mechanical valves

1,173 views

Published on

Published in: Engineering, Business
  • Be the first to comment

mechanical valves

  1. 1. VALVESVALVES
  2. 2. Valve:Valve: Any Device for closing orAny Device for closing or modifying the passage throughmodifying the passage through a pipe, outlet, inlet or likely toa pipe, outlet, inlet or likely to stop, allow or control the flowstop, allow or control the flow of a media.of a media.
  3. 3.  Valve cost is upto 20 to 30% of the piping costValve cost is upto 20 to 30% of the piping cost for a plant, depending on the process; and thefor a plant, depending on the process; and the cost of a given type and size of valve can varycost of a given type and size of valve can vary 100%, depending on its construction.100%, depending on its construction.  Thus theThus the selection of valves is extremelyselection of valves is extremely important to the economics, as well asimportant to the economics, as well as operationoperation, of process plants., of process plants.  The size of a valve is mainly determined by theThe size of a valve is mainly determined by the size of its ends, which connect to the pipe.size of its ends, which connect to the pipe.
  4. 4. CLASSIFICATION OF VALVESCLASSIFICATION OF VALVES G A T E V A L V E B A L L V A L V E P L U G V A L V E P I S T O N V A L V E D I A P H R A G M V A L V E B U T T E R F L Y V A L V E P I N C H V A L V E I S O L A T I O N G L O B E V A L V E N E E D L E V A L V E B U T T E R F L Y V A L V E D I A P H R A G M V A L V E P I S T O N V A L V E B A L L V A L V E P L U G V A L V E P I N C H V A L V E R E G U L A T I O N S W I N G C H E C K V A L V E L I F T C H E C K V A L V E C H E C K V A L V E N O N R E T U R N M U L T I P O R T V A L V E S F L U S H B O T T O M V A L V E S F L O A T V A L V E S F O O T V A L V E S L I N E B L I N D V A L V E S K N I F E G A T E V A L V E S S P E C I A L P U R P O S E B A S E D O N F U N C T I O N S
  5. 5. S C R E W E D E N D S S O C K E T W E L D E N D S F L A N G E D E N D S B U T T W E L D E N D S W A F E R T Y P E E N D S B a s e d o n e n d c o n n e c tio n s
  6. 6. C A S T IR O N D U C T I L E I R O N B R O N Z E G U N M E T A L C A R B O N S T E E L S T A I N L E S S S T E E L A L L O Y C A R B O N S T E E L P O L Y P R O P Y L E N E G L A S S B A S E D O N C O N S T R U C T I O N M A T E R I A L
  7. 7. in B a ll a n d B u t te r f ly v a lv e s H a n d le v e r in G a t e ,G lo b e a n d D ia p h r a g m v a lv e s H a n d w h e e l C h a in G e a r E le c t r ic P n e u m a t ic H y d r a u lic P o w e r e d S o le n o id f o r s m a ll P lu g v a lv e s W r e n c h B a s e d o n o p e r a t o rs
  8. 8. VALVES:VALVES: Basic Parts:Basic Parts: 1.Body1.Body 2.Bonnet2.Bonnet 3.Stem3.Stem 4.Disc4.Disc 5.Seat5.Seat 6.Port6.Port 7.Seal (includes Gasket,7.Seal (includes Gasket, Metal Bellows)Metal Bellows)
  9. 9. Body:Body: --The Body & Bonnet houses the stem.--The Body & Bonnet houses the stem. -- Selection of the material to fabricate the interior of-- Selection of the material to fabricate the interior of the wall body is important if the valve is used for thethe wall body is important if the valve is used for the process of chemical.process of chemical. --Some Valves may be obtained with the entire interior--Some Valves may be obtained with the entire interior of theof the body lined with corrosion resistantbody lined with corrosion resistant material.material.
  10. 10. Bonnet:Bonnet:  The Bonnet is a part which is attached with the bodyThe Bonnet is a part which is attached with the body of the valve.of the valve. The Bonnet is classified on the type ofThe Bonnet is classified on the type of attachmentattachment as Bolted, Bellow, Sealed, Screwed-on,as Bolted, Bellow, Sealed, Screwed-on, Welded, Union, Pressure Sealed etc.,Welded, Union, Pressure Sealed etc., Stem:Stem:  The Stem moves the disc.The Stem moves the disc.  In some valves the fluid under pressure does theIn some valves the fluid under pressure does the work of the stem.work of the stem.
