AUDITORIUM LIGHTINGDesign CriteriaAppearance of Space and LuminairesThe appearance of the space and luminaires is somewhat important in the auditorium. The auditorium will hold seminarswith special speakers; therefore, the space and luminaires need to be aesthetically pleasing.Color Appearance (and Color Contrast)•Color appearance can affect visibility and aesthetics.•A color rendering index (CRI) of 70 or above is acceptable when dealing with educational facilities; however, a CRI greaterthan 80 may be needed in order to ensure a pleasant appearance of skin tones.•Since the auditorium will have special speakers and guest lecturers, a CRI of 80 or greater will be beneficial.•A CCT should be around 3500 K in order to provide a warmer feel to the space.Light Distribution on Surfaces•Harsh striated patterns of excessive brightness or noticeable shadows should be avoided.•Illuminance patterns should correspond with objects of the space.•Ceiling and walls should have luminances within a 3:1 ratio.•Acoustical panels are on the upper portion of the wall. Depending on the appearance of the panels, a decision will be madeon whether or not to make the light on the walls uniform or non-uniform.Light Distribution on Task Plane (Uniformity)•Patterns of light on the task plane should be uniform.•The desks in the room are used for reading and writing.•The task illuminance should be higher than the immediate surroundings.•The illuminance of the speaker should also be illuminated greater than the surrounding tasks (approximately 25-30 fc).Source/Task/Eye Geometry•Extremely important to a lecture hall is the source/task/eye geometry.•The angular relationships between the viewer, the task, and the luminaire are frequently critical to task visibility.•This should not be an issue due to the height of the ceiling.
Illuminance (Horizontal)•The IESNA handbook calls for a horizontal illuminance of 50 lux (5 fc) on the work plane for auditoriums.•When the projection screen is in use, a horizontal illuminance of 50 lux (5 fc) on the work plane is needed.Illuminance (Vertical)•The IESNA handbook recommends a vertical illuminance of 30 lux (3 fc) when the projection screen is inuse.•The points of interest for vertical illuminance include the chalkboard, the speaker, and the projectionscreen.•Note that the projection screen should be a lower illuminance than the surrounding space.
SOME GENERAL TIPS:•Use photoelectric cells or timers to turn outdoor lighting on and off automatically.•Use the more efficient reflector bulbs, especially for task and accent lighting. (Example: R LIGHTa 50W "R" bulb can put as much light on an object as a 100W "A" bulb.)•Use energy-saving fluorescents wherever possible. They give more lumens-per-watt(more light from the electricity consumed) than incandescent. They are now available instyles that can accommodate a wide variety of decorative and functional fixtures. A LIGHTBASIC TYPES OF LIGHTINGGeneral Lighting-•Provides an area with overall illumination.• Also known as ambient lighting.•General lighting radiates a comfortable level of brightness, enabling one to see andwalk about safely.•It can be accomplished with chandeliers, ceiling or wall-mounted fixtures, recessed ortrack lights, and with lanterns outside.•A basic form of lighting that replaces sunlight, general lighting is fundamental to alighting plan.Task Lighting-•It helps you perform specific tasks such as Ticket Vending Counter, Space for designand construction of sets for performances, Control Room, Office Space, Recordingstudio, Rehearsal or Training Room, Library, Repair room, etc.•It can be provided by recessed and track lighting, pendant lighting, and portable lamps.•Task lighting should be free of distracting glare and shadows and should be brightenough to prevent eyestrain.
Accent Lighting-•Adds drama to a room by creating visual interest.•As part of a decorating scheme, it is used to spotlight paintings or to highlight thetexture of a wall, drapery or outdoor landscaping.•Accent lighting requires at least three times as much light on the focal point asthe general lighting around it. This usually is provided by track, recessed, or wall-mounted fixtures.THE SHAPES AND FORMS OF LIGHTING:Once youve selected what you want to light, youll have to decide how youregoing to light it. Foyer Fixtures-Can create a congenial atmosphere, while providing you with the general lightingyou need assure safe passage into other areas. Use ceiling, chain-hung, orclose-to-ceiling fixtures in hallways, stairways, and entranceways.Chandeliers-Can add sparkle and style to your rooms while giving you the general lighting youneed. Some are designed with down lights to provide task lighting.Pendants-Can provide both task and general lighting. Equipped with shades or globes toavoid glare, they are suspended from the ceiling over work areas. The use of adimmer control gives you the flexibility to vary the light to suit the occasion.Ceiling Fixtures-Usually provide general lighting. They are practical in busy areas. They areavailable with incandescent, fluorescent, and energy-efficient compactfluorescent bulbs.
