CCNA at a glance

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CCNA at a glance

  1. 1. Cisco’s Market Share 40%CISCO 60% D-Link 3 Com Nortel Cygnus Etc..
  2. 2. Router is an internetworking component, that connects networks which are at different geographical locations.
  3. 3. Diagram of 2501 series Router Telephone modemSerial 1 Serial 0 AUI Console AUX E0 V.35 modem PC
  4. 4. Interfaces on a Router
  5. 5. 1. Ethernet It is a LAN interface. Some of the models have anRJ45 port for 10baseT or 10/100. And some other have a 15 pinfemale connector AUI (Attachment Unit Interface).2. Serial It is a 60 pin female WAN interface for leased line3. BRI/PRI It is a RJ45 WAN interface for ISDN4. Async It is a 37 pin female connector for dial ups.5. Console It is a RJ45 Connector used to configure the Router for the first time.6. Auxiliary RJ45 Connector for remote access administration.
  6. 6. Routers Modular FixedModular RoutersThese type of routers have up gradable slots, and the numberof ports can be increased just by adding cards in the slots.Fixed RoutersThese types of routers have fixed number of ports.
  7. 7. Cisco Router’s Series Cisco 700, 800, 1600, 1700, 2500, 2600, 3600, 4000, 5000, 7000,10000, 12000. Fixed Modular700, 800,….2500 2600,….., 120001750 & 1751 exceptionally are Modular Routers.
  8. 8. Cisco’s Hierarchical Model
  9. 9. Access Layer 700, …, 2500Distribution Layer 2600, …, 5000 Core Layer 7000, …, 12000
  10. 10. Transceiver
  11. 11. Internal Components of a Router
  12. 12. Boot ROM : It stores the mini IOS (Internet work OperatingSystem) image (RX Boot) with extremely limited capabilities andPOST routines and core level OS for maintenance.FLASH : It is an EPROM chip that holds most of the IOSImage. It maintains everything when router is turned off.RAM : RAM holds running IOS configurations andprovides caching. RAM is a volatile memory and looses itsinformation when router is turned off. The configuration presentin RAM is called Running configuration.NVRAM : It is a re-write able memory area that holds router‟sconfiguration file. NVRAM retains the information when everrouter is rebooted. Once configuration is saved, it will be saved inNVRAM and this configuration is called Startup Configuration.
  13. 13. Configuration of a RouterRouter for the first time is configured through the CONSOLEport.COM port of a PC is connected to the console port of router witha console cable by using a transceiver. Router is accessible by a tool.In windows, it is called HYPER TEMINAL. As soon as the router ispowered on and accessed, the following things happen, POST BOOT STRAP FLASH ROM (mini IOS) If IOS is Corrupted NVRAM Setup Mode
  14. 14. In Setup mode, there will be a message, “Would You Like To Enter The Initial Configuration [Y/N]” : If “Y” then, initial configuration starts. If “N” would you like to terminate the auto installation?Press “RETURN” to get started……You will land on the default prompt of the Router “ ROUTER >”.Router>_
  15. 15. Working Modes Of a Router 1. User Mode (Default mode) 2. Privilege or Administrative Mode 3. Global Configuration Mode 4. Interface Configuration Mode 5. Line Configuration Mode 6. Router Mode 7. Sub-Interface Mode
  16. 16. USER MODERouter> is the user mode, I,e the default prompt. Itmeans that when ever a router boots successfully itlands into the user mode. Router cannot beconfigured from this mode, but it is used for justmonitoring purpose. Router> en Router #
  17. 17. PREVILEGE MODERouter# it is the administrating mode, we can checkwhether the settings and configurations made have beenimplemented or not. Eg. “Router # Sh int e0”. If it is newrouter all the interfaces are by default shut down, so themessage will be, “ Ethernet 0 is administrativelydown, line protocol is down.”
  18. 18. Global Configuration ModeAs the name indicates, it is a global configuration modeI,e. we can configure any interface from this mode, justby entering into the interface mode.Router# Config tRouter (Config)#
  19. 19. The “Clock” CommandThe clock command is used to set the clock of Router.Syntax.Router# clock set hh:mm:ss Day of week Month YearE.g.Router#clock set 16:35:00 1 April 2003Note* This is the only configuration which can be done fromprivilege mode,every other configuration should be done at globalconfiguration mode only.