  11. 11. --There are two categories of screwed stem.--There are two categories of screwed stem. ((a)a) Rising Stem:Rising Stem: Hand wheel can either rise with the stem, or stem canHand wheel can either rise with the stem, or stem can rise through the stationary hand wheel.rise through the stationary hand wheel. (b)(b) Non-Rising Stem:Non-Rising Stem:  The Hand Wheel and the stem are in the sameThe Hand Wheel and the stem are in the same position weather the valve is opened or closed.position weather the valve is opened or closed.  In this case, the screw is inside the Bonnet and inIn this case, the screw is inside the Bonnet and in contact with the fluid.contact with the fluid.
  12. 12. DISC, SEAT & PORT:DISC, SEAT & PORT:  The part directly affecting the flow is termed asThe part directly affecting the flow is termed as DiscDisc regardless of its shape.regardless of its shape.  The Non-moving part the body bears is termed asThe Non-moving part the body bears is termed as seat.seat.  TheThe portport is the maximum internal opening for flow.is the maximum internal opening for flow.
  13. 13. SEAL:SEAL:BETWEEN STEM AND BONNET:BETWEEN STEM AND BONNET: -- Gasket is used in between a bolted bonnet and valve-- Gasket is used in between a bolted bonnet and valve body.body. -- Metal Bellows where high vaccum or corrosive,-- Metal Bellows where high vaccum or corrosive, flammable fluids are to be handled.flammable fluids are to be handled. -- Flanged Valves use gasket to seal against the line-- Flanged Valves use gasket to seal against the line flanges.flanges. -- Butterfly Valves may extend the resilient seat to also-- Butterfly Valves may extend the resilient seat to also serves as line gaskets .serves as line gaskets .
  14. 14. Based on the shape of the port these valvesBased on the shape of the port these valves can be classified into,can be classified into,   (1)(1)Regular pattern:Regular pattern:  They have plug ports generally rectangularThey have plug ports generally rectangular in section and have area substantially equalin section and have area substantially equal to full bore of the pipe.to full bore of the pipe. (2)(2) Short pattern:Short pattern:  Face to face dimensions corresponding toFace to face dimensions corresponding to gate valves.gate valves.    (3)(3) Venturi pattern:Venturi pattern:  They have reduced port area.ThusThey have reduced port area.Thus producing a venturi effect to restore a largeproducing a venturi effect to restore a large percentage of velocity head loss through thepercentage of velocity head loss through the valve and produce a resultant total pressurevalve and produce a resultant total pressure drop of relatively low order.drop of relatively low order.
  15. 15. __ OperatorOperator:: This is a device, which opens or closes aThis is a device, which opens or closes a valve. Different devices are available.valve. Different devices are available. MANUAL OPERATORSMANUAL OPERATORS (1)(1) Hand leverHand lever:: It is used to actuate the stems of smallIt is used to actuate the stems of small butterfly, ball, plug valves and cocks. Wrench operationbutterfly, ball, plug valves and cocks. Wrench operation is used for cocks and small plug valves.is used for cocks and small plug valves.  (2) Hand Wheel(2) Hand Wheel:: It is the most common means ofIt is the most common means of rotating the stem on the majority of popular smallerrotating the stem on the majority of popular smaller valves such as gate, globe and diaphragm. Hammervalves such as gate, globe and diaphragm. Hammer blow or impact hand wheels that may be substituted forblow or impact hand wheels that may be substituted for normal hand wheels, if easier operation is needed butnormal hand wheels, if easier operation is needed but where gearing is unnecessary offer additional operatingwhere gearing is unnecessary offer additional operating torque for gate and globe valves.torque for gate and globe valves.
  16. 16. (3) Chain:(3) Chain: It is used where a hand wheel would be out ofIt is used where a hand wheel would be out of reach.reach.  The stem is fitted with a chain wheel or wrench (for leverThe stem is fitted with a chain wheel or wrench (for lever operated valves) and loop of the chain is brought withinoperated valves) and loop of the chain is brought within one meter of working floor level.one meter of working floor level. (4)(4)GearGear :: These are used to reduce the operating torque.These are used to reduce the operating torque. For manual operation, it consists of a hand wheel operatedFor manual operation, it consists of a hand wheel operated gear train actuating the valve stem.gear train actuating the valve stem.  As a thumb rule, gear operators should be consideredAs a thumb rule, gear operators should be considered for valves of 350 mm NB and larger upto 300#, 200 mmfor valves of 350 mm NB and larger upto 300#, 200 mm NB and larger upto 600#, 150 mm NB and larger uptoNB and larger upto 600#, 150 mm NB and larger upto 1500# and 100 mm NB and larger for higher ratings.1500# and 100 mm NB and larger for higher ratings.
