Migration And Demography

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  • Migration And Demography

    1. 1. Migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
    2. 2. Migration and Health Saturday, February 21, 2009
    3. 3. Migration and Health Health Impact Saturday, February 21, 2009
    4. 4. Migration and Health Health Impact Definitions Saturday, February 21, 2009
    5. 5. Migration and Health Health Impact Definitions Flawed Assumptions Saturday, February 21, 2009
    6. 6. Migration and Health Health Impact Definitions Flawed Assumptions Contributory Factors Saturday, February 21, 2009
    7. 7. Health Impact Saturday, February 21, 2009
    8. 8. Health Impact Individual Saturday, February 21, 2009
    9. 9. Health Impact Individual Community Saturday, February 21, 2009
    10. 10. Health Impact Individual Community Epidemiological Saturday, February 21, 2009
    11. 11. Health Impact Individual Community Epidemiological Service Demands Saturday, February 21, 2009
    12. 12. Internal Migration Out In Saturday, February 21, 2009
    13. 13. Internal Migration Out In Manchester Liverpool Lancaster S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    14. 14. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 Liverpool Lancaster S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    15. 15. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 19.0 Liverpool 15.8 Lancaster S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    16. 16. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 19.0 Liverpool 15.8 6.8 Lancaster 8.0 S. Lakeland 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    17. 17. Internal Migration Out In 30.6 Manchester 27.7 19.0 Liverpool 15.8 6.8 Lancaster 8.0 4.5 S. Lakeland 5.3 0 8 16 24 32 40 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    18. 18. International Migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
    19. 19. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Saturday, February 21, 2009
    20. 20. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Asylum Seekers Saturday, February 21, 2009
    21. 21. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Asylum Seekers Refugees Saturday, February 21, 2009
    22. 22. International Migration 'Legal/illegal' Asylum Seekers Refugees Economic Migrants Saturday, February 21, 2009
    23. 23. Immigration and re- emigration Saturday, February 21, 2009
    24. 24. Immigration and re- emigration Between half and two thirds of immigrants from the EU, North America and Oceania re-emigrate within 5 years. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    25. 25. Immigration and re- emigration Between half and two thirds of immigrants from the EU, North America and Oceania re-emigrate within 5 years. 15% of those from the Indian Subcontinent re emigrate within 5 years. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    26. 26. Neo Classical Economic Theory Saturday, February 21, 2009
    27. 27. Neo Classical Economic Theory Macro level factors: geographical differences in age,employment and capital investment opportunities Saturday, February 21, 2009
    28. 28. Neo Classical Economic Theory Macro level factors: geographical differences in age,employment and capital investment opportunities Push and pull factors: Place of origin- poverty, unemployment Destinations - high standard of living standard, job opportunities. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    29. 29. Neo Classical Economic Theory Macro level factors: geographical differences in age,employment and capital investment opportunities Push and pull factors: Place of origin- poverty, unemployment Destinations - high standard of living standard, job opportunities. Individual decides whether or not to emigrate: maximise of income and skills perceived financial and psychological costs Saturday, February 21, 2009
    30. 30. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Saturday, February 21, 2009
    31. 31. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Saturday, February 21, 2009
    32. 32. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    33. 33. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Saturday, February 21, 2009
    34. 34. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Saturday, February 21, 2009
    35. 35. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    36. 36. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Emigration of individual is result of household decision-making. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    37. 37. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Emigration of individual is result of household decision-making. Emigration helps to diversify income sources Saturday, February 21, 2009
    38. 38. New Economics of Migration (Stark, 1981) Expansion of macro level factors: Volatility/failures of local markets. Lack of livelihood risk insurance Lack of access to credit Emigrant remittances (money sent home) provides risk insurance for non-migrating household members. Emigration of individual is result of household decision-making. Emigration helps to diversify income sources Remittances provide a steady source of income. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    39. 39. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Saturday, February 21, 2009
    40. 40. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Saturday, February 21, 2009
    41. 41. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Main cause of emigration - structural labour needs of modern economies in destination areas Saturday, February 21, 2009
    42. 42. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Main cause of emigration - structural labour needs of modern economies in destination areas Shortage of labour in low status/low income jobs. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    43. 43. Dual Labour Market Theory (Piore, 1979) Focus on pull factors in destination areas Main cause of emigration - structural labour needs of modern economies in destination areas Shortage of labour in low status/low income jobs. Objective of host population is upward mobility away from low status/ low income jobs (then filled by immigrants) Saturday, February 21, 2009
    44. 44. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Saturday, February 21, 2009
    45. 45. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    46. 46. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Globalization brings about social change and alters traditional employer/labour relations Saturday, February 21, 2009
