CHAPTER -1      INTRODUCTION AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK1.1 INTRODUCTION OF EDUCATION       Man is not a biological animal bu...
Education is an essential basis of good life. A man becomes a human being in the real sensewhen he is transformed from pri...
1.3 DEFINITION OF EDUCATION       The meaning of education has differed from age to age, from person to person. Somehave e...
ii. Friedrich William Froebel: "Education is unfoldment of what is already               enfolded in the germ. It is the p...
(ii) Vocational Aim: Knowledge aim of education is narrow by nature. The theoreticalknowledge will never meet our basic ne...
social and spiritual. All these aspects of the individual should be harmoniously developed.True education is development o...
accessible to children. These initiatives have focused on reducing the ―opportunity cost‖ ofschooling and providing incent...
TABLE NO: 1.1                                SCHOOLS IN BIHAR                                                     GOVT.   ...
Thus, we see in field of education lot more has to be done. The responsibility of itlies in the shoulder of the government...
Figure No: 1.1      LOW ATTENDANCE OF GIRLS IN SCHOOLS IN BIHAR                   • HELPING HAND IN AGRICULTURE AND AT HOM...
1.7 EDUCATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SOCIAL CHANGE        The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change an...
take place in the social and non-social environment. Education can initiate social changes bybringing about a change in ou...
portion of its revenue on education so that it overcomes century old problems of illiteracy,poverty, gender inequality.1.8...
Its goals of 2011 were to do the following:   i.      Open new schools in areas without them and to expand existing school...
1.10 AIMS OF SSA        SSA is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to14 age grou...
1.12 NEED FOR A FRAMEWORK FOR IMPLEMENTATION  i.      To allow states to formulate context specific guidelines within the ...
carried out several changes to improve the delivery system for elementary   education.ii. Sustainable Financing – SSA is b...
viii.     Habitation as a Unit of Planning - The SSA works on a community based       approach to planning with habitation...
development, focus on classroom process and exposure visits for teachers are all            designed to develop the human ...
up to a ceiling of one upper primary                                        school/section for every two primary          ...
• Upto Rs. 5000 per year as per specific                                           proposal by the school committee.      ...
• School Committee may recommend                                               district level procurement if there are    ...
• To include expenditure on office                                          expenses, hiring of experts at various levels ...
1.14 SUPERVISION OF ACTIVITIES UNDER SSA       SSA requires regular supervision of activities. Ideally, the CRCs, BRCs. DI...
special workshops to be organised by national /state level resource institutions. Resourcepersons involved with training t...
education of each child which they could hand over to schools of their choice. It may still bedesirable that government di...
groom their talents,‖ says Manisha Ranjan, a biology teacher in High School Desari inBihar‘s Vaishali district, 55km from ...
Thus a child who sees himself as top ranking, as scholars, may set as his goal the attainmentof the highest grade in the c...
and Hackett, 2000). Assessing students progress means identifying what he has achieved.Acquiring skills in academic matter...
interpersonal skills as well. These individuals have a tendency to overemphasize         results and have difficulty manag...
i.   ARKINSION (1964) ―The term motivation refers to the arousal of tendency to             set act produce one or more ef...
vi.    To reflect on the process of intercultural learning inherent to the nature of their        placements.vii.    To au...
1.33 Achievement MotivationThis is involved where students learn in the hope of success. Ausubel suggests that there areth...
Figure No. : 1.2                      MODEL OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION                                                     ...
3. Achievement Goal Conceptualization: Achievement goal theorists label bothperformance and mastery goals as "approach" mo...
question with a proof, to see how far Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna, has affected theteaching learning process in girls ...
4. To study the influence of motivation on academic achievement of high school girls       falling under Mukhyamantri Bali...
10. To find out whether there is any significant difference between below Rs. 40000 and      above Rs. 40000 annual income...
INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT  21. To find out whether there is any significant influence of motivation ...
10. There is no significant difference in the below Rs. 40000 and above Rs. 40000      annual income of girls‘ family in t...
INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT     21. There is no significant influence of motivation on academic achiev...
1.37 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYi) The researcher has taken the sample from Muzaffarpur district.ii) Only 250 girls student...
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education, Chief Minister Girls Cycle scheme, Sarv Shiksha Abhiyaan, research thesis

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chief minister girls cycle scheme-introduction and conceptual framework

  1. 1. CHAPTER -1 INTRODUCTION AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK1.1 INTRODUCTION OF EDUCATION Man is not a biological animal but a pure social one. Living in a society as aresponsible social human being is the ultimate goal of human. So education shapes andmoulds the overall behaviour of human being and nurtures the potentialities. Since timeimmemorial, education is estimated as the right road to progress and prosperity. Education in today‘s scenario has a very complex meaning. Whenever we sayeducation, our mind starts to think about a building where students dressed in the uniforms gocarrying their satchel. This is a part of formal education set-up. Education has a very vastscope than our stereotyping. Education is what we learn throughout our life time. Educationhelps a man to be able to live for himself in such a way that his livings contribute to thesociety and in the end he realizes God through his deeds. Education is an important human activity. It was born with the birth of the human raceand shall continue to function as long as the human race lives. Education is an essentialhuman virtue. Man becomes man through education. He is what education makes him. It has been rightly said that without education, man is a splendid slave, reasoningsavage. Education is necessary for society. Education fashions and models man for society.Man cannot be conceived merely in terms of his biological existence. Education brings intofocus the social aspect of man. Education signifies mans supreme position in society. 1
  2. 2. Education is an essential basis of good life. A man becomes a human being in the real sensewhen he is transformed from primarily an animal being into a human being. In short, education is an essential concomitant of all human societies. "Whatsculpture is to a block of marble, education is to the soul", says Addison.1.2 ETYMOLOGICAL MEANING OF EDUCATION The word "Education" has been derived from the Latin term "Educatum" whichmeans the act of teaching or training. A group of educationists say that it has come fromanother Latin word "Educare" which means "to bring up" or "to raise". According to a fewothers, the word "Education" has originated from another Latin term "Educere" which means"to lead forth" or "to come out". All these meanings indicate that education seeks to nourish the good qualities in manand draw out the best in every individual. Education seeks to develop the innate innercapacities of man. By educating an individual we attempt to give him some desirable knowledge,understanding, skills, interests, attitudes and critical thinking. That is, he acquires knowledgeof history, geography, arithmetic, languages and sciences. He develops some understanding about the deeper things in life, the complex humanrelations, and the cause and effect relationship and so on. He gets some skills in writing,speaking, calculating, drawing, operating some equipment etc. He develops some interests inand attitudes towards social work, democratic living, and co-operative management . 2