  17. 17.  §§   Pneumatic and HydraulicPneumatic and Hydraulic :: These may be usedThese may be used where flammable vapour is likely to be present. They arewhere flammable vapour is likely to be present. They are of following forms:of following forms:  §§   Cylinder with double acting piston driven by air, water,Cylinder with double acting piston driven by air, water, oil or other liquid, which usually actuates the stemoil or other liquid, which usually actuates the stem directly.directly.  §§   Air motor, which actuates the stem through gearing.Air motor, which actuates the stem through gearing. These motors are commonly piston and cylinder radialThese motors are commonly piston and cylinder radial type.type.  §§  A double acting vane with limited rotary movement in aA double acting vane with limited rotary movement in a sector casing, actuating the stem directly.sector casing, actuating the stem directly.
  18. 18.  POWERED OPERATORS:POWERED OPERATORS:  Electric Geared Motor:Electric Geared Motor: Geared MotorGeared Motor moves the valve stem. This is useful formoves the valve stem. This is useful for operating large valves in remote areas.operating large valves in remote areas.  SolenoidSolenoid:: These can be used for fastThese can be used for fast acting check valves, and with on/off valvesacting check valves, and with on/off valves in light-duty instrumentation applications.in light-duty instrumentation applications.
  19. 19. VALVES IN DETAIL:VALVES IN DETAIL: Gate valve:Gate valve:  They function as block valves.They function as block valves.  75% of all valves in process industries are75% of all valves in process industries are gate valves.gate valves.  Gate valves are not suitable to throttle flowGate valves are not suitable to throttle flow because it will pass maximum flow when it isbecause it will pass maximum flow when it is partially open.partially open.  The end flanges can be integrally cast into theThe end flanges can be integrally cast into the body.(ref:ANSI B16.5 for flanged connections).body.(ref:ANSI B16.5 for flanged connections).
  20. 20.  Also for welded connections(ref:ANSI B16.11Also for welded connections(ref:ANSI B16.11 for weld/screw connections).for weld/screw connections). There are two types of port designsThere are two types of port designs (1)(1) Full port design:Full port design: The net area of the bore through the seat isThe net area of the bore through the seat is as nearly as equal to the pipe size.as nearly as equal to the pipe size. (2)(2) Reduced port design:Reduced port design: The port diameter is normally one size lessThe port diameter is normally one size less than the size of the pipe.than the size of the pipe.
  21. 21. Gate valveGate valve Flow in Flow out
  22. 22. GATE VALVE PRESSURE-SEAL BONNET GATE VALVE BOLTED BONNET FLEX WEDGE
  23. 23. BALL VALVE:BALL VALVE:  Ball valves function as both block valves andBall valves function as both block valves and flow regulating(special design) valves.flow regulating(special design) valves.  Quarter turn positive shut off valves.Quarter turn positive shut off valves.  Suited for conditions where quick on-offSuited for conditions where quick on-off and/or bubble tight shut off is required.and/or bubble tight shut off is required.  Soft seats are usually used only for lowSoft seats are usually used only for low temperature services.temperature services.  Metal seated ball valves are used for highMetal seated ball valves are used for high temperature services.temperature services.
  24. 24.  Soft seats are not normally used for throttlingSoft seats are not normally used for throttling because of erosion or distortion/displacementbecause of erosion or distortion/displacement caused by fluid.caused by fluid.  The Pressure – Temperature ratings areThe Pressure – Temperature ratings are established based on the seating material.established based on the seating material.  Offers minimum resistance to flow.Offers minimum resistance to flow. Advantages: Easy Operation. Low torque. Low Pressure Drop. Economical. Excellent Sealing.( Used in Vacuum Services)
  25. 25. -- Two designs are available.-- Two designs are available. (1)(1) Regular port design:Regular port design: The port diameter will be smaller than theThe port diameter will be smaller than the pipe inside diameter. Normally the portpipe inside diameter. Normally the port diameter is one size less than the pipediameter is one size less than the pipe diameter.diameter. (2)(2) Full port Design:Full port Design: The port diameter of the valve will be theThe port diameter of the valve will be the same as that of the pipe inside diameter.same as that of the pipe inside diameter.
