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VIRUSES
1]Infecting CNS-Japanese encephalitis
2]Infecting RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
-SARS
-Pandemic influenza
 History
 Geographical distribution
 Transmission
 Clinical features
 Diagnosis and Treatment
 Prevention and Control
 Genus Flavivirus
 Name derived from
the Latin flavus meaning “yellow”
 Single stranded, enveloped RNA virus
 Morpholo...
 1940 to 1978
› Disease spread with epidemics in China,
Korea, and India [Tamilnadu-1955]
 Endemic in
temperate and
tropical regions of
Asia
 Disease control by
vaccination
Japan
China
Korea
Indonesia
India Phi...
 The three southern states of Tamil Nadu
(TN), Andra Pradesh, Karnataka were
reporting higher incidence.
 JE is emerging...
 Vector-borne
 Enzootic cycle
› Mosquitoes: Culex species
 Culex tritaeniorhynchus
› Reservoir/amplifying hosts
 Pigs,...
Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
 35,000-50,000 cases annually
 Most asymptomatic or mild signs
 Children and elderly
› Highest risk for severe disease
...
Prodromal stage: 1-6 days
 Acute encephalitis
› Headache, high fever, stiff neck, stupor
› May progress to paralysis, sei...
 Laboratory diagnosis required
 Tentative diagnosis
› Antibody titer: HI, IFA, CF, ELISA
› JE-specific IgM in serum or C...
 Vector control
› Eliminate mosquito breeding areas
› Adult and larvae control
 Vaccination
› Equine, swine, humans
 Pe...
o Caused By- Varient of corona virus
o Emerging disease-2002-03
o Rapid spread in asian countries
o WHO-8422 cases
-916 de...
High fever
 Virus isolation: inoculate suitable cell
culture with patient specimens
When infected by SARS-CoV  antibodies
(e.g. IgM and IgG) are produced /
change in level
 Enzyme-linked immunosorbent ass...
 Clinical history & observation
 Chest radiography: important role
› 70-80% patients have abnormal chest
radiographs
o Immunomodulatory therapy
-Corticosteroid
o Antiviral Agents
-Ribavirin
oProtease inhibitor
-Lopinavir-ritonavir co-formu...
 Principle: to break the chain of
transmission from infected to healthy
person
 3-step protocol of disease confinement
›...
 Creation of emergency operating center
 Institutional support
› Efficient quarantine measures
› Legislation
 Internati...
Seasonal Influenza
› A public health
problem each year
› Usually some immunity
built up from previous
exposures to the
sam...
1920 1940 1960 1980 2000
H1N1
H2N2
H3N2
1918: “Spanish Flu” 1957: “Asian Flu” 1968: “Hong Kong Flu”
20-40 million deaths 1...
The new virus must be efficiently
transmitted from one human to another
A new influenza virus emerges to
which the general...
Viral Re-assortment
Reassortment in pigs
Reassortment in
humans
Pandemic Influenza
Virus
Human Influenza
Type of infection Upper and lower respiratory
Fever Yes
Headache Yes
Cough Yes
Respiratory symptoms Varies...
Isolation Precautions
Source: Rosie Sokas, MD MOH UIL at
Chicago
Droplet precautions:
Surgical Masks
Personal Protective Equipment
(PPE)
Thank you
Viral emerging and re emerging diseases
Viral emerging and re emerging diseases
Viral emerging and re emerging diseases
Viral emerging and re emerging diseases
Viral emerging and re emerging diseases
Viral emerging and re emerging diseases
Viral emerging and re emerging diseases
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Viral emerging and re emerging diseases

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Viral emerging and re emerging diseases

