Covering these Oral rhetoric + words & voice Rhetoric = “argue without anger”, “tap into social power” persuasion, tested tools- Aristotle still totally relevant Heinrichs Different tools for different media – live & recorded
Talk differently – with friends? In school? To parents? To authority figures? Why? How learn?
Little bit of history
Centuries of oracy – developed awareness of what worked to persuade, to be powerful “ Smooth talkers” – what traits, techniques? Speaking not just a rational transfer of information (why legal writing is so complex and detailed) Getting people to do what you want – more than fiat, especially among equals or inferiors. Spin, art (beauty has power)
Information overload, multiple choices for every moment of attention
Best, most readable, modern book on the power of rhetoric
Recognize unconsciously – sound nervous, angry, etc. Faking sincerity Reading aloud – sounds like reading b/c just showing you recognize the words. Reading with MEANING – takes skill, like method acting, hold meaning, emotion in mind and let it be heard in voice
Set up for empathy, but especially attunement (Dan Pink)
Ask about persuading – parents, employer, friends, police officer who stops you
British articulation – Gian Ghomeshi & many other media people – British upbringing but no apparent accent Family member – on phone – similar? Mimicking experts, teachers?
Classrooms, work spaces, listening! Increasingly difficult – “Elevator pitch – what happens in elevators currently? Back to getting and holding attention Other listening spaces? Effect?
Logical, pathetic, ethical
Whip audience into a frenzy – Canadians not so much, maybe at sports “What do we want? When do we want it?” Increasingly – this works on us – we see & hear - more than read – more vulnerable to emotions - Veronique Pozner – 5 year old Noah – shot 11 times, jaw & left hand, mostly gone.
Big with academics, part of why you cite, write essays, reports -> Using “logic” so it “makes sense” to audience Ever written an essay knowing what your teacher wanted? We think that’s what we decide by, pay attention because of BUT
What do we know about their expertise? American politics, not Canadian - Jon Stewart vs Fox News Why citations are important – Wikipedia?
Of course, just old logos, pathos and ethos Examples?
Clothing, attitude, language, props Business people & Second City – WRI330 – most fun assignment – speaking & listening live to stories Learned to show you recognize words & can pronounce them
Skype & Google hangouts & webinars Podcasts, YouTube, SoundCloud, AudioBoo – More later
Unconsciously classify as boring Just give up listening? or easily distracted Interesting voices Language skills for memory & ’softening’
Repeat same word at beginning of series of phrases – Where is the life we have lost in living? Where is the wisdom we have lost in knowledge? Where is the knowledge we have lost in information? T.S. Eliot Around the rugged rock, the ragged rascal ran – poetry & memorable
Other common fillers?
Interviews, speeches, recordings
First 2 – you can record using them OR upload a recording
Open Audacity, get someone to speak at the computer to record
Speaking:Live & RecordedJoan Vinall-Cox, Ph.D.
Your Voice, Your Tool Speaking - a powerful tool Words AND VOICE! Rhetoric Live Recorded Web tools
Oral Language Skills Today How important is speaking or talking? On the job – writing or speaking predominates? Audible minorities impact?
Before Writing Oral / aural societies Memory central to preserving knowledge Persuasiveness – the source of power Schools – taught speaking skills
Aristotle Using spoken language to get what you want Probably not author as much as scribe of pre-literate oral knowledge The Art of Persuasion Still completely relevant today
What is Rhetoric Today? Getting the audience’s attention Keeping the audience’s attention Getting the audience to see your point of view Getting audience to do what you want them to do
“Thank You For Arguing: What Aristotle, Lincoln, and Homer Simpson Can Teach Us About The Art Of Persuasion” Jay Heinrichs http://www.amazon.ca/Thank-You-Arguing-A
Words Alone are Limited Paralanguage and meaning - emotive quality Loudness, rate, pitch http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paralanguage Meaning - 7% by words, 38% by tone Albert Mehrabian - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Body_language
Attunement Needed Beyond but including empathy Speaking to ... not just in front of Totally involved in the meaning Totally focussed on the audience “getting” the meaning
What About the Audience? Learn as much as you can about its composition Ages - Backgrounds - Interests - Abilities -
“To Sell is Human: The Surprising Truth About Moving Others” Dan Pink http://www.amazon.ca/To-Sell-Is-Human-Surp Persuasion = Interpersonal Intelligence Rhetoric
Where is Speaking Learned? Learning to speak? Learning to sound professional? Where do people ‘practise’ speaking? Where ‘practise’ speaking professionally?
Rhetorical Basics –How to get Attention? Pathos Logos Ethos
Pathos Pathos – argument by emotion Audience’s mood – sympathy, and playing back the same emotion Laughter – play up to laughter from your audience? Go after the breath intake of shock/fear?
Logos Logos – argument by logic Not just intelligence and accurate information Use group’s accepted beliefs to “frame” your argument (Attunement – To Sell is Human) Heinrichs – Thank You for Arguing
Ethos Ethos – argument by character Trustworthness Reputation, professional role, Examples Scholarship level. Shock of Russell Williams being sex murderer as well as military rising star Match yourself to audience (and move on) Clothing, speech patterns, beliefs
Speaking to a Live Audience Attunement (Dan Pink) Before and during Improvisation Follow the audience’s energy NEVER, NEVER, NEVER read a word- for-word script Unless you want the audience to stop listening to you and yawn!
Media Live (interactive) Same space Same time Skype, webinars, Google Hangouts Asynchronous (recorded) Different space Different time Podcasts, YouTube, SoundCloud
For Live and Recorded Speech Speech intelligibility Sound quality Articulation Prosody pitch, loudness, tempo and rhythm Figures of Speech and Tropes
Avoid Fillers! Um Uh You know Like Right?
Avoid Up-talk Making statements sound like questions – voice rises at end Surprisingly common among young people Creates impression you’re uncertain or don’t really know
Preparing Practise articulating clearly Slower is better than faster, Unless you’re Rick Mercer Over-enunciate Especially before important speaking or recording Alone – car (not driving) or bathroom etc.
Recorded Speech Harder to get and hold attention Replace live energy, improv impact Sound effects Music Story structure
Comparisons - Starting Story Live Less formal, Can fill gaps, correct impressions Rhetorical skills Recorded Strong opening needed Set up mystery, create curiosity Strong story structure Art – rhetorical skills
Recording Tools SoundCloud – web-based accounts Hear what you sound like - practise AudioBoo - web-based accounts Audacity – Free audio-editing software – lots of free tutorials GarageBand - Mac
Learning Audacity Over 1, 280, 000 hits on Google for “Audacity Tutorials” A favorite - http://audacity.sourceforge.net/manual-1.2/tutorials.html Essential – for MP3s, LAME needed http://www.makeuseof.com/tag/how-to- create-valid-mp3-files-with-audacity/