Wall mounted fixtures-can furnish general, task, and accent lighting. Many are designed to match and supplement dining room chandeliers, or toprovide hallway, bedroom, or living room lighting. Wall brackets are often used for task lighting at the bathroom mirror.They are available with a choice of incandescent, tungsten-halogen, and energy-efficient compact fluorescent bulbs.Vanity Lighting Strips-Supply task lighting, while supplementing the general lighting provided by ceilingfixtures. Similar to the lighting in theater dressing rooms, these softly glowing strips ofglobe-shaped incandescent bulbs provide excellent lighting for applying makeup,shaving, and grooming.Track Lighting:Accent Lighting-Generally, fixtures should be aimed at a 30 degree angle from the vertical to preventlightfrom shining in anyones eyes and to avoid disturbing reflections on the surface of theobject. Usually, one fixture is required for each object being accented.Wall Washing-Space the fixtures at the same distance apart as the track is from the wall.
Wall Grazing-For dramatic shadows on textured surfaces (such as draperies, stone or brick)mount the tract 6 to 12 inches from the wall, with the fixtures the same distanceapart and aimed downward for a grazing effect.Recessed Lighting-General Lighting-General Service "A" bulbs (in recessed fixtures) provide wide light distribution. "R"and "PAR" bulbs concentrate light. Coverage per fixture is based on providing 15 to25 foot-candles of light. In rooms with darker color use higher watt bulbs.
LIGHTING CONTROLS:It gives you the flexibility to design a lighting plan with multiple uses and decorative effects. With the touch of a button,todays sophisticated dimming systems enable you to:• Lower light level to conserve energy and increase bulb life.• Vary the mood of a room.• Alter the intensity of the light to suit the activity.• Create and save a number of different lighting scenes in each room.Lighting controls should be an integral part of the lighting design of each room.LIGHTING CONTROL STRATEGIESControl of lighting systems ranges from the most basic and familiar manual wall switch to sophisticated computercontrol lighting management systems. Modern advances on occupant sensing and day lighting add additional cost-effective options for managing lighting systems. Forms of automatic lighting control include:• Time clocks and photocells, simple, reliable and cost-effective methods of controlling lighting systems.• Occupancy sensors sound and heat-sensing technology used to detect the presence of people in a space and turnlights off when spaces are unoccupied. They include delays and logic systems to avoid false or too frequent turning offof light fixtures.• Dimming technologies include common manual dimming switches as well as more sophisticated technology thatautomatically reduce light output according to the availability of daylight or other ambient light. While dimming ofincandescent lamps is common, dimming of fluorescent fixtures can only be accomplished if they have ballastsdesigned especially for dimming applications.• Daylighting controls adjust light output levels from fixtures in perimeter areas next to windows or under skylights inresponse to natural outdoor light entering the building. Daylighting controls are available in continuous dimming andstepped reduction models.• Automated lighting management systems provide centralized computer control of lighting systems.
STAGE LIGHTING Fresnel: This is oftentimes used to produce a luminescent effect which makes the stage more appealing. Also, since it utilises a spotlight, it can give emphasis on the particular scenes that needs to be highlighted. Ellipsoidal: This type is usually equipped with shutters which allow the technicians to block some ray of light. As a result, there are parts of the stage that are partially lit, while there are areas that are brighter. Scoop: It is commonly referred to as a scoop especially that it is shaped like a helmet. This is mostly utilised when there is a need of providing a broad flood of brightness on the stage.Strip: It is usually comprised with a row of lamps that aids in achieving aninteresting mood. Normally, the technicians would place coloured sheets over the lens to create more vibrant and sophisticated lights. Parabolic Aluminized Reflector (PAR): This type of stage lighting can provide a voluminous amount of brightness on the area. Also, this is oftentimes used during music concerts especially that it creates a great source of illumination.Spotlight: It has the ability to focus on a particular object or person. Asidefrom that, it can contract or expand the brightness or beam which can help in making the actors carry out their characters more effectively.