  20. 20. Some of the important show commands in privilege modeRouter# sh clock sh int (interface name eg e0) Sh history Sh memory Sh running-config Sh startup-configTo save configuration from RAM TO NVRAMRouter#Copy Running-config Startup-config (or)Router#Write Memory
  21. 21. To configure Hostname (or) Identification ofRouter over the network.Router#conf tRouter(config)#Hostname R_2503Router(config)#^Z To configure Logging banner. Router#conf t Router(config)#Banner Motd # Enter text message………….# Router(config)#^Z
  22. 22. Router Password Configuration1. Previlege Password2. Virtual Terminal Password3. Console Password4. Auxillary Password
  23. 23. Previlege PASSWORDS Enable Password Enable SecretEnable Password:- It is global command restricts access tothe previlege mode, the password is in clear text. Router(config)#Enable password 123Enable Secret:-Here the password is in encrypted form. Router(config)#Enable secret cisco
  24. 24. Virtual Terminal Password It establishes a login password on incoming Telnetsessions. Router#conf t Router(config)#Line vty 0 4 Router(config-line)#Login Router(config-line)#password cisco Router(config-line)#^Z
  25. 25. Console PasswordIt establishes a login password on the console terminal.Router#conf tRouter(config)#Line Console 0Router(config-line)#LoginRouter(config-line)#Password ciscoRouter(config-line)#^Z
  26. 26. Auxillary PasswordIt establishes a login password to remote administration. Router#conf t Router(config)#Line Aux 0 Router(config-line)#Login Router(config-line)#Password cisco Router(config-line)#^Z
  27. 27. CONFIGURING INTERFACESLAN interface (ETHERNET Port)WAN interface (SERIAL Port)
  28. 28. ETHERNETRouter(config)#Interface Ethernet 0Router(config-if)#Ip Address 200.150.1.254 255.255.255.0Router(config-if)#no shutdownRouter(config-if)#^ZRouter#Show Int E0
  29. 29. SERIALRouter(config)#Interface Serial 0Router(config-if)#Ip Address 150.10.1.1 255.255.0.0Router(config)#clock rate 56000Router(Config-if)# bandwidth 64Router(config-if)#No shutdownRouter(config-if)#^Z
  30. 30. Interpretring The Interface Status Router# show int s0 Serial0 is up, line protocol is up. Is the messege if the interface is operational. Serial0 is up, line protocol is down….. This is if there is any connection problem. Serial0 is down, line protocol is down….. This is if there is any interface problem. Serial0 is administratively down, line protocol is down….. This is if the interface is disabled.
  31. 31. The “CDP”It‟s a Ciscos proprietary protocol called the CiscoDiscovery Protocol, that gives you a summary of all thedirectly connected Cisco devices. CDP is a L2protocol, that discovers neighbor regardless of whichprotocol suite they are running. When a cisco device bootsup, the CDP is loaded by default, but can be disabled atinterface level.* The CDP is limited to the immediate neighbors only…The summary includes Device Identifier(eg. Switchconfigured name or domain name), Port Identifier (eg.Ethernet 0 and serial 0.), Capabilities list (eg. The devicecan act as a sourcr route bridge as well as a
  32. 32. CDP (Cisco’s Discovery Protocol)
  33. 33. Using CDPRouter# sh cdp neighbor (shows neighboring devices)Router# sh cdp entry 192.168.10.1 (shows detailedinformation about this perticular neighbor.)Router# sh cdp interface(shows the details of the interfaceof the local decive.)Router# sh cdp traffic (shows the packet sent, received,lost etc.)To disable CDP….,Router(config)#no cdp runRouter(config)#int s0Router(config-if)#no cdp enable
  34. 34. Backup & Restoring Routers IOS Image Using TFTP (Trivial File Transfer Protocol)TFTP Server allows you to take backup, upload and saveyour IOS Image and current configuration on it. TFTP is asoftware program of 1.3Mb. This should be installed on thatTFTP server i.e., (Personnel Computer).C:Program filescisco systemscisco TFTP * Note: Always while taking Backup or Restoration TFTP software should execute on that particular computer.
  35. 35. Backup Sources :1. Through Telnet Session.2. Through Console Session.3. Through Auxillary Port (Remote Session)
  36. 36. Backup of IOS ImageRouter#Copy Flash:(Press Tab key) TftpAddress or name of the remote host [ ]? (Ip address of tftp)Destination file name [ ] ? (Press enter key or a name) Backup of ConfigurationRouter#Copy Startup-config TftpAddress or name of the remote host [ ]? (Ip address of tftp)Destination file name [ ] ? (Give a name)
  37. 37. Upgrading IOS ImageNote: This process can only be done by Console Session. Router#Copy tftp Flash: Address or name of remote host []? Source file name []? Destination file name []? Erase Flash: before copying [confirm]? Erasing the Flash file system will remove all files: continue? [confirm] Erasing device eeeeeeee……….eeeeeee.eee.eeee.ee Loading!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!…….!!!!…….!!!!!!
