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circuit explanation of Three phase fault analysis with auto reset for temporary fault and trip for permanent fault

this file consisting of the explanation of the circuit diagram in Three phase fault analysis with auto reset for temporary fault and trip for permanent fault.

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Circuit Explanation
The project uses 6numbers step-down transformers for handling the entire circuit under
low voltage conditions of 12v only to test the 3 phase fault analysis. The primary of 3
transformers are connected to a 3 phase supply in star configuration, while the secondary of the
same is also connected in star configuration. The other set of 3 transformers with its primary
connected in star to 3 phase have their secondary’s connected in delta configuration. The output
of all the 6 transformers are rectified and filtered individually and are given to 6 relay coils. 6
push buttons, one each connected across the relay coil is meant to create a fault condition either
at star i.e. LL Fault or 3L Fault.
The NC contacts of all the relays are made parallel while all the common points are
grounded. The parallel connected point of NC are given to pin2 through a resistor R5 to a 555
timer i.e. wired in monostable mode. The output of the same timer is connected to the reset pin 4
of another 555 timer wired in astable mode. LED’S are connected at their output to indicate their
status. The output of the U3 555 timer from pin3 is given to an Op-amp LM358 through wire 11
and d12 to the non inverting input pin3, while the inverting input is kept at a fixed voltage by a
potential divider RV2.
The voltage at pin2 coming from the potential divider is so held that it is higher than the
pin3 of the Op-amp used as a comparator so that pin1 develops zero logic that fails to operate the
relay through the driver transistor Q1. This relay Q1 is ‘3CO’ relay i.e. is meant for
disconnecting the load to indicate fault conditions.
OPERATING PROCEDURE:
While the board is powered from a 3phase supply all the 6 relay coils get DC voltage and
their common point disconnects from the NC and moves on to the NO points there by providing
logic high at pin2 of 555 timer U1 i.e. that is kept on monostable mode. While any push button
across the relay is pressed it disconnects that relay and in the process in common contacts moves
to the NC position to provide a logic low at trigger pin of 555 timer to develop an output that
brings the U3 555 timer which is used in astable mode for its reset pin to high such that the
astable operation takes place at its output which is also indicated by flashing D11 LED. If the
fault is off temporary in nature i.e. if the push button pressed is released immediately the U1
monostable disables U3 the output of which goes to zero in the event of any push button kept
pressed for a longer duration the monostable output provides a longer duration active situation
for U3 the astable timer the output of which charges capacitor C13 through R11 such that the
output of the comparator goes high that drives the relay to switch off three phase load.
The output of Op-amp remains high indefinitely through a positive feedback provided for
its pin1 to pin3 through a forward biased diode and a resistor in series. This results in the relay
permanently switched on to disconnect the load connected at its NC contacts permanently off. In
order to maintain the flow of DC supply the star connected secondary set DC’S are paralleled
through D8,D9 & D10 for uninterrupted supply to the circuit voltage of 12v DC and 5v DC
derived out of voltage regulator IC 7805.
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circuit explanation of Three phase fault analysis with auto reset for temporary fault and trip for permanent fault

  • 1. Circuit Explanation The project uses 6numbers step-down transformers for handling the entire circuit under low voltage conditions of 12v only to test the 3 phase fault analysis. The primary of 3 transformers are connected to a 3 phase supply in star configuration, while the secondary of the same is also connected in star configuration. The other set of 3 transformers with its primary connected in star to 3 phase have their secondary’s connected in delta configuration. The output of all the 6 transformers are rectified and filtered individually and are given to 6 relay coils. 6 push buttons, one each connected across the relay coil is meant to create a fault condition either at star i.e. LL Fault or 3L Fault. The NC contacts of all the relays are made parallel while all the common points are grounded. The parallel connected point of NC are given to pin2 through a resistor R5 to a 555 timer i.e. wired in monostable mode. The output of the same timer is connected to the reset pin 4 of another 555 timer wired in astable mode. LED’S are connected at their output to indicate their status. The output of the U3 555 timer from pin3 is given to an Op-amp LM358 through wire 11 and d12 to the non inverting input pin3, while the inverting input is kept at a fixed voltage by a potential divider RV2. The voltage at pin2 coming from the potential divider is so held that it is higher than the pin3 of the Op-amp used as a comparator so that pin1 develops zero logic that fails to operate the relay through the driver transistor Q1. This relay Q1 is ‘3CO’ relay i.e. is meant for disconnecting the load to indicate fault conditions. OPERATING PROCEDURE: While the board is powered from a 3phase supply all the 6 relay coils get DC voltage and their common point disconnects from the NC and moves on to the NO points there by providing logic high at pin2 of 555 timer U1 i.e. that is kept on monostable mode. While any push button across the relay is pressed it disconnects that relay and in the process in common contacts moves to the NC position to provide a logic low at trigger pin of 555 timer to develop an output that brings the U3 555 timer which is used in astable mode for its reset pin to high such that the astable operation takes place at its output which is also indicated by flashing D11 LED. If the fault is off temporary in nature i.e. if the push button pressed is released immediately the U1
  • 2. monostable disables U3 the output of which goes to zero in the event of any push button kept pressed for a longer duration the monostable output provides a longer duration active situation for U3 the astable timer the output of which charges capacitor C13 through R11 such that the output of the comparator goes high that drives the relay to switch off three phase load. The output of Op-amp remains high indefinitely through a positive feedback provided for its pin1 to pin3 through a forward biased diode and a resistor in series. This results in the relay permanently switched on to disconnect the load connected at its NC contacts permanently off. In order to maintain the flow of DC supply the star connected secondary set DC’S are paralleled through D8,D9 & D10 for uninterrupted supply to the circuit voltage of 12v DC and 5v DC derived out of voltage regulator IC 7805.