  26. 26. PLUG VALVE:PLUG VALVE:  Plug valves are quarter turn positive shut off valves.Plug valves are quarter turn positive shut off valves.  Well suited for quick ON/OFF, AND/OR bubble tight shutWell suited for quick ON/OFF, AND/OR bubble tight shut off.off.  Not normally used for throttling, because soft seats areNot normally used for throttling, because soft seats are subjected to erosion.subjected to erosion.  Lesser resultant total pressure drop across the valve.Lesser resultant total pressure drop across the valve.  In certain designs,a low friction Poly Tetra Fluro EthyleneIn certain designs,a low friction Poly Tetra Fluro Ethylene (PTFE) is impregnated on the surface structure of the(PTFE) is impregnated on the surface structure of the valve plug.valve plug.
  27. 27. Based on sealing,Based on sealing, Lubricated metal seated plug valves:Lubricated metal seated plug valves:  The lubrication of the seating surfaces is byThe lubrication of the seating surfaces is by means of lubricant,which is fed into themeans of lubricant,which is fed into the operating surfaces.operating surfaces.
  28. 28. Cross Section of a Plug Valve:Cross Section of a Plug Valve:
  29. 29. ADVANTAGES OF PLUGADVANTAGES OF PLUG VALVE:VALVE:  Used in Oil & Gas Industries.Used in Oil & Gas Industries.  Fly Ash Applications.Fly Ash Applications.  Plug & Body Seating Surfaces which are lapped &Plug & Body Seating Surfaces which are lapped & matched aren’t exposed to the line fluid, which reducematched aren’t exposed to the line fluid, which reduce the corrosion and Erosion loses.the corrosion and Erosion loses.  Fire Safety.Fire Safety.  Reduced torque.Reduced torque.  Online Maintenance.Online Maintenance.
  30. 30. Butterfly valve:Butterfly valve: -- They are quarter turn positive shut off valve.-- They are quarter turn positive shut off valve. -- Seats are made of PTFE with certain-- Seats are made of PTFE with certain reinforcement.reinforcement. -- Valves up to 12” are operated with lever.-- Valves up to 12” are operated with lever. -- Higher diameter valves are provided with gear-- Higher diameter valves are provided with gear unit and hand wheel.unit and hand wheel. -- These valves are wear resistant.-- These valves are wear resistant. -- Elastomers have higher life expectancy-- Elastomers have higher life expectancy than conventional metallic seated valvesthan conventional metallic seated valves when used in high density mineral slurrywhen used in high density mineral slurry services.services. -- Generally used for line sizes >8”.-- Generally used for line sizes >8”. Cross Sectional
  31. 31. WRENCH CONTROLED WAFER TYPE BUTTERFLY VALVE HAND WHEEL CONTROLED BUTTERFLY VALVES
  32. 32. GLOBE VALVE:GLOBE VALVE: -- Globe valves are mainly used to throttle the fluid flow.-- Globe valves are mainly used to throttle the fluid flow. -- Smaller sizes are hand controlled.-- Smaller sizes are hand controlled. -- Application of larger size valves are limited to bypass-- Application of larger size valves are limited to bypass control valve stations.control valve stations. -- Provide relatively tight shut off.-- Provide relatively tight shut off. -- Valve patterns involve change in flow directions.-- Valve patterns involve change in flow directions. -- The discs of globe valves shall be flat-faced type,-- The discs of globe valves shall be flat-faced type, plug type,ball type,needle type,port type.plug type,ball type,needle type,port type. -- Commonly used for pipe sizes up to 8”-- Commonly used for pipe sizes up to 8” -- High pressure drop across valve.-- High pressure drop across valve.
  33. 33. CHECK VALVE:CHECK VALVE: -- Check valves prevent flow reversal.-- Check valves prevent flow reversal. -- Typical check valve applications are in pump and-- Typical check valve applications are in pump and compressor discharge piping.compressor discharge piping. -- Valves with discs provide lower resistance to flow of-- Valves with discs provide lower resistance to flow of working fluid than those that contain balls or pistons.working fluid than those that contain balls or pistons. -- The later are often used where there is an angular-- The later are often used where there is an angular change in flow stream.change in flow stream. -- Ball and lift check valves are used for sizes 2” and-- Ball and lift check valves are used for sizes 2” and smaller.smaller. -- Swing check and Plate check valves are used for higher-- Swing check and Plate check valves are used for higher pipe sizes.pipe sizes. -- Major types are as below.-- Major types are as below.