  38. 38. Leased line WAN SetupCase 1: The distance between the locations is greater than 5 Km. RequirementsA pair of Routers, Leased line, pair of leased line modems V.35,Pair of G.703 Modem.Case 2: The distance between the two locations is less than 5Km. RequirementsA pair of Routers, Leased line and pair of leased line modem.
  39. 39. Leased line Setup( > 5km) Leased line V.35 V.35 modem modemV.35 Cable G.703 G.703 Csu/ Dsu Mux/ Mux/ S0 Dmux Dmux Csu – channel service unit Dsu – data service unit S0 E0 E0 S0 – Serial port of router E0 – Ethernet port of a router Router Switch/hub Switch/hub Internal Network Internal Network
  40. 40. Leased line Setup (< 5 km) V.35 Leased line modem V.35 modemV.35 Cable Csu/ Dsu S0 S0 E0 E0 Telephone Exchange Router Switch/hub Switch/hub Internal Network Internal Network
  41. 41. RoutingRouting is of three types.• Static• Dynamic and• Default When the destination is known, static and dynamicrouting is done. For unknown destinations, defaultrouting is employed. In dynamic routing, the path is fixed by theprotocol. The paths will be changing depending on thelength of the path. Always the shortest path is preferred.Static routing is done by the users. These paths are storedin the routing table.
  42. 42. Example: 10.0.0.1/8 10.0.0.2/8 S0 S0 E 0 192.168.1.150/24 E 0 192.168.2.150/24 Switch/hub Switch/hub 192.168.1.0/24 192.168.2.0/24 Location A Location B
  43. 43. Router(config)# ip routingRouter# sh ip route (it shows all the directly connectednetworks).“ C 192.168.1.0/24 directly connected to E0”“ C 10.0.0.0/8 “ „ „ „ S0”“ C “ indicates connected networks. Static RoutingSyntaxRouter(config)# ip route (dest-network) (subnet mask)(next hop address)
  44. 44. Location ARouter(config)# ip routingRouter(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2Note* if we don’t know the address of next hop, we can justwrite the name of the hop.Router(config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 S0Location BRouter(config)# ip routingRouter(config)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1
  45. 45. Router# sh ip routeC 192.168.1.0/24 directly connected to E0C 10.0.0.0/8 “ „ “ “ S0S 192.168.2.0/24 [1/0] via 10.0.0.2•“S” represents static. [a/b] ~ [1/0], here a=1 is theadministrative distance value and b has no significance instatic routing. For static and default routing b can be 0 or 1.• lesser the administrative distance value, higher thepreference.
  46. 46. “Tracert”, “Trace Route” and “Route print”.C:> tracertC:> route printRouter# trace route (gives the complete route)Router# sh arp (to check MAC addresses) Default RoutingRouter(config)# ip routingRouter(config)#ip route DA (S/N mask next) (next hopaddress)Router(config)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 s1
  47. 47. Router# sh ip routeC 192.168.1.0/24 directly connected to E0C 10.0.0.0/8 “ “ to S0S* 0.0.0.0/0 “ “ to S0 Dynamic RoutingIt is a type of routing where routing protocols( eg. RIP andIGRP) are used between routers to determine the path andmaintain routing table. Once the path is determined a routercan route a routed protocol(IP). Dynamic routing uses broadcasts and multicasts to communicate with other routers. Therouting metric helps routers find the best path to each network.
  48. 48. Classification Of Routing Protocols Distance Vector Hybrid Routing Link StateDistance Vector: the distance vector approach determines thedirection and the distance to any link in the internetwork.When the topology in a distance vector routing protocolchanges, routing table updates in the router must occur. Thisupdate process proceeds step-by-step router to router. Eg. RIPand IGRP.Link State : it recreates the exact topology of the entirenetwork(atleast the partion of the network where the router issituated). Eg . OSPF.
  49. 49. Hybrid Routing : it combines aspects of the link state and thedistance vector algorithm. Functions of a distance vector routing protocol. Identification of source of information Discovering routes Select the best route Maintain Route information
  50. 50. Enabling RIP ConfigurationNote:• Maximum 6 paths (Default 4).•“Hop count metric” selects the path• Route updates are broadcast for every 30 seconds.Router(config)# router ripRouter(config-router)# network (network ip)Router# sh ip protocol (shows the current routing protocol)Router# sh ip route
  51. 51. 172.16.1.0 10.1.1.1 10.2.2.2 192.168.1.0 E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0 172.16.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1 Router rip Router rip Network 172.16.0.0 Router rip Network 10.0.0.0 Network 10.0.0.0 Network 192.168.1.0 Network 10.0.0.0
  52. 52. Autonomous Systems An autonomous system is a collection of networksunder a common administrative domain. IGPs operate withinan autonomous system where as EGP connects differentautonomous systems. Every autonomous system has a distinct number.TheInternet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) is responsiblefor allocating this number. Eg. Autonomous system 100. We can use any number unless the organization plansfor an EGP.