  3. 3. 1.3 DEFINITION OF EDUCATION The meaning of education has differed from age to age, from person to person. Somehave emphasized on one aspect of education while others have emphasized on the other. Thedifferent views are there because of complexity of human environment, different philosophiesof life and different educational theories and practices. The true meaning of education will beclearer by its definitions given by renowned educationists.In the Indian context education has been defined as follows: i. Rigved: "Education is something which makes man self-reliant and selfless". ii. Sri Aurobindo: ―The child‘s education ought to be an out bringing of all that is best, most powerful, most intimate living in his nature, the mould into which man‘s action and development ought to run is the quality and the power. He must acquire new things but he will acquire them best, most wholly on the basis of his own development type and inborn force.‖ iii. Gandhi: “By education I mean an all-round drawing out of the best in child and man, body, mind and spirit. Literacy is not the end of Education not even the beginning. It is one of the means whereby man and woman can be educated; Literacy in itself is no education.‖According to western philosophers education is, i. Socrates: "Education means the bringing out of the ideas of universal validity which are latent in the mind of every man". 3
  4. 4. ii. Friedrich William Froebel: "Education is unfoldment of what is already enfolded in the germ. It is the process through which the child makes internal external". iii. T.P. Nunn- ―Education is the complete development of the individuality of the child‖. Hence, as an individual in the society, he has to think critically about various issuesin life and take decisions about them being free from bias and prejudices, superstitions andblind beliefs. Thus, he has to learn all these qualities of head, hand and heart through theprocess of education.1.4 AIMS OF EDUCATION Life is very complex and complicated. But an aim in life can make the complex lifesimple and purposeful. Aims give us direction to work and without aim, destination, orobjective life becomes incomplete and haphazard. Individual has different interests, attitudes and needs. Every individual wants toachieve certain goals in life. But a clear-cut aim makes the road of life easy. Educational aimsare varied. They have their different role in different fields. Some specific aims are listedbelow:(i) Knowledge Aim: The aim of education is the acquisition of knowledge, skills andattitudes. It helps to adjust properly in one‘s own environment. Knowledge helps the man toovercome the nature and satisfy human wants. It links the teacher and taught with socialsituation. It helps with certain skills to live in a society as human being and civilized one.Philosophers and educationists of the world believe in knowledge. It is the valuable asset oflife, which helps the individual to overcome misery and problems of life. 4
  5. 5. (ii) Vocational Aim: Knowledge aim of education is narrow by nature. The theoreticalknowledge will never meet our basic needs of life. We need bread and butter to fill up ourbelly. We can get it if education is vocationalised. Gandhiji realized it in 1937 when heintroduced Basic Education. Vocational aim develops the social efficiency of the individual.It reduces mental tension after completion of education. Those who are lower, intelligence invocational education or training are a blessing for them. Realizing this aspect. IndianEducation Commission (1964-66) introduces work-experience in the curriculum.(iii) Character Building Aim: The Indian concept of education believes in self-realization.Self-realization is possible through moral education. So the individual should cultivate moralvirtues or values which constitute character. Swami Vivekananda said, ―We want thateducation by which character is formed, strength of mind is increased, the intellect isexpanded and by which one can stand on one‘s own feet.‖(iv) Complete-Living Aim: The individual has various aspects to be developed. Every aspectof the personality is reflected in various activities to be performed. Education should help theindividual to fulfil the various needs and necessities of life like self-preservation, fulfillingnecessities of life, rearing and bearing of children, performing civic responsibilities andutilizing his leisure time properly. Firstly, the individual must know the art of self-preservation. Secondly, educationshould enable to him to earn his living. Thirdly, he should know how to take care of his ownchildren. Lastly, he must have the idea how to utilize the leisure hours properly in a profitingmanner.(v) Harmonious: Development of the personality aim- Gandhiji said, ―By education, I meanan all-round drawing out of the best in the child and man-body, mind and spirit.‖ Themeaning itself indicates to develop all-round aspects of individual-physical, intellectual, 5
  6. 6. social and spiritual. All these aspects of the individual should be harmoniously developed.True education is development of 3H‘s instead of 3R‘s.The development of Head, Heart and hand of an individual makes him happy.(vi) Democratic Aim of Education: One of the important aims and objective of educationsuggested by Secondary Education Commission (1952-54) is to develop the democraticcitizenship. India is a democratic country. Even citizen must have to realize the duties andresponsibilities carefully. So the aim of education is to train carefully the future citizens.Training should be provided to develop the following qualities of the individual.(i) Capacity for clear thinking(ii) Receptivity of new idea(iii) Clarity in speech and writing(iv) True patriotismIndian Education Commission (1964-66) under the chairmanship of Dr. D.S. Kotharisuggested the following as the aims of education in a democratic set-up.(i) Increasing productivity(ii) Developing social and national integrity(iii) Making education modernized and(iv) Cultivating of social, moral and spiritual values.1.5 STATUS OF EDUCATION IN BIHAR The government of Bihar ( Appendix No.1) , one of India‘s poorest states, hasrecently undertaken several policy initiatives to make education more affordable and 6
  7. 7. accessible to children. These initiatives have focused on reducing the ―opportunity cost‖ ofschooling and providing incentives for enrolment and performance. Bihar has an average literacy of 47%, in which female literacy percentage is 33.1%.There are 53844 schools in Bihar. Out of these there are 53034 government schools. 95.15%(50464) of the government schools are located in the rural areas. The enrolment in govt.Schools is 98.66% as compared to India where it is 78.56%. Girls enrolment in upper primary section in Bihar is 45.71, in this ST and SCenrolment of girls are 1.69 and 16.85 respectively. The percentage of female teachers in theschools of Bihar is 27.91% and pupil-teacher ratio is 64. The Gender Parity Index in Bihar is0.82 as compared to whole of India which is 0.91. In spite of these lofty figures, the Educational Development Index (EDI) of Biharshowed very poor results. EDI uses 23 indicators as infrastructure, teachers and outcomeindicators. Bihar ranked at 35 at composite primary and upper primary levels of educationwith an EDI as low as 0.321. The achievement of students of Bihar also remained verylow.22.07 % boys and 23.77% girls scored more than 60% in class 7 th exams. Studentclassroom ratio of Bihar is 91 as compared to India where it is 36. Only 3% of schools inBihar have computer facilities. 7
