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RHS Year 2 week 7 presentation

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RHS Year 2 week 7 presentation

  1. 1. RHS Level 2 Certificate Year 2 Week 7 – Plant nutrients and their effects.
  2. 2. Quiz <ul><li>9 questions – 15 minutes (but some are challenging so if we need a few more minutes that’s fine) </li></ul><ul><li>Exam conditions. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quiz - answers <ul><li>1. (b) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Any three from: meat and dairy; cooked food; dog or cat waste; perennial weeds; diseased plant material. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Quicker end result; kills weed seeds; kills fungal spores. </li></ul><ul><li>4. (b), (c) and (d) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Quiz answers - continued <ul><li>5. Any three from: prevents surface capping; prevents leaching; adds organic matter; adds nutrients; improves soil structure; encourages beneficial organisms; may discourage some pests. </li></ul><ul><li>No. The Field Beans are nitrogen fixers and the French Beans do not need additional nitrogen. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Quiz - answers <ul><li>7. A soil with a pH of 5.5 is acidic. </li></ul><ul><li>8. To raise pH (make the soil more alkaline) add garden lime. </li></ul><ul><li>9. Each point is 10 times greater than the one before so pH 8 is 100 times more alkaline than pH 6. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Learning Objectives <ul><li>7. Understand plant nutrition provided by soil and growing media . </li></ul><ul><li>7.1 List the major and minor (trace) nutrients required for plant growth and development, to include: Major nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor (trace) nutrients: Iron, Manganese, Boron, Copper, Zinc, Molybdenum. </li></ul><ul><li>7.2 Describe the typical effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron on plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>7.3 Describe the sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>7.4 Outline the nitrogen and carbon cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>7.5 Describe the typical effects of a deficiency of Nitrogen, Iron, Magnesium and Calcium. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Plant nutrients - overview <ul><li>Needed by plants to produce their physical structure and to run their internal processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency or excess may be damaging, and the wrong balance can be as bad. </li></ul><ul><li>Harvesting, weeding, intensive growing and cultivation techniques all deplete nutrients </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Macro-’ and ‘micro-’ when used to describe nutrients refers to how much is needed not to relative importance. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Plant Nutrients - Carbon <ul><li>Obtained from the atmosphere through the leaves (stomata). </li></ul><ul><li>Used to store energy in the form of carbohydrate produced by photosynthesis and also to build the structure of the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Never deficient when plants are growing outside. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Carbon Cycle
  10. 10. Nitrogen (N) <ul><li>Most likely to need supplementing on all soils. </li></ul><ul><li>Part of all living cells; component of chlorophyll. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost from the soil as a result of the Nitrogen Cycle – understanding the cycle enables application to be timed correctly and losses limited by good practice. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nitrogen Cycle
  12. 12. Nitrogen deficiency <ul><li>Yellowing leaves – older leaves first as nitrogen is mobile in the plant. </li></ul><ul><li>Stunted growth if severe. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be caused temporarily by adding too much carbon rich organic matter to the soil, e.g. bark chipping mulch. </li></ul><ul><li>Most often results from depletion due to intensive cultivation coupled with leaching. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Nitrogen Deficiency
  14. 14. Phosphorous (P) <ul><li>Required for root growth; germination and photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Found as phosphate compounds in rocks. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely deficient in the soil and plants can recycle it from old to new growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Some supplementation is helpful but too much can lead to zinc, iron and manganese deficiencies. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Potassium (K) <ul><li>Required for fruit and seed production </li></ul><ul><li>Promotes cold hardiness and drought resistance </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency leads to brown edges to leaves which may curl up. </li></ul><ul><li>Excess in the soil leads to deficiency of calcium and magnesium. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Magnesium (Mg) <ul><li>Vital component of chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency leads to yellow leaves with green veins on older leaves first. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Calcium (Ca) <ul><li>Vital component of cell walls. </li></ul><ul><li>Cannot be relocated in the plant – so constant supply is needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency leads to fruit distortion (e.g. Blossom end rot) and black ‘tip burn’ or spotting on leaves. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Iron (Fe) <ul><li>Required for the production of chlorophyll and enzymes in the plant for fruiting and flower production. </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency shows as interveinal chlorosis on young leaves first. </li></ul><ul><li>May be unavailable on alkaline soils </li></ul><ul><li>Forms insoluble compounds with phosphates if these are overapplied. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Iron Deficiency
  20. 20. Learning Outcomes <ul><li>7. Understand plant nutrition provided by soil and growing media . </li></ul><ul><li>7.1 List the major and minor (trace) nutrients required for plant growth and development, to include: Major nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium, Sulphur. </li></ul><ul><li>Minor (trace) nutrients: Iron, Manganese, Boron, Copper, Zinc, Molybdenum. </li></ul><ul><li>7.2 Describe the typical effects of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and iron on plant growth. </li></ul><ul><li>7.3 Describe the sources of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the soil. </li></ul><ul><li>7.4 Outline the nitrogen and carbon cycles. </li></ul><ul><li>7.5 Describe the typical effects of a deficiency of Nitrogen, Iron, Magnesium and Calcium. </li></ul>

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