Marxism Background 1. Marxism is a philosophy of a system of social and political analysis. 2. Karl Marx took the idea from Hegel – individual develop ideas to improve and develop society. 3. This idea was further developed by Marx and Frederick Engels. 4. During industrial revolution the society was dived into – [owned means of production] and [laborers]. 5. His theory is set in the backgrounds of French revolution during 19th century.What does Marxism says:- 1) Hegel’s - thesis, antithesis and synthesis. 2) Class less society 3) Dialectical materialism and historical materialism 4) Economics is the basis of society, not the ideas. 5) Criticism of religion- the divine theory.Meta physics 1. Matter is reality-outlook to material world is the conception of nature. 2. Matter is ultimate real than god; its eternal- god less philosophy 3. Man itself is the product of nature. - Productive animal. 4. Life is the product of non living matter. 5. Reason, thought and consciousness the product of human brain. 6. The mind is the reflection of this material reality. 7. Universe is infinite and it will continue to exist.Believes in Darwin theory of evolution 8. .Dialectical materialism.Epistemology a. Objectivity of science.Truth of science and discard all religious faithPerception gives correct impression of things when we directly know them.True belief, not supernatural becomes knowledge – when it is tested, investigated and proved by evidences.Knowledge can be applied only to material world. Testing knowledge throughout the history is valuable source for gaining knowledge. b. Science and practice refine knowledge.
Axiology Class less society. People own the natural resources. Working class seizes the problem. Religion is “opium “of the people. Man posses not individual freedom but find its freedom in the following the collective will of the people. Social purpose for gaining knowledge service of the state. Marxism in education.1) Central Aim i. Strengthen the state. ii. Building the class less society iii. Knowledge is not required for own sake but for the service of the state.2) Curriculum i. Productive work-vocational education. ii. Gymnastic. iii. Study of history scientifically. iv. Social science to study the conflicts of class struggle. v. Practical activities.3) Discipline i. Rigid4) School and administration i. Importance of nursery education. ii. State is sole agency of education no decentralization.
iii. Compulsory education at school stage. iv. Free education at all levels v. Methods of education, books, evaluation system is centrally controlled and administered by the state.5) Methods of teaching i. Practical activities. ii. Group work. iii. Scientific approach.