mangroves

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  • mangrove are found in coastal environment where fine sediments collect in areas protected from high energy wave action
  • Mangroves occur over a larger geographic areas & may be found in areas out side the tropics.
  • mangroves

    1. 1. • Mangroves are several species of particular tree that have to the ability to grow in salt water. • Mangroves from a characteristic saline woodland habitat called mangroves swamp, mangroves forest or mangal.  About 60 to 70% of coastline of earths tropical regions are lined with mangroves.
    2. 2. • Mangrove are found in coastal environment where fine sediments collect in areas protected from high energy wave action • Mangroves are found in tropical & sub tropical tidal areas. • Areas where mangroves occur include estuaries & marine shore line.
    3. 3. •Mangroves occur over a larger geographic areas & may be found in areas out side the tropics. • such as along the West coast of central & northern south America & Africa. • In India it found in west Bengal & Ganga river bank. •The greatest biodiversity occur in the mangroves of new Guinea, Indonesia & Malaysia
    4. 4. •These mangrove forests may also penetrate some distance upstream along the bank of river. •Mangroves are usually absent from atolls & isolated high island like Hawaii. •They are able to grow only on shores that are sheltered from wave action.
    5. 5. Abiotic factors Climate Soils Limiting salt intake Wave Energy Ocean Currents Limiting water loss Salinity Nutrient uptake Soil Drainage Soil Type Biotic factors
    6. 6.  The floral diversity of mangroves in India is great.  The Indian mangroves are represented by approximately 59 species from 29 families. Of the 59 species, 34 species belonging to 21 families are present along the west coast.  The east coast is represented by 48 species belonging to 32 genera.
    7. 7. Plants Scientific Name Avicennia spp Rhizophora mucronata Lamk Sonneratia Spp Associate Flora: Excoecaria agallocha Linn Salvadora persica linn Acanthus ilicifolius Linn Clerodendrum inerme
    8. 8. Insect Species name Flower beetal Weevil Small dung roller beetle Blue bottle fly Digger Wasp Frog hopper Aphides Animal Species shrimp & mud lobster Short –horned Grasshopper Crocodiles Snakes Crabs Fishes Calotes Spp True Cricket Algae Barnacles Oysters&sponges
    9. 9.  Mangrove association are subject to mortality from a number of different natural & human induced causes.  the greatest cause of large scale mortality is typhoons & hurricanes. Some isopod like sphaeroma terebrans burrows into the roots of red mangrove & plus secondary decomposition by bacteria and fungi.
    10. 10.  Most other massive mortality is due to human activity by filling, by dredging, and by channelizing the waters.  Cutting mangrove by early humans use for firewood and boat building.  In the tropics today the mangroves are exploited by humans mainly for fish & shrimp culture or for salt production, or filled for construction

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