  8. 8. TABLE NO: 1.1 SCHOOLS IN BIHAR GOVT. PRIVATE TOTAL SCHOOLS SCHOOLSALL SCHOOLS 53034 850 53884SCHOOLS LOCATED IN RURAL AREAS 50464 627 51091%AGE OF SCHOOLS IN RURAL AREAS 95.15% 73.7% 94.8% (Source: Analytical Report, DISE 2006-07, NUEPA) TABLE NO: 1.2 FACILITY AND ENROLMENT INDICATORS HEADS BIHAR INDIA % SINGLE TEACHER SCHOOL 5.12 11.76 % SCHOOL WITH COMMON TOILETS 46.73 58.13 % SCHOOL WITH GIRL’S TOILET 16.21 42.58 % SCHOOL HAVING ELECTRICITY CONNECTION 3.60 33.23 % GOVT. MANAGEMENT SCHOOLS HAVING DRINKING 90.13 83.93 WATER FACILITY % ENROLMENT IN GOVT.SCHOOLS 98.66 78.56 % GIRLS ENROLMENT IN UPPER PRIMARY 45.17 45.67 % SC ENROLMENT 16.88 19.87 % ST ENROLMENT 1.69 10.69 % FEMALE TEACHERS 27.91 41.86 STUDENT CLASSROOM RATIO 91 36 PUPIL TEACHER RATIO 64 34 GENDER PARITY INDEX 0.82 0.91 (Source: Analytical Report, DISE 2006-07, NUEPA) 8
  9. 9. Thus, we see in field of education lot more has to be done. The responsibility of itlies in the shoulder of the government. Recent policy initiatives and improvements in primaryschool enrolment show that Bihar is making progress in improving its education levels.Recent policies have focused on lowering the cost of schooling through subsidizing orproviding textbooks, uniforms, bicycles and cash transfers for attendance. While these havereduced the costs of schooling in Bihar, much remains to be done to boost schoolinginfrastructure and improve conditions for both students and teachers.1.6 PROBLEMS RELATED TO WOMEN EDUCATION IN BIHAR The deterrents to girls education are rooted in their homes and society. Educatinggirls is commonly perceived as unnecessary; mainly on account of the role they have beenassigned in running the house and also because they will eventually leave their parentalhomes after marriage where their skills in household chores will hold them in better stead. Poor retention of girls is attributed to two main factors. The first is the tendency ofparents to withdraw them from school on attainment of adolescent age ,say 9+ as theybecome capable of fulfilling certain domestic needs like sustenance activities & sibling care,while the second is the school environment itself which neither encourages girls noreasonable enough to bring out the best in them. During the seasons of harvest, marriages,festivals, etc. girls attendance at school suffer a setback as they are kept back at home. In theabsence of any mechanism to address their need as a result of these periods of absenteeism,their achievement suffers. Thus begins the cycle of teachers neglect in the classroom leadingto disinterest and e-motivation eventually resulting in their leaving school. Added to these arenatural barriers, distance to school. The reason are clearly described in the figure givenbelow. 9
  10. 10. Figure No: 1.1 LOW ATTENDANCE OF GIRLS IN SCHOOLS IN BIHAR • HELPING HAND IN AGRICULTURE AND AT HOME • LOOK AFTER YOUNGER SIBLINGS • CANT AFFORD BURDEN OF EDUCATION POVERTY • PARENTS SAVE MONEY FOR DOWRY • FEEL SHAME TO SEND ADOLSCENT GIRLS OUTSIDE THEIR HOME • EARLY MARRIAGES • EVE TEASING • IT IS STILL A TABOO TO EDUCATE GIRLS AS THEY ARE EXPECTED TO DO SOCIAL BARRIERS ONLY HOUSE CHORES. • SCHOOLS ARE FAR AWAY • SCHOOLS AHVE LESS NUMBER OF FEMALE TEACHERS • SCHOOLS DONT HAVE FACILTY OF TOILET FOR GIRLSFAULTY EDUCATION • STANDARD OF EDUCATION IS VERY POOR SYSTEM • SYLLABUS ARE NOT OPTIMUM FOR GIRLS ESPECIALLY OF RURAL AREAS • ATTENDANC E IS VERY LOW IN SOWING AND REAPING SEASON. • DURING MARRAIGE SEASON GIRLS REMAIN ABSENT FROM SCHOOL FOR A LONG PERIOD OF TIME. SAEASONAL • DURING MONSOON THE VILLAGES ARE FLOODED HENCE SCHOOLS ARE FLUCTUATIONS CLOSED FOR THAT DURATION OF TIME. 10
  11. 11. 1.7 EDUCATION AS AN INSTRUMENT OF SOCIAL CHANGE The role of education as an agent or instrument of social change and socialdevelopment is widely recognized today. Social change may take place – when humans needchange. When the existing social system or network of social institutions fails to meet theexisting human needs and when new materials suggest better ways of meeting human needs. Social change do not take race automatically or by themselves. As Mac Iver says,social charge take place as a response to many type of change that take place on the socialand non-social environment. Education can initiate social changes by bring about a change inthe outlook and attitude of men. It can bring about a change in the pattern of socialrelationships and thereby it may cause social changes. There was a time when educational institution and teachers were engaged intransmitting a way of life to the student. During those days, education was more a means ofsocial control than an instrument, of social change. Modern schools and universities do nottake place much emphasis upon transmitting a way of life to the students. The traditionaleducation why heart for an unchanging, state society. Not marked by rapid changes. Buttoday education aims at imparting empirical knowledge. Education is seen as a major vector in society, but that it is largely allocated aconservative role, since its main function is in the socialization of the young and themaintenance of the social order. During times of rapid social change, such as the second halfof the 20th century, the role of education in the service of the nation is emphasized. Whenthings are going well, especially economically, more experimentation with education issupported, and more idealistic goals are pursued, such as equity of educational opportunity. Itis in the ideological and moral spheres, however, that education is most clearly expected toplay a leading role. Social change takes place as a response to many types of changes that 11
  12. 12. take place in the social and non-social environment. Education can initiate social changes bybringing about a change in outlook and attitude of man. It can bring about a change in thepattern of social relationships and thereby it may cause social changes. Education is in the concurrent list of power division between state and thecentre that means efforts has to be taken both by the central government and stategovernment to eradicate illiteracy and provide quality education even in the rural areas.Under RTE, it is mandatory to provide free and compulsory education to all the children upto the age of 14, i.e. class 8th. Sarva Shiksha Abhiyaan (SSA), Operation Blackboard (OB)are some of the schemes of central government to universal enrolment of students. In the state of Bihar where there is utmost poverty education is the one and only toolthat revive Bihar to its old golden days of Takshila and Nalanda. But the poverty andrequirement of cheap labour in factories and agricultural sector has kept many children awayfrom school. Girls are even in the worst condition. Besides being a bread earner they have tolook after the needs of the family. Cooking, looking after young children, social taboo, eveteasing and early marriages are some of the evils which keep girls away from schools. We seefrom the above data that the girls are the marginalised section of the society. Therefore in thewhole universal elementary education goal government has to formulate schemes in order tomake girls come to school breaking all the social dogmas and also retain them till theycomplete their matriculation. With change in the political power in Bihar, new schemes have been introduced toattract students towards school and reduce the dropout rates. These schemes include free textbooks, mid-day meal scheme, free school dress, cash for attendance scheme, and bicycle forstudents and cash for girls scoring first division in matriculation. Bihar now spends a major 12
  13. 13. portion of its revenue on education so that it overcomes century old problems of illiteracy,poverty, gender inequality.1.8 SARV SHIKSHA ABHIYAAN (SSA) Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (Education for All Movement) is a programme bythe Government of India aimed at the universalization of elementary education "in a timebound manner", as mandated by the 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making freeeducation to children aged 6–14 (estimated to be 205 million in number in 2001)a fundamental right. The programme was pioneered by Atal Bihari Vajpayee. SSA is beingimplemented in partnership with State Governments to cover the entire country and addressthe needs of 192 million children in 1.1 million habitations. In FY 2009-10,60% of SSAfunds came from GOI. This has now been revised to 65%. The programme is looking to open new schools in those habitations without schoolingfacilities and to strengthen existing school infrastructure through provision of additional classrooms, toilets, drinking water, maintenance grant and school improvement grants. SSA isnow the primary vehicle for implementing the Right to Free and Compulsory Education Act(RTE). Existing schools with inadequate teacher strength are provided with additionalteachers, and the capacity of existing teachers is being strengthened by extensive training,grants for developing teaching-learning materials and strengthening of the academic supportstructure at a cluster, block and district level. SSA seeks to provide quality elementaryeducation including life skills. SSA has a special focus on female education and children withspecial needs. SSA also seeks to provide computer education to bridge the digital divide. 13