  53. 53. Configuring IGRPSyntaxes.Router(config)#router igrp autonomous numberThis defines IGRP as the routing protocol.Router(config-router)#Network network-ipSelects directly connected networks.Router(config-router)#variance multiplierConfigures unequal-cost load balancing by defining differencebetween the best metric and the worst acceptable metric.Router(config-router)#traffic-share (balanced/ min)
  54. 54. Autonomous System 100172.16.1.0 10.1.1.1 10.2.2.2 192.168.1.0 E0 S2 S2 S3 S3 E0 172.16.1.1 10.1.1.2 10.2.2.3 192.168.1.1 Router igrp 100 Router igrp 100 Network 172.16.0.0 Router igrp 100 Network 10.0.0.0 Network 10.0.0.0 Network 192.168.1.0 Network 10.0.0.0
  55. 55. IP Classless CommandRouter(config)# ip classlessA router by default assumes that all the subnets of adirectly connected network should be present in therouting table. If a packet is received with a destinationaddress, of an unknown subnet of directly attachednetwork, the router assumes that the subnet does notexists and drops the packet. This happens even ifrouting table has a default route.For the above conditionif IP Classless is configured, and if any packet isreceived, then the router will match it to the defaultroute and forword it to the next hop specified by thedefault route.
  56. 56. EIGRP
  57. 57. Calculation of Wildcard Mask WCM = BCM-SNM1. 192.168.1.0/24 255.255.255.255 - 255.255.255. 0 0 . 0 . 0 .2552. 192.168.1.0/27 255.255.255.255 - 255.255.255.224 0 . 0 . 0 . 313. 192.160.1.10 0.0.0.0
  58. 58. OSPF OSPF(Open Short Path First) is of two types : 1) Single Area OSPF and 2) Multi Area OSPF. Area0 S0 Area2 S0 IR ABR ABRInternal Routers IR Area Border Router Area1
  59. 59. OSPF under Single AreaS 0 192.168.1.194/252 192.168.1.193/252 S 0 Router A Router B E 0 1.33 E 0 1.65 192.168.1.32/ 192.168.1.64/ 255.255.255.224 255.255.255.224
  60. 60. (Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# router OSPF 6573(Config-Router)# network 192.168.1.32 0.0.0.31 area 1(Config-Router)# area 1 range 192.168.1.32255.255.255.224(Config-Router)# network 192.168.1.192 0.0.0.3 area 1(Config-Router)# area 1 range 192.168.1.192255.255.255.224
  61. 61. Configuration of Router B--------------------------------(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# router OSPF 6573(Config-Router)# network 192.168.1.32 0.0.0.31 area 1(Config-Router)# area 1 range 192.168.1.64255.255.255.224(Config-Router)# network 192.168.1.195 0.0.0.3 area 1(Config-Router)# area 1 range 192.168.1.195255.255.255.252
  62. 62. OSPF under Different Areas Area 0 Area 2Area 1 Router A Router B E0 E0 1.50 5.50 192.168.5.0192.168.1.0
  63. 63. Configuration of Router A--------------------------------(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# router OSPF 6573(Config-Router)# network 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255 area 1(Config-Router)# area 1 range 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0(Config-Router)# network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0(Config-Router)# area 0 range 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0
  64. 64. Configuration of Router B--------------------------------(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# router OSPF 6573(Config-Router)# network 192.168.5.0 0.0.0.255 area 2(Config-Router)# area 2 range 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0(Config-Router)# network 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255 area 0(Config-Router)# area 0 range 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0
  65. 65. Access Control List It is also called Network Traffic ControlManagement (NTCM). We can provide restrictions toindividual users, subnets and services etc. ACL Standard ACL Extended ACL Any access list is identified by its number. S. A. L 1 – 99 Ex. A. L 100 - 199
  66. 66. Rules for creating and implementing Access List1. Access list must begin with the Deny Statements (If exists) then Permit Statements must follow.2. There must be at least one Permit Statement as an Implicit “Deny All” always exists.3. While Implementation of Access list, There must be only one Access list per Interface, per direction and per protocol.
