Basel 2


Published on

An introduction to Basel 2

Published in: Economy & Finance, Business
  • hey y dont u let us download it? plzzzzzzzz
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hi,

    Great job making these slides.

    I am preparing a presentation on Basel-II so it will be of great help if you can please email me these slides at:

    Many thanks,
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • hi! your slides are very comprehensive.

    I will need them for further reference.

    please send it to

    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Good informative slide
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Hi,
    I am pursuing for FRM. And need info on Basel II. Could you please share this PPT?? or send me the file on

    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Basel 2

  1. 1. BASEL II – An Overview Girish V S
  2. 2. Economic Objectives <ul><li>Efficiency : best use of capital across business lines, impetus for risk based pricing and operational cost savings </li></ul><ul><li>Stability : ensure capital protection consistent with shareholder value optimization </li></ul>
  3. 3. Economic Objectives <ul><li>Growth sustainability : balanced Portfolio risk and return </li></ul><ul><li>Equity : level competitive playing field across(big and small) banks </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Three Pillars <ul><li>The First Pillar - Minimum Capital Requirements </li></ul><ul><li>The Second Pillar - Supervisory Review Process </li></ul><ul><li>The Third Pillar - Market Discipline </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pillar 1 <ul><li>Calculation of the total minimum capital requirements for credit, market and operational risk. </li></ul><ul><li>The minimum capital requirements are composed of three fundamental elements: a definition of regulatory capital, risk weighted assets and the minimum ratio of capital to risk weighted assets. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Credit Risk <ul><li>The standardised approach </li></ul><ul><li>The Internal Ratings-Based Approach </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advanced </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Credit Exposure Classes <ul><li>Sovereigns - countries, central banks and multilaterals with 0% risk </li></ul><ul><li>Banks and non-banks- banks, investment houses, securities firms </li></ul><ul><li>Retail -individuals/persons & their guarantees(credit card, personal loan, rem, small business) or pools of these loans with similar characteristics </li></ul>
  11. 12. Credit Exposure Classes <ul><li>Sme - exposure to individual owner, partners and enterprises owned by group usually with government incentives or programs </li></ul>
  12. 13. Coverage And Compliance <ul><li>110 signatory countries (ye 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>All banks, investment houses and securities firms, asset/fund management companies and bank owned/controlled insurance companies. </li></ul>
  13. 14. C & C <ul><li>Banking areas affected : regulatory compliance, audits, risk management practices, accounting standards, financial products and services, human resources, it/systems </li></ul>
  14. 15. Standardized Approach
  15. 16. Internal Ratings Based
  16. 17. FIRB VS. AIRB
  17. 18. IRB <ul><li>Borrower risk rating - inherent creditworthiness without considering facility type or security arrangements. Transformed into a PD </li></ul><ul><li>Facility risk rating -risk rating considering the various security arrangements or credit risk mitigation techniques(thus lower LGD values) </li></ul>
  18. 19. IRB <ul><li>Collaterals </li></ul><ul><li>Netting </li></ul><ul><li>Guarantees and credit derivatives </li></ul>
  19. 20. LGD Valuations <ul><li>FOUNDATION IRB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CI REAL ESTATE= 35% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RECEIVABLES FULLY SECURED LOANS=35% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>OTHER PHYSICAL COLLATERALS=40% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UNSECURED LOANS=50% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FINANCIAL ASSETS (SCALED BY HAIRCUTS)= 0.5-15% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SUBORDINATED CLAIMS=75% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ADVANCED IRB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>BANK OWN ESTIMATES </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Credit Risk Mitigants <ul><li>Collateral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Standard haircuts(issuer,rating, tenor, type) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark to market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational risks(eg. Legal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concentration risks </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Credit Risk Mitigants <ul><li>Netting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Master netting legal agreements(net positions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marked to market all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transactions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Currency and maturity mismatches </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creditderivatives/guarantees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counterparty/issuer risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Derivatives documentation (legal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market risks </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Credit Risk Impact
