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Communicating Science: Clarity, conciseness and objectivity ©Victoria Martínez Montaña
Background <ul><li>The analysis of distinct genres provides valuable insight into how and why members of discourse communi...
Aims <ul><li>Provide you with some insight into the characteristics of written medical genres. </li></ul><ul><li>2.  Compa...
Genre: Definition <ul><li>By ‘genre’ or ‘text type’ we mean each of the specific classes of texts characteristic of a give...
Things to take into consideration: <ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the author </li></ul></ul><u...
Formal Features of Genres <ul><li>shared communicative function. </li></ul><ul><li>similar  macrostructure (e.g. IMRAD) </...
Written Genres <ul><ul><li>Abstract:   a  special kind of summary. It is used in scientific writing to summarize the major...
Oral Genres <ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferences / videoconferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
 
Macrostructure of the Scientific Paper Sections of Paper Experimental Process Abstract What did I do in a nutshell? Introd...
Medical Writing <ul><li>Scientific writing shares with all expository writing not only the need to be  clear ,  concise , ...
Medical English Written Discourse. Characteristics. <ul><li>Lexico-semantic level </li></ul><ul><li>Technical vocabulary :...
Technical vocabulary <ul><li>Its probably the easiest to learn since they tend to have one single meaning. </li></ul><ul><...
Semi-technical vocabulary <ul><li>Semi-technical vocabulary is formed by words coming from ordinary vocabulary  that have ...
 
Everyday vocabulary <ul><li>Words from the general lexico which contain their original meaning . </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns: ...
Morphosyntactical-rhetoric level <ul><li>-ing forms </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns  (-ation, -ition, -ity)  and nominal groups  (...
Practice <ul><li>Why Migraines Strike .   ( Scientific American). </li></ul><ul><li>Medical journalism is a subspecialty o...
 
Practice <ul><li>2.  Nonassociative Learning Promotes Respiratory Entrainment to Mechanical Ventilation  (Original publish...
Practice <ul><li>3 . Under Pressure  (revised article, medical journalism) </li></ul><ul><li>This is an example of how a m...
Practice <ul><li>The following examples show how a medical journalist might revise technical information for general purpo...
<ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;In the study, Poon and his colleagues use two types of nonassociative learning calle...
Practice <ul><li>4.  A sampling design for a Sentinel General Practitioner Network  (Original) written by Spanish speciali...
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Communicating Science

