NanotechnologyProject report on Presented by: Vimal Saxena 11 BME0171
IntroductionThis is all very interesting and quite impressive,but what use is it? Our lives have some meaningon a scale of meters, but its impossible to thinkabout ordinary, everyday existence on a scale1000 times smaller than a flys eye. We cantreally think about problems like AIDS, worldpoverty, or global warming, because they lose allmeaning on the nanoscale. Yet the nanoscale—the world where atoms, molecules (atoms joinedtogether), proteins, and cells rule the roost—is aplace where science and technology gain anentirely new meaning.
Overview: How nanotechnology isimpacting our everyday lives Defining nanoscale science and engineering (“nanotechnology”) Why the excitement about nanotechnology? Examples of “nanotech” in current research … and everyday life
What is nanoscale science & engineering? The study of materials and associated physical, biophysical and biochemical phenomena on the scale of ~1-100 nm. The primary appeal of nanotechnology is the potential to manipulate matter at the nanoscale. This leads to the possibility of preparing novel materials (nanomaterials) that have specific, manipulable physical properties and functions.
What makes the nanoscale special?1. High density of structures is possible with small size.2. Physical and chemical properties can be different at the nano-scale (e.g. electronic, optical, mechanical, thermal, chemical).3. The physical behavior of material can be different in the nano-regime because of the different ways physical properties scale with dimension (e.g. area vs. volume). Prof. Richard Feynman “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”
Physical/chemical properties can change as we approach the nano-scale Melting point of gold particles Fluorescence of semiconductor nanocrystals Decreasing crystal size K. J. Klabunde, 2001 M. Bawendi, MIT: web.mit.edu/chemistry/nanocluster Evident, Inc.: www.evidenttech.com By controlling nano-scale (1) composition, (2) size, and (3) shape, we can create new materials with new properties New technologies
Nanotechnology is estimated to become a trillion dollar market by ~2010 Areas in which nanotechnologies are expected to impact our everyday lives:• Electronics • Mechanical engineering• Photonics (communications • Aerospace & computing using photons) • Environmental remediation• Information storage • Pharmaceuticals & drug• Energy storage/transport delivery• Materials engineering • Biotechnology -- CdSe• Textiles nanocrystals
Applications of NanoscienceMaterials Environment Health care Technology• Stain-resistant • Paint that • Nerve tissue • Building clothes cleans talking to C smaller• Paints that • Nano solar • Detecting devices dose not chip cells disease earlier
Materials: StainResistant Clothes Nanofibers create cushion of air around fabric – 10 nm carbon whiskers bond with cotton – Acts like peach fuzz; many liquids roll off
Nano pants that refuse to stain;Liquids bead up and roll offNano-Care fabrics with water, cranberry juice,vegetable oil, and mustard after 30 minutes(left) and wiped off with wet paper towel (right)
Environment: PaintThat Cleans Air• Nanopaint on buildingscould reduce pollution– When exposed to ultraviolet light, titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in paint break down organic and inorganic pollutants that wash off in the rain– Decompose air pollution particles like formaldehyde
Environment: NanoSolar Cells • Nano solar cells mixed in plastic could be painted on buses, roofs, clothing – Solar becomes a cheap energy alternative!
Technology: BuildingSmaller Devicesand Chips•Nanolithograpy to create tiny patterns– Lay down ―ink‖ atom by atom
Health Care:Detecting DiseasesEarlier• Quantum dots glow in UV light– Injected in mice, collect in tumors– Could locate as few as 10 to 100 cancer cells
Health Care: Nerve Tissue Talking to Computers• Neuro-electronicnetworks interface nerve cells with semiconductors– Possible applications in brain research,neurocomputation, biosensors Snail neuron grown on a chip that records the neuron’s activity
Cancer Therapy Advances in nanotechnology are enabling many new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in cancer. Nano particles are employed to induce localized heating within tumors . Approaches to nano particle-mediated thermal therapy include absorption of infrared light, radio frequency ablation, and magnetically-induced heating. These approaches have demonstrated high efficacy in animal models, and two are already in human clinical trials.
Research area 1: Lightweight, multi- functional nano-fibers and materials Research area 2: Battle suit medicine Research area 3: Blast and ballistic protection Research area 4: Chem/bio materials science (detection & protection) Research area 5: Nanosystems integration