Lights in Relation to the Stage There are several different positions that you can place lights. The three main positions are front, side, down, and background. The main purpose of these are listed below.• Front lighting is used mostly for visibility and color. It is also used to isolate an individual person or set piece. Front lighting generally works better if placed at an angle between 30 to 50 degrees.• Side Lighting : The most common use of side lighting is effect. Side lighting is often used with bolder colors to accent movements and contrasting colors coming from the opposite sides.• Back Lighting : Along with side lighting back lighting is used for effect. Back lighting is often used to create depth on the stage. When used from low angles back lighting can also give a sense of a silhouette. One thing to remember when using back lighting is that the lights must be relaxing to the audience. If the lights are positioned into the eyes of the audience it will not be a pleasing experience.• Down lighting is often used to create the illusion of depth. Down lighting also works very well to isolate one person from another.• Background lighting is a very bold style of lighting. It is brighter than the rest of the stage. It is a very powerful way to create a picture.
BACK-STAGE LIGHTING•Some controlled illumination should be provided for backstage operations well shielded so no direct or reflectedlighting should be seen by spectators.•15A multi core cables to be used for connection.•Lighting desk to be used for power control.•Types of Light•Used on the Stage1) Fresnel2) Parcan3) Flood Lights•Backstage1) Dim Lights( Orange beam )2) Gobo Lighting ( Projection Lighting )3) Barndoor Lights ( Restricted Bright Lighting , 75W capacity , used in dressing room )4) Gel Lights – Coloured Sheet of Plastic fixed on the front of the light•Backstage Corridor•MR-16 Lamp ( to be put on the walls with a beam spread of 36 degrees , blue colour preferred )•PAR – 38 fixtures ( 240V , 80W Es E27 flood Crompton to be put on the sides of the footer at an angle )•Led Lighting – DOT –it Backstage Blue Led . It is a low cost flexible led work light. It has a touch sensor to switch itsthree bright blue Leds on and off. Size 7 inch or 17.8 cm. Triple A batteries for power. No need of inconvinient cables.•Colour of the Lights to set ambience:•Red – Anger or Dramatic Situation•Blue – Cold Night Time•Pale Purple – Neutral Ambience•Orange or Yellowish – to depict warm•Pale Colours – Subtle mood
•Combined Green Room & Dressing Room for Women’s Chorus (20 people).Lights and mirrors are similar to dressing room.•Typical dressing room for 4 people. Overhead lights are necessary foradjusting wigs and costumes and for final inspection of make up. Lights atmirrors are preferably designed to eliminate the actors faces evenly, ratherthan to light the mirrors.•Dressing Rooms: The dressing rooms should be completely out of view of theaudience .Care should be taken to see that no light shining through a door orwindow finds its way directly or indirectly to the eyes of the spectator, and thatnoises in the dressing rooms are not heard out front .•A shelf-type makeup table of 18 in. width and 30 in. height should be builtaround the walls of the dressing rooms with a 2 ft 6 inch or 3-ft space for eachactor. In front of each actor will be a makeup mirror with a 75-welt light on eachside. Benches or chairs 18 in. high, sufficient for all of the makeup positions,should be provided.•Light baffles for doors can be used to avoid these leaks. The doors should beplaced in such a way as to be of convenience to the actors wanting to reachthe backstage areas, while keeping to a minimum the danger of light spills.