  14. 14. Its goals of 2011 were to do the following: i. Open new schools in areas without them and to expand existing school infrastructures and maintenance. ii. Address inadequate teacher numbers and provide training a development for existing teachers. Provide quality elementary education including life skills with a special focus on theeducation of girls and of children with special needs, as well as computer education. SSA isan effort to universalise elementary education by community-ownership of the school system.It is a response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. The SSAprogramme is also an attempt to provide an opportunity for improving human capabilities toall children, through provision of community owned quality education in a mission mode.1.9 BASIC FEATURES OF SSA i. A programme with a clear time frame for universal elementary education. ii. A response to the demand for quality basic education all over the country. iii. An opportunity for promoting social justice through basic education. iv. An effort at effectively involving the Panchayati Raj Institutions, School Management Committees, Village and Urban Slum level Education Committees, Parents Teachers Associations, Mother Teacher Associations, Tribal Autonomous Councils and other grass root level structures in the management of elementary schools. v. An expression of political will for universal elementary education across the country. vi. A partnership between the Central, State and the local government.vii. An opportunity for States to develop their own vision of elementary education 14
  15. 15. 1.10 AIMS OF SSA SSA is to provide useful and relevant elementary education for all children in the 6 to14 age group by 2010. There is also another goal to bridge social, regional and gender gaps,with the active participation of the community in the management of schools. Useful andrelevant education signifies a quest for an education system that is not alienating and thatdraws on community solidarity. Its aim is to allow children to learn about and master theirnatural environment in a manner that allows the fullest harnessing of their human potentialboth spiritually and materially. This quest must also be a process of value based learning thatallows children an opportunity to work for each others well being rather than to permit mereselfish pursuits. SSA realizes the importance of Early Childhood Care and Education and looks at the0-14 age as a continuum. All efforts to support pre-school learning in ICDS centres or specialpre-school centres in non ICDS areas will be made to supplement the efforts being made bythe Department of Women and Child Development.1.11 OBJECTIVES OF SSA i. All children in school, Education Guarantee Centre, Alternate School, Back-to- School camp by 2003. ii. All children complete five years of primary schooling by 2007. iii. All children complete eight years of elementary schooling by 2010. iv. Focus on elementary education of satisfactory quality with emphasis on education for life. v. Bridge all gender and social category gaps at primary stage by 2007 and at elementary education level by 2010. vi. Universal retention by 2010. 15
  16. 16. 1.12 NEED FOR A FRAMEWORK FOR IMPLEMENTATION i. To allow states to formulate context specific guidelines within the overall framework ii. To encourage districts in States and UTs to reflect local specificityiii. To promote local need based planning based on broad National Policy normsiv. To make planning a realistic exercise by adopting broad national norms. The objectives are expressed nationally though it is expected that various districts and States are likely to achieve universalisation in their own respective contexts and in their own time frame. 2010 is the outer limit for such achievements. The emphasis is on mainstreaming out-of-school children through diverse strategies, as far as possible, and on providing eight years of schooling for all children in 6-14 age group. The thrust is on bridging of gender and social gaps and a total retention of all children in schools. Within this framework it is expected that the education system will be made relevant so that children and parents find the schooling system useful and absorbing, according to their natural and social environment.1.13 BROAD STRATEGIES CENTRAL TO SSA PROGRAMME i. Institutional Reforms - As part of the SSA, the central and the State governments will undertake reforms in order to improve efficiency of the delivery system. The states will have to make an objective assessment of their prevalent education system including educational administration, achievement levels in schools, financial issues, decentralisation and community ownership, review of State Education Act, rationalization of teacher deployment and recruitment of teachers, monitoring and evaluation, status of education of girls, SC/ST and disadvantaged groups, policy regarding private schools and ECCE. Many States have already 16
  17. 17. carried out several changes to improve the delivery system for elementary education.ii. Sustainable Financing – SSA is based on the premise that financing of elementary education interventions has to be sustainable. This calls for a long - term perspective on financial partnership between the Central and the State governments.iii. Community Ownership - The programme calls for community ownership of school-based interventions through effective decentralisation. This will be augmented by involvement of womens groups, VEC members and members of Panchayati Raj institutions.iv. Institutional Capacity Building -The SSA conceives a major capacity building role for national, state and district level institutions like NIEPA / NCERT / NCTE / SCERT / DIET.v. Improvement in quality- It requires a sustainable support system of resource persons and institutions.vi. Improving Mainstream Educational Administration - It calls for improvement of mainstream educational administration by institutional development, infusion of new approaches and by adoption of cost effective and efficient methods.vii. Community Based Monitoring with Full Transparency - The Programme will have a community based monitoring system. The Educational Management Information System (EMIS) will correlate school level data with community- based information from micro planning and surveys. Besides this, every school will be encouraged to share all information with the community, including grants received. A notice board would be put up in every school for this purpose. 17
  18. 18. viii. Habitation as a Unit of Planning - The SSA works on a community based approach to planning with habitation as a unit of planning. Habitation plans will be the basis for formulating district plans.ix. Accountability to Community - SSA envisages cooperation between teachers and parents as well as accountability and transparency to the community.x. Priority to Education of Girls - Education of girls, especially those belonging to the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes and minorities, will be one of the principal concerns in SSA.xi. Focus on Special Groups - There will be a focus on the inclusion and participation of children from SC/ST, minority groups, urban deprived children disadvantaged groups and the children with special needs, in the educational process.xii. Pre-Project Phase - SSA will commence throughout the country with a well- planned pre-project phase that provides for a large number of interventions for capacity development to improve the delivery and monitoring system. These include provision for household surveys, community-based micro planning and school mapping, training of community leaders, school level activities, support for setting up information system, office equipment, diagnostic studies, etc.xiii. Thrust on Quality - SSA lays a special thrust on making education at the elementary level useful and relevant for children by improving the curriculum, child-centered activities and effective teaching learning strategies.xiv. Role of teachers - SSA recognizes the critical and central role of teachers and advocates a focus on their development needs. Setting up of Block Resource Centres/Cluster Resource Centres, recruitment of qualified teachers, opportunities for teacher development through participation in curriculum-related material 18