  67. 67. Standard Access List S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0 Router A Router B E 0 1.50 E 0 5.50 5.4 5.1 1.4 1.1 5.3 5.2 1.3 1.2SyntaxRouter(config)# Access-list ALNO P/D Src Src-WCMRouter(config)# Int <name of interface>Router(Config-if)#Ip Access-Group <Direction>
  68. 68. Configuration Standard Access-list For Router ARestricting particular user(Config)# Access-list 1 deny 192.168.1.3 0.0.0.0(Config)# Access-list 1 permit 0.0.0.0255.255.255.255 or Access-list 1 permit any Restricting a Network (Config)# Access-list 1 deny 192.168.3.0 0.0.0.255 (Config)# Access-list 1 permit any
  69. 69. Extended Access List S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0 Router A Router B E 0 1.50 E 0 5.501.4 1.1 5.4 5.11.3 1.2 5.3 5.2 1.20
  70. 70. Configuration of Router A(Config)# Access-list 101 deny TCP 192.168.5.0 0.0.0.255 192.168.1.20 0.0.0.0 eq FTP(Config)# Access-list 101 permit IP any any Implementation (Config)#int E0 (config-if)# IP Access-group 101 Out
  71. 71. NAT(Network Address Translation) S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0 Router B Router A E 0 1.50 E 0 5.50 1.4 1.1 5.4 5.1 192.168.1.3 1.2 5.3 5.2Note : 192.168.1.3 is denied from entering the network of 5.0.So it will enter with mask.
  72. 72. Configuration of Router A--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.1.2(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip nat inside
  73. 73. (Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip nat outside(Config)# access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.3 0.0.0.0(Config)# ip nat inside source list 1 int S 0 overloadConfiguration of Router B--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.5.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit
  74. 74. (Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.1.1(Config)# access-list 10 deny 192.168.1.3 0.0.0.0(Config)# access-list 10 permit any(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip access-group 10 outNote : Only Public IP can go to the Internetworking world.
  75. 75. A Scenario of providing Net access to the IPs of Router B 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2Routing 1.50 Router A 5.50 Router B 5.0 Routing SwitchLeased line 192.168.1.99 Natting
  76. 76. Configuration of Router A--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(for DCE)(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 192.168.1.99
  77. 77. (Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip nat outside(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip nat inside((Config-if)# exit(Config)# access-list 10 permit 172.16.0.0 0.0.255.255(Config)# ip nat inside source list 10 int E 0 overloadConfiguration of Router B--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.5.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit
  78. 78. (Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip nat inside(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip nat outside(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.1.1(Config)# access-list 10 permit 192.168.5.0 0.0.0.255(Config)# ip nat inside source list 10 int E 0 overload
  79. 79. PPP(Point-to-Point) using PAP protocol Internet based leased line S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0 Router A Router B (ISDN) (Zoom) E 0 1.50 E 0 5.50 1.4 1.1 5.4 5.1 1.3 1.2 5.3 5.2NOTE : Passwords of both should be same.
  80. 80. Configuration of Router A--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(for DCE)(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.1.2(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# ppp authentication PAP(Config-if)# ppp PAP sent-username zoom password cisco
  81. 81. Configuration of Router B--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.5.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(for DCE)(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.1.1(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# ppp authentication PAP(Config-if)# ppp PAP sent-username ISP password cisco
  82. 82. PPP(Point-to-Point) using CHAP protocol Internet based leased line S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0 Router A Router B (ISDN) (Zoom) E 0 1.50 E 0 5.50 1.4 1.1 5.4 5.1 1.3 1.2 5.3 5.2NOTE : Passwords of both should be same.
  83. 83. Configuration of Router A--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(for DCE)(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.1.2(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# ppp authentication CHAP(Config-if)# ppp CHAP hostname zoom(Config-if)# ppp CHAP password cisco
  84. 84. Configuration of Router B--------------------------------# Config t(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.5.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(for DCE)(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-Router)# ip route 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.1.1(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# ppp authentication CHAP(Config-if)# ppp CHAP hostname ISP(Config-if)# ppp CHAP password cisco
  85. 85. DDR(Dial on Demand Routing) ISP S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0 Router A Router B E 0 1.50 E 0 5.501.4 1.1 5.4 5.11.3 1.2 5.3 5.2
  86. 86. # Config t(Config)# isdn switch-type basic-net 3(Config)# int E 0/1(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int Bri 1/0(Config-if)# no ip address(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# no cdp enable(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int dialer 1(Config-if)# ip address negotiated(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# no cdp enable(Config-if)# ppp authentication CHAP PAP callin(Config-if)# ppp CHAP hostname unicomin@hd2(Config-if)# ppp CHAP password password
  87. 87. (Config-if)# ppp PAP sent-username unicomin@hd2 password password(Config-if)# dialer in-band(Config-if)# dialer string 3328400(Config-if)# dialer idle-time out 180(Config-if)# dialer hold-queue 10(Config-if)# exit(Config)# access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255(Config)# dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit((Config)# int bri 1/0(Config-if)# dialer rotary-group 1(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int dialer 1(Config-if)# dialer-group 1(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-router)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 dialer 1 2