  34. 34. SWING CHECK VALVES:SWING CHECK VALVES: ----The disc swings freely in the form of anThe disc swings freely in the form of an arc.arc. --Valve is kept open by the flow and disc--Valve is kept open by the flow and disc seating is accomplished by gravityseating is accomplished by gravity and/or flow reversal.and/or flow reversal. -- When used in vertical lines the flow-- When used in vertical lines the flow should be upwards only.should be upwards only.
  35. 35. SWING CHECK VALVE-SWING CHECK VALVE- WORKING:WORKING:
  36. 36. LIFT CHECK VALVES:LIFT CHECK VALVES: -- Basic types are piston lift check valve,Ball lift-- Basic types are piston lift check valve,Ball lift check valve etc.,check valve etc., -- Used for sizes ½” to 2”.-- Used for sizes ½” to 2”. -- Reverse flow forces piston or ball against seat.-- Reverse flow forces piston or ball against seat. -- Used to control vertical flow.-- Used to control vertical flow.
  37. 37. THE PRESSURE RELIEF VALVE Drawing and simulation of a direct operating pressure relief valve: left: valve closed; middle: symbol of a direct operating pressure relief valve according to ISO 1219; right: simulation of an operating pressure relief valve Description: The pressure relief valve is mounted at the pressure side of the hydraulic pump. It's task is to limit the pressure in the system on an acceptable value. In fact a pressure relief valve has the same construction as a spring operated check valve. When the system gets overloaded the pressure relief valve will open and the pump flow will be leaded directly into the hydraulic reservoir. The pressure in the system remains on the value determined by the spring on the pressure relief valve! In the pressure relief valve the pressure (=energy) will be converted into heat.For that reason longtime operation of the pressure relief valve should be avoided. Closed position Open position
  38. 38. DIAPHRAGM VALVE:DIAPHRAGM VALVE: ---- These valves are used for low pressureThese valves are used for low pressure corrosive services as shut off valve.corrosive services as shut off valve. -- These can also be used as control valves.-- These can also be used as control valves. -- Here the diaphragm moves up and down to-- Here the diaphragm moves up and down to operate the valve.operate the valve. -- The major parts of diaphragm valves are,-- The major parts of diaphragm valves are, 1.Body1.Body 2.Diaphragm2.Diaphragm 3.Bonnet3.Bonnet 4.Stem4.Stem 5.Stem bushing5.Stem bushing 6.Compressor6.Compressor 7.Hand wheel7.Hand wheel 8.Bonnet bolting.8.Bonnet bolting.
  39. 39. CONTROL VALVES &CONTROL VALVES & PRESSURE REGULATORS:PRESSURE REGULATORS: -- Control valves automatically regulates temperature,-- Control valves automatically regulates temperature, pressure,level and flow rate for any process variables.pressure,level and flow rate for any process variables. -- The control valve is usually chosen to be smaller than-- The control valve is usually chosen to be smaller than line size to avoid throttling and consequent rapid wear ofline size to avoid throttling and consequent rapid wear of the seat.the seat. -- Globe pattern valves are normally used for control and-- Globe pattern valves are normally used for control and their ends are usually flanged for ease oftheir ends are usually flanged for ease of maintenance.The disc is moved by hydraulic,pneumaticmaintenance.The disc is moved by hydraulic,pneumatic or electrical operators.or electrical operators. -- Control valves of globe type which adjusts downstream-- Control valves of globe type which adjusts downstream pressure of liquid or gas to a set pressure is called aspressure of liquid or gas to a set pressure is called as Pressure regulators.Pressure regulators.
  40. 40.    Fig shows how a control valve can be used to control the rate of flow in a line.Fig shows how a control valve can be used to control the rate of flow in a line. --Here flow rate is related to the pressure drop across the sensing element.--Here flow rate is related to the pressure drop across the sensing element. --The controller receives the pressure signals,compares them with the--The controller receives the pressure signals,compares them with the pressure drop for the desired flow and thus if the actual flow is different ,itpressure drop for the desired flow and thus if the actual flow is different ,it adjusts the control valve to increase or decrease the flow.adjusts the control valve to increase or decrease the flow.