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Communicating Science

  1. 1. Communicating Science: Clarity, conciseness and objectivity ©Victoria Martínez Montaña
  2. 2. Background <ul><li>The analysis of distinct genres provides valuable insight into how and why members of discourse communities communicate in the way they do (Swales 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>The studies of register and genre focused on the structural and grammatical features of texts assist learners in the interpretation and construction of genre-specific texts. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Aims <ul><li>Provide you with some insight into the characteristics of written medical genres. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Compare medical research articles with public-oriented articles on medicine. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Genre: Definition <ul><li>By ‘genre’ or ‘text type’ we mean each of the specific classes of texts characteristic of a given scientific community or professional group and distinguished from each other by certain features of vocabulary, form and style , which are wholly function-specific and conventional in nature. (Alcaraz & Hughes 2002: 101) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Things to take into consideration: <ul><ul><li>Audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of the author </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal organization of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Style & Terminology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Presentation of information </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Formal Features of Genres <ul><li>shared communicative function. </li></ul><ul><li>similar macrostructure (e.g. IMRAD) </li></ul><ul><li>similar discursive model (narrative, descriptive, imperative, optative) and similar discourse techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>common lexical and syntactic arrangement. </li></ul><ul><li>common socio-pragmatic conventions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Written Genres <ul><ul><li>Abstract: a special kind of summary. It is used in scientific writing to summarize the major content of a report or study. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific / research paper : a w ritten and published report describing original results. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific / research report: a document used to communicate the results of research, field work, and other activities ( technical reports, lab reports, formal reports) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posters: a special type of presentation to present work to an audience who is walking through a hallway or exhibit. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theses, textbooks, leaflets, popular articles , etc. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Oral Genres <ul><ul><li>Presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conferences / videoconferences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lectures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissertations </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Macrostructure of the Scientific Paper Sections of Paper Experimental Process Abstract What did I do in a nutshell? Introduction What’s the problem? Materials & Methods How did I solve the problem? Results What did I found out? Discussion What does it mean? Aknoledgments (optional) How helped me out? References Whose work did I refer to? Appendices (optional) Extra information
  10. 11. Medical Writing <ul><li>Scientific writing shares with all expository writing not only the need to be clear , concise , and objective , </li></ul><ul><li>but also, intellectually creative and persuasive . </li></ul>
  11. 12. Medical English Written Discourse. Characteristics. <ul><li>Lexico-semantic level </li></ul><ul><li>Technical vocabulary : this group belongs almost exclusively to the vocabulary of specific fields. All the lexical items are monosemic. </li></ul><ul><li>Semi-technical vocabulary : Words that come from general vocabulary with new meanings which are activated by context. (polysemy). </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday vocabulary : the most extensive of the three. It contains words from the general lexicon. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Technical vocabulary <ul><li>Its probably the easiest to learn since they tend to have one single meaning. </li></ul><ul><li>Greco-latin (affixation): gastr (estómago)-o-enter (intestinos)-o-logy (estudio) </li></ul><ul><li>Eponyms: Parkinson’s disease, parkinsonian, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease </li></ul><ul><li>Toponyms: St. Louis encephalitis </li></ul><ul><li>Acronyms ‘ANOVA’, initialism ‘PCR’ , clippings ‘neuro(logy)’ </li></ul><ul><li>Blends: flush> fl(ash) (bl)ush </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphor: nerve root, abdominal wall, double blind study </li></ul><ul><li>Symbols </li></ul>
  13. 14. Semi-technical vocabulary <ul><li>Semi-technical vocabulary is formed by words coming from ordinary vocabulary that have acquired two or more technical meanings. </li></ul><ul><li>This type of vocabulary is polysemic, and has been formed by a process of analogy adding new meanings to the traditional meanings. </li></ul>
  14. 16. Everyday vocabulary <ul><li>Words from the general lexico which contain their original meaning . </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns: cycle, examination, factor, findings, function, method, patients, study, test, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Verbs: check, depend, lead, look like, occur, prove, resemble, result, show, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Adjectives: important, interesting, relevant, etc </li></ul>
  15. 17. Morphosyntactical-rhetoric level <ul><li>-ing forms </li></ul><ul><li>Nouns (-ation, -ition, -ity) and nominal groups (life-threatening disease, aspirin-containing drug) </li></ul><ul><li>Passive voice </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Verb tenses: Present simple, present perf., past simple </li></ul><ul><li>Modality-hedges: probably, possibly, perhaps, approximately, etc.; may, might, can, could, should, would, etc.; </li></ul>
  16. 18. Practice <ul><li>Why Migraines Strike . ( Scientific American). </li></ul><ul><li>Medical journalism is a subspecialty of medical writing. It helps to connect the scientific community with the general public. </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.scientificamerican.com/health </li></ul>
  17. 20. Practice <ul><li>2. Nonassociative Learning Promotes Respiratory Entrainment to Mechanical Ventilation (Original published in PLoS) </li></ul><ul><li>Researchers from the Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology learned that nonassociative learning, a natural capability of the human body, promotes a better patient-ventilator interaction. This research article appeared in the September 12, 2007, issue of PLoS ONE, an open-access journal from the Public Library of Science. </li></ul>
  18. 21. Practice <ul><li>3 . Under Pressure (revised article, medical journalism) </li></ul><ul><li>This is an example of how a medical journalist might rewrite the scholarly article included above. </li></ul>
  19. 22. Practice <ul><li>The following examples show how a medical journalist might revise technical information for general purpose reading : </li></ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul><ul><li>Desensitization (converse of secondary sensitization) is distinguished from habituation (converse of primary sensitization) by the explicit expression of memory rebound and recovery effects in the post-stimulation response. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>After </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;In the study, Poon and his colleagues use two types of nonassociative learning called habituation and desensitization to promote a better patient-ventilator interaction. Habituation refers to a person's decrease in responsiveness to a repeated stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of the fireworks example, you may learn to successfully &quot;block out&quot; or become more accustomed to the loud, recurring noises over time. On the other hand, desensitization is a person's diminished response to a second stimulus as a result of the first stimulus. For instance, if you became more accustomed to the loud fireworks through repeated sounds, your ability to hear other noises might have decreased, too.&quot; </li></ul>
  21. 24. Practice <ul><li>4. A sampling design for a Sentinel General Practitioner Network (Original) written by Spanish specialists in English. (Gaceta Sanitaria) </li></ul><ul><li>Worksheets </li></ul>

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