  23. 24. Credit Risk Impact <ul><li>IRB estimated to reduce credit risk capital charges by 2-3% versus standardized approach. Another possible 10-20% capital charge reduction versus foundation approaches. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Key Basel Compliance Requirements <ul><li>Reliable historical credit statistics: default rates, recoveries (e.G. Market valuation of collaterals), portfolio concentration data, financial statement analysis/ratio history and projections, exposure valuation) </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive credit risk analysis and portfolio modeling Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated central exposure system with on line Analysis/processing functions </li></ul>
  25. 26. Key Compliance Requirements <ul><li>Robust internal ratings </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of credit risk/var models </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate credit risk rating and modelling software </li></ul>
  26. 27. Market Risk Compliance <ul><li>Timely and accurate daily mark to market accounting/data and valuation of fx and securities portfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Reliable and robust value at risk model Including historical simulation/ backtesting And stress testing results </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated on line market risk monitoring And control system </li></ul><ul><li>Well trained users(back, front and middle Office) </li></ul>
  27. 28. Ops Risk <ul><li>The Basic Indicator Approach </li></ul><ul><li>The Standardised Approach </li></ul><ul><li>Advanced Measurement Approach </li></ul>
  28. 29. Ops Risk Impact
  29. 30. Operating Risk Compliance <ul><li>High awareness level of operational risk and Control inherent in all business processes, their Likelihood and financial loss impact significance </li></ul><ul><li>Timely and reliable information /monitoring of key Operational risk indicators/events (transaction Volume, financials, tat, system downtimes, control Exceptions, process errors etc) to form part of Operational event loss data base </li></ul>
  30. 31. Operating Risk Compliance <ul><li>Establishing minimum risk control Benchmarks/standards and gaps versus actuals </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive operational risk & control training </li></ul><ul><li>Robust operational risk models (loss given event, Probability of loss, exposure indicators) </li></ul>
  31. 32. Pillar 2 – Supervisory Review <ul><li>Intended not only to ensure that banks have adequate capital to support all the risks in their business, but also to encourage banks to develop and use better risk management techniques in monitoring and managing their risks. </li></ul><ul><li>Supervisors are expected to evaluate how well banks are assessing their capital needs relative to their risks and to intervene, where appropriate. </li></ul>
  32. 33. Pillar 2 <ul><li>Three main areas suited to treatment under Pillar 2: </li></ul><ul><li>Risks considered under Pillar 1 that are not fully captured by the Pillar 1 process (e.g. credit concentration risk) </li></ul><ul><li>Those factors not taken into account by the Pillar 1 process (e.g. interest rate risk in the banking book, business and strategic risk) </li></ul><ul><li>Factors external to the bank (e.g. business cycle effects). </li></ul>
  33. 34. Four Key Principles of Supervisory Review <ul><li>Principle 1: Banks should have a process for assessing their overall capital adequacy in relation to their risk profile and a strategy for maintaining their capital levels. </li></ul>
  34. 35. Four Key Principles <ul><li>Principle 2: Supervisors should review and evaluate banks’ internal capital adequacy assessments and strategies, as well as their ability to monitor and ensure their compliance with regulatory capital ratios. Supervisors should take appropriate supervisory action if they are not satisfied with the result of this process. </li></ul>
  35. 36. Four Key Principles <ul><li>Principle 3: Supervisors should expect banks to operate above the minimum regulatory capital ratios and should have the ability to require banks to hold capital in excess of the minimum. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Four Key Principles <ul><li>Principle 4: Supervisors should seek to intervene at an early stage to prevent capital from falling below the minimum levels required to support the risk characteristics of a particular bank and should require rapid remedial action if capital is not maintained or restored. </li></ul>
  37. 38. Pillar 3 Market Discipline <ul><li>The purpose of Pillar 3 - market discipline is to complement the minimum capital requirements (Pillar 1) and the supervisory review process (Pillar 2). </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage market discipline by developing a set of disclosure requirements which will allow market participants to assess key pieces of information on the scope of application, capital, risk exposures, risk assessment processes, and hence the capital adequacy of the institution. </li></ul>
  38. 39. Challenges <ul><li>Establishing a sound credit risk Rating system </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing risk management Infrastructure: var based Measurement using central data Repository and risk engines </li></ul><ul><li>Capital allocation by Business:higher returns to Compensate higher risks </li></ul><ul><li>Establishing a risk based culture </li></ul>