  19. 19. development, focus on classroom process and exposure visits for teachers are all designed to develop the human resource among teachers. xv. District Elementary Education Plans - As per the SSA framework, each district will prepare a District Elementary Education Plan reflecting all the investments being made and required in the elementary education sector, with a holistic and convergent approach. There will be a Perspective Plan that will give a framework of activities over a longer time frame to achieve UEE. There will also be an Annual Work Plan and Budget that will list the prioritized activities to be carried out in that year. The Perspective Plan will also be a dynamic document subject to constant improvement in the course of Programme Implementation. TABLE NO: 1.3 NORMS FOR INTERVENTIONS UNDER SSAS. No. INTERVENTION NORM 1. Teacher •One teacher for every 40 children in Primary and upper primary •At least two teachers in a Primary school •One teacher for every class in the upper primary 2. School / Alternative schooling • Within one Kilometre of every habitation facility • Provision for opening of new schools as per State norms or for setting up EGS like schools in unserved habitations. 3. Upper Primary schools/ Sector • As per requirement based on the number of children completing primary education, 19
  20. 20. up to a ceiling of one upper primary school/section for every two primary schools4. Classrooms •A room for every teacher in Primary & upper Primary, with the provision that there would be two class rooms with verandah to every Primary school with at least two teachers. • A room for Head-Master in upper Primary school/section5. Free textbooks • To all girls/SC/ST children at primary & upper primary level within an upper ceiling of Rs. 150/- per child • State to continue to fund free textbooks being currently provided from the State Plans.6. Civil works •Ceiling of 33% of SSA programme funds. • For improvement of school facilities. • It could also be used as an additional room. • No expenditure to be incurred on construction of office buildings •Districts to prepare infrastructure Plans.7. Maintenance and repair of school •Only through school management buildings committees/VECs 20
  21. 21. • Upto Rs. 5000 per year as per specific proposal by the school committee. • Must involve elements of community contribution8. Upgradation of EGS to regular • Provision for TLE @ Rs 10,000/- per school or setting up of a new Primary school school as per State norm • TLE as per local context and need • Involvement of teachers and parents necessary in TLE selection and procurement • VEC/ school-village level appropriate body to decide on best mode of procurement • Requirement of successful running of EGS centre for two years before it is considered for up-gradation. • Provision for teacher & classrooms.9. TLE for upper-primary • @ Rs 50,000 per school for uncovered schools. • As per local specific requirement to be determined by the teachers/ school committee • School committee to decide on best mode of procurement, in consultation with teachers 21
  22. 22. • School Committee may recommend district level procurement if there are advantages of scale.10. Schools grant • Rs. 2000/- per year per primary/upper primary school for replacement of non functional school equipment • Transparency in utilisation • To be spent only by VEC/SMC11. Provision for disabled children • Up to Rs. 1200/- per child for integration of disabled children, as per specific proposal, per year • District Plan for children with special needs will be formulated within the Rs. 1200 per child norm • Involvement of resource institutions to be encouraged12. Innovative activity for girls • Upto to Rs. 15 lakh for each innovative education, early childhood care & project and Rs. 50 lakh for a district per education, interventions for children year will apply for SSA belonging to SC/ST community, • ECCE and girls education interventions to computer education specially for have unit costs already approved under upper primary level other existing schemes.13. Management Cost • Not to exceed 6% of the budget of a district plan 22
  23. 23. • To include expenditure on office expenses, hiring of experts at various levels after assessment of existing manpower, etc. • Priority to experts in MIS, community planning processes, civil works, gender, etc. depending on capacity available in a particular district • Management costs should be used to develop effective teams at State/ District /Block/Cluster levels14. Interventions for out of school • As per norms already approved under children Education Guarantee Scheme & Alternative and Innovative Education, providing for the following kind of interventions • Setting up Education Guarantee Centres in unserved habitations • Setting up other alternative schooling models • Bridge Courses, remedial courses, Back- to-School Camps with a focus on mainstreaming out of school children into regular schools. (Source-www.ssa.nic.in) 23
  24. 24. 1.14 SUPERVISION OF ACTIVITIES UNDER SSA SSA requires regular supervision of activities. Ideally, the CRCs, BRCs. DIETs haveto be developed effectively to carry out supervision activities. Supervision teams will beperiodically sent by the National/ State Mission usually once in six months. Such supervisionvisits would also include the State specific resource institution that has undertaken the task ofresearch and supervision in that State/ Union Territory. Theme specific supervision visitsbesides the overall assessment visits would also be undertaken. Classroom observation byresource persons has also been provided for. States will work out their supervision/appraisal/monitoring and research Plans, based on the indication of resource availability asper the norm approved for such activities under the SSA (Rs. 1500 per school per year). Thisamount would be divided among the National/ State and District mission under SSA. Rs. 100per school will be spent at the National level. The State government will decide regarding thebalance amount to be spent on monitoring, research, supervision and evaluation at the variouslevels, from the school to the State level. Two supervision visits of at least three days each would be undertaken by theNational/ State level Mission each year, to each of the programme districts. Initially thesesupervision teams will be constituted by the National Mission in partnership with the States.Subsequently, States will constitute their own supervision teams. Each Supervision team willhave four Members, two from the State Mission and two from the National Mission.Representatives of National Resource institutions, State specific research institutions andUniversity Departments of education would be encouraged to participate in the supervisionteam. The non-governmental representatives who undertake supervision visits will be entitledto a modest honoraria, over and above the TA/DA.The visits will be coordinated by the Stateand the National Mission of SSA. Suitable supervision formats will be designed through 24
