDENTS PERCENTAGE Pre-matric 60 30 Post-matric 140 70 Total 200 100It is inferred from the table no: 3.3 that fathers of 70% students have passed their matric andfathers of 30% students are below matric. This is shown in the figure No. 3.4 below. Figure no: 3.4 Father’s Qualification-wise Distribution of the Sample 30% Pre-matric 70% Post-matric 74
  7. 7. Table no : 3.4 Mother’s Qualification-wise Distribution Of The Sample QUALIFICATION No. OF STUDENTS PERCENTAGE Pre-matric 87 43.5 Post-matric 113 56.5 Total 200 100It is inferred from the table no.: 3.4 that mothers of 56.5% students have passed their matricand mothers of 43.5% students are below matric. This is shown in the figure given below. Figure no : 3.5 Mother’s Qualification-wise distribution of the Sample 43% 57% Pre-matric Post-matric 75
  8. 8. Table no : 3.5 Family Income-Wise Distribution Of The Sample INCOME No. OF STUDENTS PERCENTAGE (ANNUALLY) Below Rs.40000 126 63 Above Rs. 40000 74 37 Total 200 100It can be inferred from the above table no: 3.5 that 63% of students belong to low incomegroup and 37% of students belong to high income group. This is shown in the figure givenbelow. Figure no :3.6 Income-wise Distribution of the Sample 37% Below Rs.40000 Above Rs. 40000 63% 76
  9. 9. 3.7 TOOLS USED FOR THE STUDY Research tool can be defined as the instrument in the hands of researchers to measurewhat they indent to in their study. One of the most important components of a research designis the research instruments because they gather or collect data or information. These researchinstruments or tools are ways of gathering data. Without them, data would be impossible toput in hand of the researcher. For collecting the data the researcher has to use appropriate tool that will serve herpurpose for data collection. In this research, the researcher used questionnaire andadministered an achievement test to collect data from the sample. The data was collected bysurvey method.3.8 THE QUESTIONNAIRE A set of carefully designed questions given in exactly the same form to a group ofpeople in order to collect data about the research problem in which the researcher isinterested. List of a research or survey questions asked to respondents, and designed toextract specific information. It serves four basic purpose:(1) To collect the appropriate data(2) To make data comparable and amenable to analysis(3) To minimize bias in formulating and asking question(4) To make questions engaging and varied.There are two forms of questionnaire : A. Closed form / Closed-ended. B. Open form / Open-ended. 77
  10. 10. To collect data from the sample, the researcher used administered Multi-SubjectAchievement Test and used questionnaire for motivation of girls towards C.M. cycle scheme.3.9 MULTI-SUBJECT ACHIEVEMENT TEST A multi-subject achievement test constructed and standardised by Amrita Singh(2012), M.ED. scholar, St. Xavier’s College Of Education, Patna ; was used to find academicachievement of 9th standard girls. This inventory has 17 questions from various subjects –English, Hindi, Mathematics, Science, Social Sciences. This inventory was used as it wasstandardised on the students of government school and it is based on the syllabus of BiharBoard. Hence the reliability of this test is very high. For the validity of the test the researcherconsulted the experts of St. Xavier’s College of Education in the field of education and assuggested by them the inventory was used in its present form.3.10 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR MOTIVATION OF GIRLS TOWARDSMBCY To find out the motivation among girls towards the school, their studies and to knowthe prospective of girls towards MBCY; a close-ended questionnaire was prepared andstandardised by the researcher. For this the researcher consulted the experts of St. Xavier’sCollege of Education and took their advice in preparing the questionnaire. The questionnaireconsisted 35 items related with different dimensions of motivation. The validity of thequestionnaire was determined by the experts review. The reliability of the questionnaire wasfound by item analysis. The dimensions of motivation questionnaire are as follows: 78
  11. 11. Table 3.6 Dimensions of Motivation DIMENSIONS No. of ITEMS 1 SCHOOL ATTENDANCE 7 2 ACADEMICS AND CO-CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES 6 3 PROSPECTIVE OF GIRLS TOWARDS C.M. CYCLE 6 SCHEME 4 MOBILTY OF GIRLS 9 5 SOCIAL CHANGE 7 TOTAL 353.11 ADMINISTRATION OF THE TESTThe multi-subject inventory was given to the sample of 200 students. The students wereasked to tick the answer which they thought was correct. Ample time was given to them forthis. For each correct answer 1 marks was given and the sum of the marks of each studentswas taken for the data analysis.Each of the items of motivation questionnaire was rated on a five point scale. The optionswere strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree and strongly disagree. The respondents wereasked to respond to the extent of agreement or disagreement of the content. The scoringprocedure of the motivation scale is given in the table: 79
  12. 12. Table 3.7 Scoring of Motivation Questionnaire S.No OPINION SCORE 1. TOTALLY AGREE 5 2. AGREE 4 3. UNDECIDED 3 4. DISAGREE 2 5. TOTALLY DISAGREE 13.12 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES ADOPTED The major statistical techniques adopted in the present study are the following :MeanIt is defined as the arithmetic mean. It is the average of the data . The formula is: 𝑋𝑖Mean= 𝑁 Where, Xi=Value of the ith term =Symbol of summation N=total number of items 80
  13. 13. Standard DeviationThe square root of the variance is called the root mean square deviation or standarddeviation. The formula is: 1 = 𝑁𝑥 2 − (X)2 𝑁 Where, X=Score obtained from the tool N=total number of itemsT-testT-test is employed to find out the significance difference between the mean of the differentvariables for different sub groups |𝑀1− 𝑀2 |t –ratio = . 2 1 2 2 − 𝑁1 𝑁2 Where, 𝑁1 = total number of items in first group 𝑁2 = total number of items in second group 𝑀1 = Mean of the first group 𝑀2 = Mean of the second group  1 = Standard deviation of the first group 2  2 = Standard deviation of the second group 2 81
  14. 14. Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation (r):Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation is used for determining the reliability coefficient andalso for ascertaining the inter-relationship among adjustment and various dimensions ofemotional intelligence. The formula for finding r is : 𝑁 𝑋𝑌−  𝑋  𝑌 r= 𝑁 𝑋 2 −  𝑋 2 𝑁 𝑌 2 −  𝑌 2 Where, N = Total number of respondents X = The raw score of first Y = The raw score of second group r = Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation Coefficient 82