  88. 88. (Config)# ip name-server 202.54.30.2(Config)# ip name-server 202.54.2.30(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip nat inside(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int Bri 1/0(Config-if)# ip nat outside(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int dialer 1(Config-if)# ip nat outside(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip nat inside source list 1 int dialer 1 overload
  89. 89. Backup Interface for a Leased Line ISP S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0 Bri 0ISP CPE/DTE E 0 1.50 E 0 5.501.4 1.1 5.4 5.11.3 1.2 5.3 5.2 CPE -Customer Premises Equipment DTE -Data Communications & Circutary end
  90. 90. # Config t(Config)# isdn switch-type basic-net 3(Config)# int E 0/1(Config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.50 255.255.255.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config)# int Bri 1/ 0(Config-if)# no ip address(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# no cdp enable(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit
  91. 91. (Config)# int dialer 1(Config-if)# ip address negotiated(Config-if)# encapsulation ppp(Config-if)# no cdp enable(Config-if)# ppp authentication CHAP PAP callin(Config-if)# ppp CHAP hostname zoom(Config-if)# ppp CHAP password cisco(Config-if)# ppp PAP sent-username isp password cisco(Config-if)# dialer in-band(Config-if)# dialer string 3328400(Config-if)# dialer ideal-time out 180(Config-if)# dialer hold-queue 10(Config-if)# exit(Config)# access-list 1 permit 192.168.1.0 0.0.0.255(Config)# dialer-list 1 protocol ip permit((Config)# int bri 1/ 0(Config-if)# dialer rotary-group 1(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit
  92. 92. (Config)# int dialer 1(Config-if)# dialer-group 1(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config-router)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 S 0(Config-router)# ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 dialer 1 2(Config)# ip name-server 202.54.30.1(Config)# ip name-server 202.54.1.30(Config)# int E 0(Config-if)# ip nat inside(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int Bri 1/ 0(Config-if)# ip nat outside(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit
  93. 93. (Config)# int dialer 1(Config-if)# ip nat outside(Config-if)# exit(Config)# Access-list 2 permit 4 public 10(Config)# ip nat inside source list 2 int dialer 1 overload(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# backup interface bri 1/0(Config-if)# backup delay 30 60
  94. 94. Frame Relay Point - to - Point frame-relay Network S 0 172.16.1.1 172.16.1.2 S 0Router A Dlci 101 Dlci 102 Router B PVC Fr-Switch Fr-Switch E 0 1.50 E 0 5.50 1.4 1.1 5.4 5.1 1.3 1.2 5.3 5.2
  95. 95. Config t(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# no ip address(Config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0.1 point-to-point(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# frame-relay interface DLC1 102 (or)(Config-if)# frame-relay map ip 172.16.1.2 102 broadcast(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config)# ip route 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.1.2
  96. 96. Point - to - Multi Point 4.0 10.0.0.1 D1.0 10.0.0.4 103 10.0.0.2 3.0 104 102 A C 101 B 10.0.0.3 2.0
  97. 97. Configuration of Router A--------------------------------Config t(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# no ip address(Config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0.1 multipoint(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.4 255.0.0.0(Config-if)# frame-relay map ip 10.0.0.1 103 broadcast(Config-if)# frame-relay map ip 10.0.0.2 102 broadcast(Config-if)# frame-relay map ip 10.0.0.3 101 broadcast(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config)# ip route 192.168.2.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.3(Config)# ip route 192.168.4.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.1(Config)# ip route 192.168.5.0 255.255.255.0 10.0.0.2
  98. 98. Point-to-Point - Point-to-Point 172.16.1.2 4.01.0 10.0.0.2 3.0 172.16.1.1 103 104 10.0.0.1 102 161.16.1.1 101 10.0.0.3 2.0
  99. 99. Configuration of Router A --------------------------------Config t(Config)# int S 0(Config-if)# no ip address(Config-if)# encapsulation frame-relay(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0.1 point-to-point(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# clockrate 56000(Config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# frame-relay map ip 172.16.1.2 103 broadcast(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit
  100. 100. (Config)# int S 0.2 point-to-point(Config-if)# ip address 161.16.1.1 255.255.0.0(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# clock rate 56000(Config-if)# frame-relay map ip 161.16.1.2 102 broadcast(Config-if)# exit(Config)# int S 0.3 point-to-point(Config-if)# bandwidth 64(Config-if)# clockrate 56000(Config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.0.0.0(Config-if)# frame-relay map ip 10.0.0.2 101 broadcast(Config-if)# no shut(Config-if)# exit(Config)# ip routing(Config)# ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0
  101. 101. IsoInternational organization for standardizationIso has designed a reference model called osi reference model(open system interconnection). It has 7 layers. It says thatAny n/w for comunication needs 7 layers1. Application layerThe user uses application layer to send the data. The protocols@ this layer are ftp,http,smtp(e-mail) telenet etc.2. Presentation layerPresentation layer takes the data from application layer and presentIn different formats for securing reason. The services offered @This layer areCompression – decompressionCoding – decodingEncryption - decryption
  102. 102. 3. Session layerEstablishing the session or the conectivity n/w n/w 1 & n/w 2 is doneBy the session layer.It 1. Establishes a session 2. maintains it & 3. Terminates it b/w the application4. Transport layerEnd-end connectivity during a session b/w two application is doneBy the transport layer. It also decides the type of connection like tcpor udp i.e. connection oriented or connection less.Services:SequencingFlow ctrl, error detection & correctionTransport layer info + data is called segment.