  25. 25. special workshops to be organised by national /state level resource institutions. Resourcepersons involved with training teachers will also undertake classroom observation. A modesthonoraria may be provided for non-governmental/ retired resource persons involved in thiswork. Members of DIET will be entitled toTA/DA for such visits.1.15 Budgetary Allocation and Expenditure During the Eleventh Five-Year Plan the Government of India‘s budget for SSA(including Kasturba Gandhi Balika Vidyalaya (KGBV) and National Programme forEducation of Girls at the Elementary Level) increased nearly 3-fold from Rs 21,360 crores inFY 2007-08 to Rs 61,734 crores in FY 2011-12. Expenditures have failed to keep pace. InFY 2007-08, over 70 percent of allocations were spent. This dropped to 61 percent in FY2011-12. While overall spending as a proportion of allocations has decreased, there has been animprovement in the timing of this spending. In FY 2007-08, 70 percent of the total fundswere spent in the last two quarters of the year. In FY 2011-12, expenditure was incurred moreevenly with 44 percent spent in the first two quarters and 56 percent in the last two quarters1.16 Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna (MBCY) In 1890‘s bicycles was a product for everyone in western world. Soon, bicyclesbecame safe and popular, transcending penny farthings, women took to them and feministsdubbed them ―freedom machines‖. It was said bicycles accomplished more for women‘ssensible attire than all reform movements put together. Fifty years ago, Friedrich Hayekwrote a book titled The Constitution of Liberty. This is what it said: ―It would now beentirely practicable to defray the costs of general education out of the public purse withoutmaintaining government schools, by giving the parents vouchers covering the cost of 25
  26. 26. education of each child which they could hand over to schools of their choice. It may still bedesirable that government directly provide schools in a few isolated communities where thenumber of children is too small (and the average cost of education therefore too high) forprivately run schools.‖ The mid-term appraisal of the Eleventh Five-Year Plan has the followingcongratulatory words: ―The Sarv SSA, in combination with the Mid Day Meal Scheme, hassucceeded in achieving near universal enrolment in primary schools.‖ It then laments highdrop-out rates and low retention. Enrolment, even drop-outs, is fundamentally a girl-child problem, especially in formerlybackward states like Bihar. It is no one‘s case that cycles alone led to success. MBCY is thebrain child of present Chief Minister of Bihar Shri. Nitish Kumar. In Nitish Kumar‘s Bihar,MBCY is now covering madrassas too. It was a scheme started in 2006. Through this, girlswho pass Standard VIII are given bicycles, once they enrol in Standard IX. More accurately,girls who pass Standard VIII are disbursed (through schools) Rs 2,000 to purchase bicycles.In three years, from 2007-08 to 2009-10, 871,000 girls have got bicycles. It is a universalscheme, no debates about BPL (below the poverty line), the only criterion being enrolment inStandard IX, with the submission of receipts for cycles and uniforms. The numbers reflect a dramatic impact: Since 2007-08, Bihar has spent Rs174.36crores on cycles for 871,000 school girls. Girls enrolling in schools in the state have shot upfrom 160,000 in 2006-07 to 490,000 in 2009-10. Dropouts among girls declined to one million from about 2.5 million in 2006. Theplan has released a pent-up hunger for learning. It‘s brought in a ―sense of urgency in thegirls and they want to excel. By providing them bicycles, the government has helped us 26
  27. 27. groom their talents,‖ says Manisha Ranjan, a biology teacher in High School Desari inBihar‘s Vaishali district, 55km from Hajipur, the district headquarters. The Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna - which has given a boost to femaleeducation and womens participation in society - dispenses money to all girls in governmentschools who, despite the odds, have managed to reach Class Eight with more than 80 per centattendance. The idea is that a bicycle increases their mobility and enables them to travel free-of-cost to school, reducing at least one major family expense . Sometimes the most obvioussolutions are also the right ones, acting as instruments of change. For one, the cycles havebridged distances to schools, and secondly, have given girls in a largely patriarchal society asense of independence and of purpose.1.17 ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT Academic achievement or academic performance is the outcome of education — theextent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals.Academic achievement is commonly measured by examinations or continuousassessment but there is no general agreement on how it is best tested or which aspects aremost important — procedural knowledge such as skills or declarative knowledge suchas facts. The term achievement is defined as ―accomplishment or proficiency of performancein a given skill or body of knowledge‖. Academic achievement also denotes the knowledgeattained and skill developed in the school subject, usually designated by test scores. School achievement may be affected by various factors like intelligence, study habits,and attitudes of pupil towards school, different aspects of their personality, socio economicstatus, etc. The desire of success is derived from individual‘s concept of himself and in termsof the meaning of various incentives as they spell success and failure in the eye of others. 27
  28. 28. Thus a child who sees himself as top ranking, as scholars, may set as his goal the attainmentof the highest grade in the class. In our society academic achievement is considered as a key criterion to judge onestotal potentiality and capability. Hence academic achievement occupies a very importantplace in education as well as in the learning process. i. Crow and Crow (1969), defined Academic Achievement as the ―extent to which a learner is profiting from instructions in a given area of learning i.e., achievement is reflected by the extent to which skill or knowledge has been imparted to him‖. ii. According to Good (1976), ― the knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects are usually developed by teachers.‖ iii. The Dictionary of Psychology (Atkinson, Berne and Woodworth, 1988) defines achievement as a specified level of proficiency in scholastic or academic work. iv. Reber (1985) defines academic achievement as Academic achievement also denotes the knowledge attained and skill developed in the school subject, usually designed by test scores. The level of achieving is how far a student succeeds in a particular exam or standardized test Academic achievement has become an index of students future in this highlycompetitive world. It has been one of the most important goals of the educational process. Itis also a major goal, which every individual is expected to perform in all cultures. Academicachievement is a key mechanism through which adolescents learn about their talents, abilitiesand competencies which are an important part of developing career aspirations (Lent; Brown 28
  29. 29. and Hackett, 2000). Assessing students progress means identifying what he has achieved.Acquiring skills in academic matters is important as a means of attaining completerealization.1.18 HIGH ACHIEVEMENT Characteristics of individuals with high achievement motivation include anorientation toward problem-solving and moderate challenges. i. Moderate Challenge: Individuals with high achievement motivation prefer tasks and problems that involve moderate levels of difficulty. Usually, these individuals gravitate toward challenging but achievable goals where their abilities and efforts can affect the outcome. ii. Personal Rewards: Instead of deriving motivation from the potential for rewards, individuals with high achievement motivation use rewards, such as professional recognition and financial gain, as a way to measure their accomplishments. These individuals place a higher value on a personal sense of achievement. iii. Relevant Feedback: Another characteristic of individuals with high achievement motivation is the desire for feedback. These individuals do not seek feedback about their own personal qualities but instead about the success of their efforts. Feedback serves as way to measure the effectiveness of their work. iv. Problem-Solving: Individuals with high achievement motivation also have a strong orientation toward problem-solving. They spend extensive time thinking about potential solutions to current problems, as well as actively considering and analyzing additional possibilities for improvement. v. Interpersonal Skills: Due to their focus on achievement and accomplishment, individuals with high achievement motivation are often characterized by poor 29