SEATING AND STEP LIGHTSPROPERTIES OF THE LIGHTS USED IN FORLIGHTING THE SITTING AND STEP AREA•Dim lighting to be used.•Covered from top so that it won’t create glare for the viewers.•Warm light to ensure proper visibility of the seats as well asthe seat numbers.•LED’s are generally used.•Less power consumption more light.•Automatically switches off while the production is going on.•Lights must be controlled from the same section as for theexit and entry lights.•Cover must be of unbreakable material so that if located atthe foot, it won’t break on stepping on it.PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE LIGHTS ONSEATS•0.2 Foot Candle lighting must be the avg. light intensity.•Not more than 1 ¼” protrusion from the seat.•Height should not be more than 1 ¼” and length shall varyaccording to the seat width.(standard 48”)•Standard wattage 0.36 W•Standard colors available for clear visibility: Red, Yellow,Green, Blue, White.•Mounting Height should not be more than 18” (standard is15”)
PHYSICAL FEATURES OF THE LIGHTS ON SEATS•0.2 Foot Candle lighting must be the avg. light intensity.•LED spacing 4” or 6”•Top tread channel 0.24 W low bright LED’s.•Bottom riser channel 0.36 W high bright LED’s.•Standard colors available for clear visibility: Red, Yellow, Green,Blue, White.•Average custom length 12’.
LIGHTING FOR RECORDING STUDIOThere are three definitive tasks lighting must serve in recording studios;• Full lighting for set-up and cleaning.• Work lighting, variable for time of day, video screening, different simultaneous tasks i.e., engineering, performing,producing.• Mood lighting for creative atmosphere.Control Room At least three lamps, each position, help to minimize shadows.1. Directly over engineering position.2. Work area behind engineer, typically this area will have overdubbing musicians.3. Client area.4. Wall wash / indirect lighting.5. Decorative colored lamps for mood and design.Performance Area1. Full lighting and work light.2. Surface mount, chandeliers/pendant style for design and function.3. Wall wash / indirect lighting.4. Decorative colored lamps for mood and design.Special PurposeRECORDING sign at entrance doorEXIT signs with emergency lighting. The rooms must have sufficient exit light during a power outage, this is aided by glass in doors and between rooms.
Some points to note :• The use of imaginative lighting to create moods can be highly beneficial to the general ambienceof a studio.• Fluorescent lighting, apart from the ‘hardness’ of its light, is generally taboo in recording studiobecause of the problems of mechanically and electrically radiated noises.• The mechanical noise problem can be overcome by the remote mounting of ballast chokes, butthe problem of the radiated noise can be a curse upon electric guitar players.• Argon-filled tungsten filament – a practical solution.• If desired, daylight can be allowed in through stained glass for ‘mood lighting’.• Lighting is usually controlled not only by switches but also by ‘Variacs’. The Variacs arecontinuously variable auto-transformers, which despite their bulk and expense are the ideal choiceof controller in many instances. They can’t produce any of the problems of electrical interferencenoise, which almost all electronic systems are likely to create from time to time. Variacs simplyreduce the voltage of the bulbs, without the power wastage and heat generation of rheostats, whichdim by resistive loss.• Electronic dimming systems are not used as the can be a great noise-inducing nuisance.• Low consumption lighting – LEDs and mini-fluorescent type can be used
DIFFERENT LIGHTING EFFECTS• Security /Safety • Silhouetting• Up lighting • Shadowing• Down lighting • Background lighting• Moonlighting • Water lighting• Path lighting• Grazing UPLIGHTING TREES UPLIGHTING TO CREATE DRAMA SILHOUTTE DOWNLIGHTING SHADOWING
MOONLIGHTING GRAZING ENERGY CONSCIOUS DESIGN • Unshielded Luminaries Waste Energy • Install a sensor that will switch on the light only at night or upon motion • Consider post and wall lanterns that use new compact fluorescent or high- intensity discharge light sources such as mercury vapor or high pressure sodium, to conserve energy • If using uplighting, aim the fixtures so that the light is captured by your eaves to lessen light pollutionWATER LIGHTING UnshieldedLight sources – underwater Luminaries• fixed mount fixtures – i.e. : pool wall light• movable uplights• fiber optic accent and feature lights - light upon• fiber optic feature lights - light within – i.e.: water Shieldedcolumn lighting Luminaries• floating fixture lights - rechargeable battery &solar photovoltaic