  41. 41. VALVE SELECTION PROCESS:VALVE SELECTION PROCESS: -- The steps that follow provide a general procedure for-- The steps that follow provide a general procedure for selecting valve components,selecting valve components, 1. Determine operation-on/off, regulating, special1. Determine operation-on/off, regulating, special purpose.purpose. 2. Determine type of conveyed fluid-liquid,gas,slurry or2. Determine type of conveyed fluid-liquid,gas,slurry or powder.powder. 3. Determine nature of fluid:3. Determine nature of fluid:  Neutral services:Neutral services: Oil,Drinking water, Nitrogen, Gas, Air.Oil,Drinking water, Nitrogen, Gas, Air.  Corrosive service:Corrosive service: Acid,Alkaline.Acid,Alkaline.  Hygienic services:Hygienic services: Food,Drugs.Food,Drugs.  Slurry:Slurry: Suspension of solid particles in the fluid media.Suspension of solid particles in the fluid media. 4.Pressure and temperature of conveyed fluid.4.Pressure and temperature of conveyed fluid. 5.Method of operating stem: consider closing time.5.Method of operating stem: consider closing time. 6.Cost.6.Cost. 7.Availability.7.Availability. 8.Installation problems:Such as welding valves into8.Installation problems:Such as welding valves into lines.lines.
  42. 42. Hydro testsHydro tests Pneumatic TestsPneumatic Tests Fugitive Emission & Helium Leak TestsFugitive Emission & Helium Leak Tests Cryogenic TestsCryogenic Tests Fire TestsFire Tests Hot & Cold Cyclic TestsHot & Cold Cyclic Tests Seismic TestsSeismic Tests Natural Frequency TestsNatural Frequency Tests Static Load SimulationStatic Load Simulation Pipe End Reaction TestsPipe End Reaction Tests TESTS CONDUCTED ON VALVES:
  43. 43. Valve after Cryogenic Test Fire Test
  44. 44. Cryogenic TestCryogenic Test FacilityFacility TESTING FACILITIES: 42” Trunnion-mounted42” Trunnion-mounted Ball Valve undergoingBall Valve undergoing Hydro testHydro test
  45. 45. TERMS USED FOR VALVESTERMS USED FOR VALVES SPECIFICATION:SPECIFICATION:    1.Pressure-Temperature ratings:1.Pressure-Temperature ratings: It is the maximum allowable sustained non-It is the maximum allowable sustained non- shock pressure at the corresponding tabulatedshock pressure at the corresponding tabulated temperaturetemperature Reference standards:Reference standards: ANSI B 16.34 & ANSI B 16.5.ANSI B 16.34 & ANSI B 16.5. 2.Class:2.Class: As per American standard,As per American standard, Class 150#Class 150#     Class 300#Class 300#           Class 600#Class 600# Class 900#Class 900# Class 1500#Class 1500#         Class 2500#Class 2500# Class 4500#Class 4500#
  46. 46.  Material Standards-Material Standards- ASTMASTM (America Society for Testing and(America Society for Testing and Materials)Materials)  Dimensional Standards-Dimensional Standards-ANSIANSI (American National Standards(American National Standards Institute)Institute)  Adapted byAdapted by ASMEASME (American Society for Mechanical(American Society for Mechanical Engineers) Engineers)   The American Petroleum Institute (API)The American Petroleum Institute (API) Standards for SomeStandards for Some Commonly used Valves are as follows: Commonly used Valves are as follows:   API 6D – Pipe Line Valves, End Closures, Connectors andAPI 6D – Pipe Line Valves, End Closures, Connectors and SwivelsSwivels  API 6F – Recommended Practice for Fire Test valvesAPI 6F – Recommended Practice for Fire Test valves  API 593 – Ductile Iron Plug Valves – Flanged EndsAPI 593 – Ductile Iron Plug Valves – Flanged Ends  API 598 – Valves Inspection and TestAPI 598 – Valves Inspection and Test  API 600 – Steel Gate ValvesAPI 600 – Steel Gate Valves  API 602 – Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate ValvesAPI 602 – Compact Design Carbon Steel Gate Valves  API 604 – Ductile Iron Gate Valves – Flanged EndsAPI 604 – Ductile Iron Gate Valves – Flanged Ends  API 607 – Fire Test for Soft Seated Ball ValvesAPI 607 – Fire Test for Soft Seated Ball Valves