  1. 1. VIRUSES 1]Infecting CNS-Japanese encephalitis 2]Infecting RESPIRATORY SYSTEM -SARS -Pandemic influenza
  2. 2.  History  Geographical distribution  Transmission  Clinical features  Diagnosis and Treatment  Prevention and Control
  3. 3.  Genus Flavivirus  Name derived from the Latin flavus meaning “yellow”  Single stranded, enveloped RNA virus  Morphology not well defined  Different genotypes with single serotype  Replication-Regional lymphnodes  Invasion of CNS-via-Blood  I.P-5 to 15 days
  4. 4.  1940 to 1978 › Disease spread with epidemics in China, Korea, and India [Tamilnadu-1955]
  5. 5.  Endemic in temperate and tropical regions of Asia  Disease control by vaccination Japan China Korea Indonesia India Philippines
  6. 6.  The three southern states of Tamil Nadu (TN), Andra Pradesh, Karnataka were reporting higher incidence.  JE is emerging as a public health problem in Kerala  In a few villages of Cuddalore district of Tamil Nadu, a known JE-endemic area (Chidambaram, Virudhachalam, Thittakudi)
  7. 7.  Vector-borne  Enzootic cycle › Mosquitoes: Culex species  Culex tritaeniorhynchus › Reservoir/amplifying hosts  Pigs, bats, Ardeid (wading) birds  Possibly reptiles and amphibians › Incidental hosts  Horses, humans, others
  8. 8. Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  9. 9.  35,000-50,000 cases annually  Most asymptomatic or mild signs  Children and elderly › Highest risk for severe disease Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  10. 10. Prodromal stage: 1-6 days  Acute encephalitis › Headache, high fever, stiff neck, stupor › May progress to paralysis, seizures, convulsions, coma, and death  Neuropsychiatric sequelae › 45 to 70% of survivors  In utero infection possible › Abortion of fetus
  11. 11.  Laboratory diagnosis required  Tentative diagnosis › Antibody titer: HI, IFA, CF, ELISA › JE-specific IgM in serum or CSF  Definitive diagnosis › Virus isolation: CSF, brain  No specific treatment › Supportive care
  12. 12.  Vector control › Eliminate mosquito breeding areas › Adult and larvae control  Vaccination › Equine, swine, humans  Personal protective measures › Avoid prime mosquito hours › Use of repellants containing DEET Center for Food Security and Public Health, Iowa State University, 2011
  13. 13. o Caused By- Varient of corona virus o Emerging disease-2002-03 o Rapid spread in asian countries o WHO-8422 cases -916 deaths from 30 countries o MOT-Respiratory droplets o -Direct contact -Possible fecal tranmission o I.P-2 to 7 days
  14. 14. High fever
  15. 15.  Virus isolation: inoculate suitable cell culture with patient specimens
  16. 16. When infected by SARS-CoV  antibodies (e.g. IgM and IgG) are produced / change in level  Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)  Immunofluorescence assay (IFA):
  17. 17.  Clinical history & observation  Chest radiography: important role › 70-80% patients have abnormal chest radiographs
  18. 18. o Immunomodulatory therapy -Corticosteroid o Antiviral Agents -Ribavirin oProtease inhibitor -Lopinavir-ritonavir co-formulation
  19. 19.  Principle: to break the chain of transmission from infected to healthy person  3-step protocol of disease confinement › Case detection › Prompt isolation › Contract tracing  Daily health check  Voluntary home isolation
  20. 20.  Creation of emergency operating center  Institutional support › Efficient quarantine measures › Legislation  International collaboration—WHO › Travel alerts and restrictions › Coordination for research › Agreement of countries on containment protocol
  21. 21. Seasonal Influenza › A public health problem each year › Usually some immunity built up from previous exposures to the same subtype › Infants and elderly most at risk Influenza Pandemics › Appear in the human population rarely and unpredictably › Human population lacks any immunity › All age groups, including healthy young adults Seasonal Epidemics vs. Pandemics
  22. 22. 1920 1940 1960 1980 2000 H1N1 H2N2 H3N2 1918: “Spanish Flu” 1957: “Asian Flu” 1968: “Hong Kong Flu” 20-40 million deaths 1-4 million deaths 1-4 million deaths
  23. 23. The new virus must be efficiently transmitted from one human to another A new influenza virus emerges to which the general population has little/no immunity The new virus must be able to replicate in humans and cause disease
  24. 24. Viral Re-assortment Reassortment in pigs Reassortment in humans Pandemic Influenza Virus
  25. 25. Human Influenza Type of infection Upper and lower respiratory Fever Yes Headache Yes Cough Yes Respiratory symptoms Varies; sore throat to difficulty breathing Gastrointestinal symptoms Uncommon, except children, elderly Recovery 2-7 days
  26. 26. Isolation Precautions
  27. 27. Source: Rosie Sokas, MD MOH UIL at Chicago Droplet precautions: Surgical Masks
  28. 28. Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  29. 29. Thank you

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