  103. 103. 5. Netwrok layerLogical addressing is done at thenetwork layer i.e. source address &destination address are attached to the data. Protocols @network layerRouted protocols routing protocolsEg: ip,ipx eg: rip,igrp,ospfRouted protocols: they always carry the data along with themRouting protocol: they identify the path for routed protocol tocarry the dataAt this layer routers & layer 3 switches forms packets.
  104. 104. Data link layer MAC LLC Media access control logical link control framing of dataIp address is lik the pincode & MAC address is like house number.Here layer2 switches are used.Wab protocols used at this layer are PPP,HDLC,FP,X.25 etc.Here error checking CRC bits are added to the packetsDLL info+ packets --> frames
  105. 105. 7 physical layerTakes care of physical connectivity i.e connector,cable etc. hereFrames are converted to bits (1‟s & 0‟s).The devices like hubs, repeaters,cables & connectors are used atthis layer. I P AddressingNow a days ip ver4 is followed. It is a 32-bit addressing scheme. 32bits are divided into 4 octets of 8 bits each.i.e 8-8-8-8. i.e (1‟s & 0‟s)-(1‟s & 0s)-(1‟s & 0‟s)-(1‟s & 0‟s).(binary format). The ip address is maximum of 255 & min of 0.In future ip ver 6 is expected. It is 128 bit scheme.Ip adresses are clsassified into different classes.
  106. 106. Class A 0 - 127Class B 128 - 191Class C 192 - 223Class D 224 - 239Class E 240 - 2558-8-8-8M.S.O Most Significant Ocate considering MSO
  107. 107. Through out class A, the MSB „0‟ is constant in class B theMsbs are „101‟ constant through out.Class D & E are not used for internetworking class D is used forMulticast network.“ E “ “ “ research. class A0-0-0-0 should not be assigned for any divice127-0-0-0 is reserved for loopback127-0-0-1127-0-0-”127-0-0-” usually reserved for loopback127-0-0-”127-255-255-254
  108. 108. Hence 0 & 127 cannot be used for adressing so actual range will be1 to 126.All ip addresses are divided into two.1.network I.d2.host I.din class a address there is 1nw I.d postion & 3 host I.d postion I,eN-H-H-H..Class A N-H-H-HClass B N-N-H-HClass C N-N-N-HNetwork Ids are represented by 1s & host ids are by 0s.
  109. 109. Types of ip adresses IP address public ip address private ip addressPublic network: the public address is defined with routing over theInternet it is given by I.S.P & routing table is created on the internet.Private network: for internal network I,e intranet, all the ip addressesAre governed by a body called INTERNIC. If we are a part of asiaPacefic then it is governed by APNIC.We can run our private network with any ip addresses of our choiceBut it should not be connected to internet.
  110. 110. Range of addresses for private networkClass A 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255Class B 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255Class C 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255Private ip addresses donot have routing.To meet the demand of no.of networks, the network is brokenInto smaller networks called subnets.Eg: find no.of subnets, hosts/s.n subnet mask & valid ip addressesFor a class c address.192.168.1.0/24„24‟ shows the network bits24= 3 octate position bits are enough, therefore no need to borrowAny bits from host position.=24 network & no hostDefault subet mask is 255.255.255.0 & valid ip addresses are192.168.1.0 network
  111. 111. SwitchAn essential component of lan. Switches are of different types likeLayer 2 layer 3, layer 4, layer 5…..Layer 2 switch :Switch hub•Layer 2 layer 1•b.w is equal @ all ports b.w is shared•Identifies source with MAC cannot identifiy the source•Broad cast occur, till mac table alwaysbroad castIs built•Collision occur when both A&B Many collisionsWants to reach D.•1 broad cast domain 4 collision 1 broad cast domain 1 collisionDomains domain
  112. 112. Switches Access layer Distribution layer Core layerAccess layer swithc: catalyst 1912Catalyst – manufacturer, but it is now owned by cisco.12 port switch
  113. 113. Switch standard edition enterprise editionTo configure VLANS,go for enterprose edition as standard editionWill not support VLAN.For uplinking or cascading 100mbps is minimum required.Functions of switch1. Adress learning2. Filter & forwarding3. Loop avoidance1. Address learningBooting 1.blocking state (15 secs) 2.Listening state (15 secs) 3.Learning stage (20 secs) 4.Forwarding stage (20 secs)
  114. 114. The switch will always learn the MAC address from the source itselfThe source should atleast communicate once to learn the MAC address2. Filter & forwarding : store & forward cut through fragment freeOn access layer the default is fragment free we can change to anyOf the3 mentioned above. 1.store & forward: it stores the whole information (1500 bytesEthernet) into buffer, then checks for errors, looks for destinationIn MAC table and then forward. 2. Cut through: no error checking.as soon as a packet arrivesIt looks into MAC table & forward.