  47. 47. The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Standardsfor SomeThe American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI), Standardsfor Some Commonly used Valves are as follows:Commonly used Valves are as follows: American Welding Society (AWS)American Welding Society (AWS)   American Water Works Association (AWWA)American Water Works Association (AWWA) These Standards refer to the piping elements required for lowThese Standards refer to the piping elements required for low pressure water services.pressure water services. These are less stringent than other standards. Valves, Flanges etc.,These are less stringent than other standards. Valves, Flanges etc., required for larger diameter water pipe lines are covered underrequired for larger diameter water pipe lines are covered under this standard and are referred rarely by the piping Engineers.this standard and are referred rarely by the piping Engineers.    C – 500 : Gate Valves for Water and sewage systemC – 500 : Gate Valves for Water and sewage system C – 510 : Cast Iron Sluice Gate ValvesC – 510 : Cast Iron Sluice Gate Valves C – 504 : Rubber Seated Butterfly ValvesC – 504 : Rubber Seated Butterfly Valves C – 507 : Ball Valves 6” to 48”C – 507 : Ball Valves 6” to 48” C – 508 : Swing Check Valves 2” to 24”C – 508 : Swing Check Valves 2” to 24” C – 509 : Resilient Seated Gate Valves for Water and sewageC – 509 : Resilient Seated Gate Valves for Water and sewage      
  48. 48. The Manufacturers Standardization Society of Valves and FittingThe Manufacturers Standardization Society of Valves and Fitting Industry – Standard Practices (MSS – SP):Industry – Standard Practices (MSS – SP):   In addition to the above standards and material codes, there areIn addition to the above standards and material codes, there are standard practices followed by the manufacturers and arestandard practices followed by the manufacturers and are widely used.widely used. The most Common MSS-SP standards referred for Valves are asThe most Common MSS-SP standards referred for Valves are as follows:follows: MSS – SP – 42 : Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe and checkMSS – SP – 42 : Class 150 corrosion resistant gate, globe and check valvesvalves MSS – SP – 61 : Pressure testing of valvesMSS – SP – 61 : Pressure testing of valves MSS – SP – 67 : Butterfly ValvesMSS – SP – 67 : Butterfly Valves MSS – SP – 68 : High Pressure off seat butterfly valvesMSS – SP – 68 : High Pressure off seat butterfly valves MSS – SP – 70 : Cast iron gate valvesMSS – SP – 70 : Cast iron gate valves MSS – SP – 71 : Cast iron check valvesMSS – SP – 71 : Cast iron check valves MSS – SP – 72 : Ball ValvesMSS – SP – 72 : Ball Valves MSS – SP – 78 : Cast iron plug valvesMSS – SP – 78 : Cast iron plug valves MSS – SP – 80 : Bronze gate, globe and check valvesMSS – SP – 80 : Bronze gate, globe and check valves MSS – SP – 85 : Cast iron globe valvesMSS – SP – 85 : Cast iron globe valves MSS – SP – 88 : Diaphragm valvesMSS – SP – 88 : Diaphragm valves MSS – SP – 108 : Resilient seated eccentric CI plug valvesMSS – SP – 108 : Resilient seated eccentric CI plug valves
  49. 49. BRITISH STANDARDS (BS):BRITISH STANDARDS (BS):    The following are some of British Standards referred by IndianThe following are some of British Standards referred by Indian Manufacturers for Valves:Manufacturers for Valves:    BS 970 : Steel for Forging, Bars, Rods, valves steel, etcBS 970 : Steel for Forging, Bars, Rods, valves steel, etc BS 1212 : Specification for Float Operated ValvesBS 1212 : Specification for Float Operated Valves BS 1414 : Gate Valves for Petroleum IndustryBS 1414 : Gate Valves for Petroleum Industry BS 1868 : Steel Check Valves for Petroleum IndustryBS 1868 : Steel Check Valves for Petroleum Industry BS 1873 : Steel Globe and Check Valves for Petroleum IndustryBS 1873 : Steel Globe and Check Valves for Petroleum Industry BS 2080 : Face to Face / End to End dimensions of ValvesBS 2080 : Face to Face / End to End dimensions of Valves BS 5150 : Cast Iron Wedge and Double Disc Gate Valves forBS 5150 : Cast Iron Wedge and Double Disc Gate Valves for general purposesgeneral purposes BS 5151 : Cast Iron Gate (Parallel slide) Valves for general purposesBS 5151 : Cast Iron Gate (Parallel slide) Valves for general purposes BS 5152 : Cast Iron Globe and Check Valves for general purposesBS 5152 : Cast Iron Globe and Check Valves for general purposes BS 5153 : Cast Iron Check Valves for general purposesBS 5153 : Cast Iron Check Valves for general purposes BS 5154 : Copper alloy Globe, Gate and Check ValvesBS 5154 : Copper alloy Globe, Gate and Check Valves BS 5155 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Butterfly Valves for generalBS 5155 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Butterfly Valves for general purposespurposes