  30. 30. interpersonal skills as well. These individuals have a tendency to overemphasize results and have difficulty managing people effectively. vi. Determination: High achievers tend to be persistent and determined, and are not afraid of putting in the time and effort that is required to reach their goals. They actually prefer tasks that are moderately challenging and are not easily swayed to give up in the face of failure.vii. Passion: One implicit attribute to achievement is passion, or an individuals inherent enjoyment regarding a subject or achieving in itself. Having a natural passion for learning or performing can be a great asset in the path toward achievement.viii. Competitiveness: Many high achievers have a natural inclination toward competition and enjoy striving to be the very best. These individuals may have a high investment in their self-image and seek recognition from others to validate their self-worth. ix. Self-Control: Experiments have shown that children who are able to exhibit self- control and delay gratification are much more capable of high achievement.1.19 MOTIVATION The word ‘Motivation‘ has been derived from the Latin word ‗mover‘ means to putinto action or to move. So it is a process of assuring movement in the organism. The processthat put the organism into physiological or psychological action and by which man becomesable to fulfill his needs and desires is called motivation. Motivation means – ‗wants‘, striving, desire, need, motive, goal, aspiration, wish, aim,ambition, hunger. It is a process by which an individual is inspired to do something. It is oneof the most important conditions which aid learning. ‗To motive is to induce movement.‘Motivation is broad based term and encompasses many aspects of behaviour. 30
  31. 31. i. ARKINSION (1964) ―The term motivation refers to the arousal of tendency to set act produce one or more effects.‖ ii. MCDONALD (1996) ―Motivation is change of power structure in a human being which is related to stimulus and reaching a goal.‖ From definition we come to know about three dimensions of motivation:- a. Motivation takes it origin from the change in energy level. b. Motivation is an inspiration that affects the personality. By it psychic tension is aroused. c. Motivation is backed by a desire to reach a goal. iii. H.W.BERNARD (1981) ―Motivation refers to all those phenomena which are involved in the stimulation of action towards the particular objectives where previously there was little or no movement towards these goals.‖Motivation refers to a definite set of mind of the child which inspires him to reach his goal.So to motivate the student to develop in the learning process, that would enable him to reachhigher goal in his future life.1.20 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF MOTIVATION i. To enable students to clarify their objectives for personal and professional development. ii. To identify the opportunities offered by a Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA). iii. To enable students to recognize personal skills affecting their ability to adapt to living and working abroad. iv. To develop strategies for operating competently in another country. v. To increase the potential for acquiring personal transferable organizational skills and enhance their employability. 31
  32. 32. vi. To reflect on the process of intercultural learning inherent to the nature of their placements.vii. To audit personal and professional skills acquired during the PRA.viii. To reflect on the ability to adapt to living and working abroad and the implications for future employment. ix. To develop strategies for further developing the potential for intercultural professional skills and enhance their employability1.21 Components of Motivation There are three major components to motivation: activation, persistence and intensity.Activation involves the decision to initiate behaviour, such as enrolling in a psychology class.Persistence is the continued effort toward a goal even though obstacles may exist, such astaking more psychology courses in order to earn a degree although it requires a significantinvestment of time, energy and resources. Finally, intensity can be seen in the concentrationand vigour that goes into pursuing a goal. For example, one student might coast by withoutmuch effort, while another student will study regularly, participate in discussions and takeadvantage of research opportunities outside of class.1.22 Extrinsic Vs. Intrinsic Motivation Different types of motivation are frequently described as being either extrinsic orintrinsic. Extrinsic motivations are those that arise from outside of the individual and ofteninvolve rewards such as trophies, money, social recognition or praise. Intrinsic motivationsare those that arise from within the individual, such as doing a complicated cross-word puzzlepurely for the personal gratification of solving a problem. 32
  33. 33. 1.33 Achievement MotivationThis is involved where students learn in the hope of success. Ausubel suggests that there arethree elements in motivation of this type: (a) Cognitive drive—the learner is attempting to satisfy a perceived need to know (b) Self enhancement—the learner is satisfying the need for self-esteem; (c) Affiliation—the learner is seeking the approval of others.1.34 HIERARCHICAL MODEL OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION A new model for achievement motivation combines the two most prominent theories:the achievement motive approach and the achievement goal approach. Achievement motivesare the need to achieve and the fear of failure; these direct us toward positive or negativebehaviours. The three types of achievement goals are performance-approach goals,performance-avoidance goals and mastery goals. The performance-approach goal is when aperson improves to be better at something than others are. Performance avoidance isimproving to not look inept in front of others. A mastery goal is when a person improvessimply for the sake of getting better regardless of outside social influences. 33
  34. 34. Figure No. : 1.2 MODEL OF ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION Achievement Goal Conceptualization Self-Worth Motivation Achievement Goals1. Achievement Goals: Achievement goals affect achievement-related behaviours. Twotypes of achievement-related attitudes are task involvement and ego involvement. Taskinvolvement is when the main goal is to learn skills or understanding. People with egoinvolvement want to demonstrate superior abilities.2. Self-Worth Motivation: Self-worth theory states that in certain situations students standto gain by not trying and deliberately withholding effort. 34
  35. 35. 3. Achievement Goal Conceptualization: Achievement goal theorists label bothperformance and mastery goals as "approach" motivation.1.25 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY We study that the schemes of government is good on paper but it is not benefitting themasses though the government pat its back after getting initial success. This study is relatedto the academic achievement and the attitude of girls towards Mukhyamantri Balika CycleYojna‘, who are supposed to be benefitted under this scheme. This study is related to the factthat whether this cycle scheme plays any role in the education of girls and affects theirachievement and outlook towards studies and school. This study will also evaluate theimpact of government scheme on the mobility of girls‘ for education. Hence the researcherwill focus on the transformation in the society‘s outlook towards girl‘s education in Bihar.1.26 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Education is the necessity of life. Education makes human capable of living insociety. In modern context this has become more relevant. It is the duty of the government toprovide education to every child and it is the right of every child to have an equal opportunityto good education. Bihar, where centuries old dogmas has kept education out of reach ofwomen, a man with a good thought is helping girls to break this barrier . His revolutionarycycle scheme has made school closer to home. Girls now have access to school, and theirparents don‘t have to spend a single penny on their education. Despite of all these steps has society changed? This is still a question which exists inthe minds of the people. The mentality of people has changed for more female friendlysociety. Girls now come to school, but do these schools provide effective learning. Thesequestions are yet to be answered. In this research the researcher is trying to answer these 35
