mangrove are found in coastal environment where fine sediments collect in areas protected from high energy wave action
Mangroves occur over a larger geographic areas & may be found in areas out side the tropics.
• Mangroves are several
species of particular tree
that have to the ability to
grow in salt water.
• Mangroves from a
woodland habitat called
mangroves forest or mangal.
About 60 to 70% of coastline
of earths tropical regions are
lined with mangroves.
• Mangrove are found in coastal environment
where fine sediments collect in areas protected
from high energy wave action
• Mangroves are found in tropical & sub tropical
• Areas where mangroves occur include estuaries
& marine shore line.
•Mangroves occur over a larger geographic areas
& may be found in areas out side the tropics.
• such as along the West coast of central &
northern south America & Africa.
• In India it found in west Bengal & Ganga river
•The greatest biodiversity occur in the
mangroves of new Guinea, Indonesia & Malaysia
•These mangrove forests may also penetrate some distance
upstream along the bank of river.
•Mangroves are usually absent from atolls & isolated high
island like Hawaii.
•They are able to grow only on shores that are
sheltered from wave action.
Limiting salt intake
Limiting water loss
The floral diversity of
mangroves in India is
The Indian mangroves
are represented by
approximately 59 species
from 29 families. Of the
59 species, 34 species
belonging to 21 families
are present along the
The east coast is
represented by 48
species belonging to 32
Rhizophora mucronata Lamk
Excoecaria agallocha Linn
Salvadora persica linn
Acanthus ilicifolius Linn
Insect Species name
Small dung roller beetle
Blue bottle fly
shrimp & mud lobster
Short –horned Grasshopper
Mangrove association are subject to
mortality from a number of different natural &
human induced causes.
the greatest cause of large scale mortality is
typhoons & hurricanes.
Some isopod like sphaeroma terebrans
burrows into the roots of red mangrove & plus
secondary decomposition by bacteria and
Most other massive mortality is due to
human activity by filling, by dredging, and by
channelizing the waters.
Cutting mangrove by early humans use for
firewood and boat building.
In the tropics today the mangroves are
exploited by humans mainly for fish & shrimp
culture or for salt production, or filled for