    47. 47. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Globalization brings about social change and alters traditional employer/labour relations Introduction of modern means of production pushes unskilled workers out of jobs. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    48. 48. World Systems Theory (Wallerstein, 1974, Massey, 1989) Main cause of emigration is Economic and Political Globalization. Globalization brings about social change and alters traditional employer/labour relations Introduction of modern means of production pushes unskilled workers out of jobs. Market penetration in poor countries affects local aspirations increasing emigration motivation. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    49. 49. The European response to migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
    50. 50. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Saturday, February 21, 2009
    51. 51. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Saturday, February 21, 2009
    52. 52. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Saturday, February 21, 2009
    53. 53. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Saturday, February 21, 2009
    54. 54. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Saturday, February 21, 2009
    55. 55. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections Saturday, February 21, 2009
    56. 56. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections • Restrictive policies for non-EU citizens Saturday, February 21, 2009
    57. 57. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections • Restrictive policies for non-EU citizens Implementation of harsher national legislative frameworks both on immigration and asylum Saturday, February 21, 2009
    58. 58. The European response to migration • Free mobility of labour for EU nationals: Abolition of red-tape Equivalence of qualifications Social security and welfare recognition Removal of physical border controls Right of vote to non-nationals in local and European elections • Restrictive policies for non-EU citizens Implementation of harsher national legislative frameworks both on immigration and asylum Greater co-ordination of European immigration policies Saturday, February 21, 2009
    59. 59. Irish Mental Health Saturday, February 21, 2009
    60. 60. Irish Mental Health Highest suicide rate for all BME and host population in England and Wales Overall 53% excess suicide Males 20- 29- 75% excess Females almost 3 x higher suicide rates Hospital admissions 1996- 22:1000 for Irish women compared to 6:1000 for white women and 7:1000 for black women Saturday, February 21, 2009
    61. 61. Demographic Change Saturday, February 21, 2009
    62. 62. Why demography is important Saturday, February 21, 2009
    63. 63. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    64. 64. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Saturday, February 21, 2009
    65. 65. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Saturday, February 21, 2009
    66. 66. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Saturday, February 21, 2009
    67. 67. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Fertility, morbidity and mortality Saturday, February 21, 2009
    68. 68. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Fertility, morbidity and mortality Migration Saturday, February 21, 2009
    69. 69. Why demography is important Estimation of current social needs and prediction of future social needs. Size Distribution Structure- age, gender, ethnicity, wealth Fertility, morbidity and mortality Migration Future trends Saturday, February 21, 2009
    70. 70. ‘The demographic time bomb’ Saturday, February 21, 2009
    71. 71. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    72. 72. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone Saturday, February 21, 2009
    73. 73. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone • The number of people aged over 85 is predicted to increase by 138% in the next 30 years. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    74. 74. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone • The number of people aged over 85 is predicted to increase by 138% in the next 30 years. • One in five people between 45-64 provided care for someone else in 1995/6 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    75. 75. ‘The demographic time bomb’ • In 1991 around 4,400 people were aged 100 yrs. compared to 600 in 1961. • 71% of women over 75 live alone • The number of people aged over 85 is predicted to increase by 138% in the next 30 years. • One in five people between 45-64 provided care for someone else in 1995/6 • Only 9.6% of households where the oldest adult was between 75-84 yrs. received home care from local authorities in 1997. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    76. 76. Households % living alone lone parent Saturday, February 21, 2009
    77. 77. Households % living alone lone parent 12 8 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    78. 78. Households % living alone lone parent 12 8 12 11 8 4 6 4 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    79. 79. Households % living alone lone parent 12 8 12 11 10 10 8 4 6 6 4 4 3 0 1961 1971 1981 1991 2000 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    80. 80. UN Migration Scenario To maintain the ratio of 15-64 year olds to 65+ year olds constant requires: Saturday, February 21, 2009
    81. 81. Health and Illness Saturday, February 21, 2009
    82. 82. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 Saturday, February 21, 2009
    83. 83. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 • Less than 1.5% of 65-69 year olds have dementia Saturday, February 21, 2009
    84. 84. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 • Less than 1.5% of 65-69 year olds have dementia • But prevalence rises to10-13% for 80-84 year olds and reaches 32- 38% amongst adults over 90. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    85. 85. Health and Illness • The prevalence of dementia roughly doubles every five years after 65 • Less than 1.5% of 65-69 year olds have dementia • But prevalence rises to10-13% for 80-84 year olds and reaches 32- 38% amongst adults over 90. • Less than 7% of adults over 65 have dementia. Saturday, February 21, 2009
    86. 86. Images of older people Saturday, February 21, 2009
    87. 87. Images of Older People Saturday, February 21, 2009
    88. 88. Social and Cultural Factors Saturday, February 21, 2009
    89. 89. Social and Cultural Factors • The impact of ageing on physical and mental well being is significantly influenced by social and cultural factors such as: Saturday, February 21, 2009
    90. 90. Social and Cultural Factors • The impact of ageing on physical and mental well being is significantly influenced by social and cultural factors such as: – Personal and social expectations about work, exercise levels, dependency and autonomy Saturday, February 21, 2009
    91. 91. Social and Cultural Factors • The impact of ageing on physical and mental well being is significantly influenced by social and cultural factors such as: – Personal and social expectations about work, exercise levels, dependency and autonomy – The political and social influence of older people in society Saturday, February 21, 2009

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