  50. 50. BS 5156 : Diaphragm Valves for general purposesBS 5156 : Diaphragm Valves for general purposes BS 5157 : Steel Gate (parallel slide) Valves for general purposesBS 5157 : Steel Gate (parallel slide) Valves for general purposes BS 5158 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Plug Valves for general purposesBS 5158 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Plug Valves for general purposes BS 5159 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Ball Valves for general purposesBS 5159 : Cast Iron and Cast Steel Ball Valves for general purposes BS 5160 : Flanged Steel Globe and Check Valves for general purposesBS 5160 : Flanged Steel Globe and Check Valves for general purposes BS 5163 : Flanged Cast Iron Wedge Gate Valves, smaller than 2”NBBS 5163 : Flanged Cast Iron Wedge Gate Valves, smaller than 2”NB BS 5353 : Specification for Plug ValvesBS 5353 : Specification for Plug Valves BS 5433 : Specifications for underground stop valves for waterBS 5433 : Specifications for underground stop valves for water BS 6364 : Specifications for Valves for Cryogenic servicesBS 6364 : Specifications for Valves for Cryogenic services BS 6755 : Testing of ValvesBS 6755 : Testing of Valves BS 6759 : Safety ValvesBS 6759 : Safety Valves
  51. 51. INDIAN STANDARDS : Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)INDIAN STANDARDS : Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS)   Unlike American Standards, Indian Standards cover DimensionalUnlike American Standards, Indian Standards cover Dimensional and material Specifications under the same Standard Number:and material Specifications under the same Standard Number: The following are some of the commonly referred Indian standardsThe following are some of the commonly referred Indian standards by Piping Engineers:by Piping Engineers:   IS 778 : Specification for Copper Alloy Gate, Globe and CheckIS 778 : Specification for Copper Alloy Gate, Globe and Check ValvesValves IS 780 : Specification for Sluice Valves – 50 NB to 300 NBIS 780 : Specification for Sluice Valves – 50 NB to 300 NB IS 2906 : Specification for Sluice Valves – 350 NB to 1200 NBIS 2906 : Specification for Sluice Valves – 350 NB to 1200 NB IS 4038 : Specifications for Foot ValvesIS 4038 : Specifications for Foot Valves IS 5312 : Specification for Check ValvesIS 5312 : Specification for Check Valves IS 6157 : Inspection and Testing of ValveIS 6157 : Inspection and Testing of Valve IS 10605 : Steel Globe Valves for Petroleum IndustriesIS 10605 : Steel Globe Valves for Petroleum Industries IS 10611 : Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum IndustriesIS 10611 : Steel Gate Valves for Petroleum Industries IS 10805 : Foot ValvesIS 10805 : Foot Valves IS 11790 : Code of practice for preparation of Butt welding ends forIS 11790 : Code of practice for preparation of Butt welding ends for valves, flanges and fittingsvalves, flanges and fittings IS 11792 : Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum IndustryIS 11792 : Steel Ball Valves for Petroleum Industry IS 13095 : Butterfly ValvesIS 13095 : Butterfly Valves    DIN standards of Germany and JIS standards of Japan.DIN standards of Germany and JIS standards of Japan.
  52. 52. ERECTION TIPS:ERECTION TIPS:  Gate/ Globe Stem to be erected in vertical direction toGate/ Globe Stem to be erected in vertical direction to avoid the chances of leakage.avoid the chances of leakage.  Check Valve to be erected in Horizontal and according toCheck Valve to be erected in Horizontal and according to the flow of direction marked in the valve.the flow of direction marked in the valve.  While lifting Higher size Gate valves, Integral By-passWhile lifting Higher size Gate valves, Integral By-pass lines should not be used for lifting purpose.lines should not be used for lifting purpose.  If Valves are tested with water, Valve internals to be driedIf Valves are tested with water, Valve internals to be dried by Nitrogen/ Air.by Nitrogen/ Air.
  53. 53. Quality needs:Quality needs:  ISO 9001-2000.ISO 9001-2000.  API Spec Q1.API Spec Q1.  API 6A.API 6A.  API 6D (Product Specification).API 6D (Product Specification).  IBR.IBR.
  54. 54. SRIRAM AROON

×