  115. 115. 3.loop avridance: consider a seenario whr pci wants to communicateTo pc2. Switch a makes entry of pc1 in its MAC table as it is a newSwitch. This looping is before the mac table I s made. This is calledInitial flood or broad cast storm.STP: spanning tree protocol. To avoid loops in case of a cascadedSwitch stp is enabled by default.Parameters to select a switch1. Bridge priority (32768) default.(1-655355)2. MAC addressBridge id is calculated. Bridge id=bridge priority + mac address.Which ever the switch having least bridge ID will be elcted as rootBridge and others are non-root bridge. On root bridge the ports usedFor cascading are called designated ports. All the designated portsWill be at forwadingf state . In non root bridge from the two portsone will be selected as root port. This will be depending on thecost speed).least cost path (faster transmission) the other port will be blocked.
  116. 116. The “hello” packets that are sent by root bridge for every 2 sec to inform that it is working properly are called BPDUS;(bridge protocol data limits). If non root bridge do no receive10 BPDUs for next 20secs then it is clear that the root bridge hasFailed.20secs – max age timeThen a new root bridge is selected.In the above eg:if switch A is selected as root bridge and ports A & BOf switch A are designated ports. Depending on the shortest pathsFor high speed & low cost one port of switch B is selected as root port& the other will be blocked.
  117. 117. ISDNIntegreted services digital network.It is a circuit switching technology approved by CCITT.ISDN PSTN•Digital analog•More bandwidth less•Multiple services like,•Voice,data,video etc. ISDN BRI PRI(Basic rate interface2b channels & id chennel) european standard north american standard 30 bchannels 23 bchannels & & id channel id channel
  118. 118. „B‟channel – it is a bearer channel for data.„D‟channel – it is a delta channel for synchronizationIn bri each B channel = 64 kbps d channel = 16kbpsMax 128 kbps BW in isdnIn PRI both B & D channels _= 64kbps.European – 2mbpsNorth american – 1.54 mbpsISDN will have a voltage of 90-110v
  119. 119. SPID number : (service profile identifier) to identify the link.Types of ISDN switchesEuro-basic net3U.S-basic 5 ess-at&t standardU.K-basic net3 & basic net5France-vn3 & vn4Ss7 (signalling system7)Will be configured at the back bone side. telcovn3/vn4 ss7 basic net3France India
  120. 120. E-series, I-series & Q-seriesE-tells about telephone network & ISDN networkI-tells about concepts & interfaces of ISDNQ-tells about signalling & switching of ISDN DDR Dail on Demand RoutingThe main feature of ISDN is it dials & connects on request &Discounects when no data transfer is taking place. nat (network address translationIP NAT insideIP NAT out sideoverload
  121. 121. IPNAT inside: any request from th internal network will be NATEDTo public Ip address sending the request from internal networkTo Bri interface is overloading.When ever NAT is enable, the router will maintain a nat table.Nat table:When nat t able is enabled nau request will be allocated a portNumber after 1024. Above 1024 port numbers are reserved for otherServices. This allocation of port numbers is dynamic.
  122. 122. Configuring a DDR for ISDNConfig#int e0Config#ip adress 192.168.5.150 255.255.255.0Config#ip nat insideConfig#exitConfig-if#int bri 0Config-if#ip address negotiatedConfig-if#encapsulation PPPConfig-if#PPP authenticaiton PAP chap collinConfig-if#PPP chap hostname (username)Config-if#PPP chap password (password)Config-if#dialer string (tel.no.)Config-if#dialer idle timeout (time in secs)Config-if#dialer groupConfig-if#ip nat outsideConfig-if#exit
  123. 123. Ip address negotialted : this is when an ip adress is fetched kdynamicallFrom ISP 7 donot have a permanent public I.P adress Dialer – list range 1-10 to configure router as a DHCP serverConfig#ip pool <name> staring ip end ip.Some ISDN commandSh int bri0Sh isdn status(layer 1 should be active. If not physical conectivity is lost)Sh isdn activeSh isdn historySh ip network translaiton

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