•Mangroves are various kinds
of trees up to medium height
and shrubs that grow in saline
coastal sediment habitats in
the tropics and subtropics.
•the mangrove family of
plants, the Rhizophoraceae
•mangrove trees of the genus
Mangrove swamps are found in tropical and
subtropical tidal areas. Areas where mangal
occurs include estuaries and marine
About 110 species are considered
mangroves, in the sense of being a tree that
grows in such a saline swamp.
the ecosystem that these trees create
provides a home for a great variety of other
Mangroves also provide important permanent
and temporary habitats for a large number
and range of marine and terrestrial fauna.
Marine fauna commonly found in mangroves
includes molluscs, crustaceans.
A wide range of terrestrial fauna is also found
in mangroves and includes insects, snakes,
frogs, and mammals.
mangrove root structures provide perfect
habitat for spawning and nursery areas for
juvenile fish and crustaceans.
Other animals use the mangroves as an
extension of their terrestrial habitat and feed
on the mud flats during low tide.
A wide variety of bird species also inhabit
•Opposite, evergreen leaves & white
•Prop roots – grounded and
•Opposite, leathery leaves; yellowish to dark
green above, downy beneath with salt glands
Adaptations to low oxygen
•Red mangroves, which can survive in the most
inundated areas prop themselves above the water
level with stilt roots and can then absorb air
through pores in their bark .
•Black mangroves live on higher ground and
make many pneumatophores
•There are four types of pneumatophore stilt or
prop type, snorkel or peg type, knee type, and
ribbon or plank type. Knee and ribbon types may
be combined with roots at the base of the tree
Limiting water loss
the limited fresh water available in salty
intertidal soils, mangroves limit the amount
of water they lose through their leaves. They
can restrict the opening of their stomata.
The biggest problem that mangroves face is
there is little free oxygen.
Anaerobic bacteria liberate nitrogen gas,
inorganic phosphates, sulfides, and methane,
which makes the soil much less nutritious.
Pnuematophores allow mangroves to absorb
gases directly from the atmosphere, and
other nutrients such as iron, from the soil.
Mangroves store gases directly inside the