  36. 36. question with a proof, to see how far Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna, has affected theteaching learning process in girls and helpful in motivating them.1.27 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEMThe Effect of Chief Minister‘s Cycle Scheme on the Academic Achievement and Motivationof High School Girls‘ in Muzaffarpur District : A Study1.28 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF THE TERM i. Academic achievement- The achievement of the girls as scored in the multi-subject achievement test. ii. Motivation- The score of girls in the motivation according to their response in the motivation for MBCY questionnaire. iii. High school- In the Indian context high school means class 9th and class 10th. iv. Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna (MBCY) - The scheme of Bihar Government to provide girls of government high school with cycle. This scheme is also referred as cycle scheme in the research. v. Girls- The girls from government high schools of Bihar who are benefitted under MBCY. 1.29 GENERAL OBJECTIVES 1. To study the academic achievement of high school girls falling under Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna. 2. To study the motivation of high school girls under Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna. 3. To study the relationship of academic achievement and motivation of high school girls falling under Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna. 36
  37. 37. 4. To study the influence of motivation on academic achievement of high school girls falling under Mukhyamantri Balika Cycle Yojna.1.30 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVESAcademic Achievement 1. To find out whether there is any significant difference between urban and rural girls in their academic achievement. 2. To find out whether there is any significant difference between pre-matric and post matric education of girls‘ father in their academic achievement. 3. To find out whether there is any significant difference between pre-matric and post- matric education of girls‘ mother in their academic achievement. 4. To find out whether there is any significant difference between government and aided schools girls in their academic achievement. 5. To find out whether there is any significant difference between below Rs. 40000 and above Rs. 40000 annual income of girls‘ family in their academic achievement.Motivation 6. To find out whether there is any significant difference between urban and rural girls in their motivation. 7. To find out whether there is any significant difference between pre matric and post matric education of girls‘ father in their motivation. 8. To find out whether there is any significant difference between pre-matric and post- matric education of girls‘ mother in their motivation. 9. To find out whether there is any significant difference between government and minority-aided schools girls in their motivation. 37
  38. 38. 10. To find out whether there is any significant difference between below Rs. 40000 and above Rs. 40000 annual income of girls‘ family in their motivation.Relationship between Academic Achievement and Motivation 11. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of urban girls. 12. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of rural girls. 13. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of pre-matric education of girls‘ father. 14. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of post -matric education of girls‘ father. 15. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of pre-matric education of girls‘ mother. 16. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of post -matric education of girls‘ mother 17. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls‘ family in their family income being below Rs. 40000. 18. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls‘ family in their family income being below Rs. 40000. 19. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls of minority aided school. 20. To find out whether there is any significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls of government school. 38
  39. 39. INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 21. To find out whether there is any significant influence of motivation on academic achievement.1.31 NULL HYPOTHESESACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 1. There is no significant difference between urban and rural girls in their academic achievement. 2. There is no significant difference between pre-matric and post-matric education of girls‘ father in their academic achievement. 3. There is no significant difference in between pre-matric and post-matric education of girls‘ mother in their academic achievement. 4. There is no significant difference between government and minority-aided school girls in their academic achievement. 5. There is no significant difference in the below Rs. 40000 and above Rs. 40000 annual income of girls‘ family in their academic achievement.MOTIVATION 6. There is no significant difference between urban and rural girls in their motivation. 7. There is no significant difference between pre-matric and post-matric education of girls‘ father in their motivation. 8. There is no significant difference in between pre-matric and post-matric education of girls‘ mother in their motivation. 9. There is no significant difference between government and minority-aided school girls in their motivation. 39
  40. 40. 10. There is no significant difference in the below Rs. 40000 and above Rs. 40000 annual income of girls‘ family in their motivation.RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT AND MOTIVATION 11. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of urban girls. 12. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of rural girls. 13. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of pre-matric education of girls‘ father. 14. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of post -matric education of girls‘ father. 15. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of pre-matric education of girls‘ mother. 16. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of post -matric education of girls‘ mother 17. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls‘ family in their family income being below Rs. 40000. 18. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls‘ family in their family income being below Rs. 40000. 19. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls of minority aided school. 20. There is no significant relationship between academic achievement and motivation of girls of government school. 40
  41. 41. INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATION ON ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT 21. There is no significant influence of motivation on academic achievement of girls.1.32 TOOLS PROPOSED TO USE 1. Multi-Subject Achievement test (2012), constructed and validated by Amrita Singh, M.ED. scholar,St. Xavier‘s college of Education, Digha , Patna under guidance of Dr. (Fr.) Tom Perumalil S.J. 2. Self constructed and validated motivation test (2012), by Vinci Viveka under guidance of Dr. (Fr.) Ignatius Topno, S.J.1.33 METHODS PROPOSED TO USE The investigator has proposed to adopt Survey Method for the present study.1.34 POPULATION FOR THE STUDY The population selected for the study is high school girls of government schools of Bihar.1.35 SAMPLE For this study, 250 samples of high school girls were randomly chosen from threegovernment schools of Muzaffarpur district.1.36 STATISTICAL TECHNIQUES TO USE i) Mean ii) Standard deviation iii) T-test iv) Correlation 41
  42. 42. 1.37 DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDYi) The researcher has taken the sample from Muzaffarpur district.ii) Only 250 girls students are taken as sample.iii) The present study has been limited only to government schools. 42

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